tirunagari caste

tirunagari caste
tirunagari caste

Approximately 2,960 people bear this surname

The meaning of this surname is not listed.

may also be a first name.

Average Tirunagari Salary inUnited States

Average Salary inUnited States

tirunagari caste

View the highest/lowest earning families in The United States

The last name Tirunagari (Hindi: तिरूनगरी, Marathi: ितरूनगरी, Oriya: ତିରୁନାଗରୀ) occurs in India more than any other country or territory. It can also appear as a variant:. Click here for further possible spellings of this last name.

The last name is the 149,249th most frequent last name on a global scale, held by around 1 in 2,462,009 people. The last name Tirunagari occurs predominantly in Asia, where 97 percent of Tirunagari live; 97 percent live in South Asia and 97 percent live in Indo-South Asia. It is also the 442,333rd most frequently held given name internationally, held by 384 people.

Tirunagari is most widespread in India, where it is borne by 2,863 people, or 1 in 267,924. In India Tirunagari is primarily found in: Telangana, where 52 percent live, Andhra Pradesh, where 43 percent live and Maharashtra, where 1 percent live. Beside India this surname is found in 15 countries. It is also found in The United States, where 2 percent live and England, where 0 percent live.

Tirunagari earn notably less less than the average income. In United States they earn 23.31% less than the national average, earning $33,092 USD per year.

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    Satanis (Telugu: సాతాని) or Sattada/Chattada Sri Vaishnavas are a Sri Vaishnava caste who render temple services in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Telangana in India.[1][2][3] Traditionally, they have rendered a variety of services in the Sri Vaishnava temples as overseers/supervisors (Dharmakartā), purohits/archakas (priests) of minor temples, guardians of temple properties, herald, singers and torch-bearers at festivals and providers of umbrellas, flower garlands and namam clay.[1] They have claimed Brahmin status, although this has been contested by Brahmins.[4][5][6]

    The name ‘Satani’ is supposed to be a corruption of ‘chyatani’ or ‘chyati’ which means “acting according to prescribed rites”.[7] In their social and religious customs, the Satani community is associated with the Tenkalai movement[5] of Sri Vaishnava faith propounded by Ramanuja and have a long history from the time of Ramanuja and Guru-lineages and literature dating, from, at least the 15th century. They follow the egalitarian anti-caste Alvars/Bhagavata Vaisnavism formalized by Pillai Lokacharya and Manavala Mamunigal. Their origin is shrouded in mystery. According to Sri Vaishnava Siddhanta Dipika, their guru lineage is from Nammalvar to Ramanuja to Manavala Mamunigal to Srimat Paravastu Kantopayantru Munindra Jiyar who firmly established Sattada Sri Vaishnavas order. They were Vadama brahmins who accepted the Divya Prabandham and stood in the ancient Parama Ekanta tradition of those who have renounced all associations. Ramanuja assigned Satanis to teach the Tamil Vedas to non-brahmins and to take care of the worship of the lord in shrines and temples. Hence, the term ‘Satani’ arose as a battle for temple control between vaidika and non-vaidika traditions.[1] Other sources indicate that they are descendants of mixed origin of both brahmins and non-brahmin castes.[7] However, according to Sri Vaishnava Siddhanta Dipika, only brahmins were called Satani. Sri Vaishnavas of other shudra origin were called Namadhari.[1]

    The endogamous sub-division of Satani are Ekakshari, Chathurakshari, Asthakshri, and Kulasekara. The Ekakshari (one syllable) hope to get salvation by reciting the one mystic syllable “Om”, the Chathurakshari believe in the religious efficacy of the four syllables “Ra-ma-nu-jah”, the Asthakshri hold that the recitation of the eight syllables “Om-na-mo-na-ra-ya-na-ya” will secure the eternal bliss and the Kulasekara claim to be the descendants of the Vaishnava saint Kulasekara Alwar.[7] The different sub-sects are Khadri Vaishnavas, Natacharmurti, Prathama Vaishnava, Sameraya, Sattadhava, Telugu Satani, and Venkadapuradavaru.[8] They are known by various different names like Chatani, Ayyawar, Vira Vaishnava, Vighas, Vishnu archaka,[7] Chatali, Prapanna Vaishnavas, Nambi Venkatapura Vaishnavas,[8] Sathata aiyyar, Satanaiah, Satanee, Chattadi Sathtavar, Sattadavar purohitar, Dasa-Nambi, and Sathatha Sri Vaishnavas.[9] They are also known as Koyil (temple) Sri Vaishnavas as they are Sri Vaishnava brahmins who have given up Vedic rites in order to give their full attention to temple service.[1]

    Many follow a lifestyle (diet, dress, household appointments, and marriage considerations) that are strongly similar to that of the Tenkalai Iyengars.[1] Their names have the honorary suffix Ayyangar, the title acharya, swamy, [7] alwar, alvar, iah, iyya[9] and the ayya honorific. They give special honor to the servants and insignia of Vishnu; considering themselves “servants of the servants” (Dasanudasa) of the lord and revere Hanuman, Garuda, Chakra, Panchajanya and Naamam. Above all, they honour the Alvars, especially Nammalvar, and recite the Alvar’s hymns for domestic rituals. Most have received their initiation (Panca-samskara) from the Koil Annan Acharya lineage of Srirangam, Vanamamalai Mutt at Nanguneri and Paravastu Mutt at Tirupati.[1]

    tirunagari caste

    From the eleventh through the sixteenth centuries, Satanis enjoyed a supervisory status in many of the most important Sri Vaishnava temples at Srirangam, Kanchipuram, Tirumala-Tirupati, and Melkote.[1] In the sixteenth century during Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya’s time, they were attached to Kandadai Ramanuja Ayyangar, a powerful acharyapurusha whose influence extended to the different temple centers and controlled the feeding houses or Ramanujakutam at Venkateswara Temple, Tirumala. They enjoyed numerous privileges and made donations in the name of their preceptor. Nevertheless, in the later period, when the influence of Kandadai was diminished, the Satanis do not appear to have enjoyed the same status.[10]

    Satanis enjoyed a greater status in Sri Vaishnava temples in the times past than they do today. In the course of time, given the weight of vaidika traditions and the slackening of Vijayanagara Empire patronage, Satanis who were never considered the equal of vaidika brahmins lost ground. However, they protected themselves from total annihilation by becoming a caste along with all the others, albeit relatively prestigious. The number of temples served by them has significantly declined in recent times. Their population in Srirangam was much larger in the past as some have left to serve other temples and some have sought a livelihood outside of temple service.[1] Till the 16th century, Satanis had a significant share in the temple authorities, however, it was almost erased from the delineation of the past when histories for Sri Vaishnavas were written. Hence, the identity of a Sri Vaishnava in the late nineteenth and twentieth century in the public domain meant essentially being brahmana adhering to the reverential lineage of the Alvars and acharyas till Ramanuja.[10]

    Privileges have been eroded as they used to recite alongside Sri Vaishnava brahmins at Iyal Gosti at Srirangam up to 1942 when the privilege was cut off by legal action. In a few major temples, Satanis receive prasada ahead of other brahmins. They also receive high honors on special occasions such as Vaikuntha Ekadashi at major temples.[1] In the 1931 Census Report for Mysore stated that “the request that the name Satani to be changed to Sattada Sri Vaishnava could not be accepted because Sri Vaishnava is the name of a distinctive group of Brahmins and Satani community is not generally treated as a Brahmin community. The adoption of the new name could be misleading.”[6] They are currently included in the Other Backward Classes (OBC) list by the state governments of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.[11][12]

    “Central List of OBCs for the State of Andhra Pradesh”Downloads-icon

    “Backward Classes Castes/ Communities in the State of Telangana”Downloads-icon

    Satanis (Telugu: సాతాని) or Sattada/Chattada Sri Vaishnavas are a Sri Vaishnava caste who render temple services in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Telangana in India.[1][2][3] Traditionally, they have rendered a variety of services in the Sri Vaishnava temples as overseers/supervisors (Dharmakartā), purohits/archakas (priests) of minor temples, guardians of temple properties, herald, singers and torch-bearers at festivals and providers of umbrellas, flower garlands and namam clay.[1] They have claimed Brahmin status, although this has been contested by Brahmins.[4][5][6]

    The name ‘Satani’ is supposed to be a corruption of ‘chyatani’ or ‘chyati’ which means “acting according to prescribed rites”.[7] In their social and religious customs, the Satani community is associated with the Tenkalai movement[5] of Sri Vaishnava faith propounded by Ramanuja and have a long history from the time of Ramanuja and Guru-lineages and literature dating, from, at least the 15th century. They follow the egalitarian anti-caste Alvars/Bhagavata Vaisnavism formalized by Pillai Lokacharya and Manavala Mamunigal. Their origin is shrouded in mystery. According to Sri Vaishnava Siddhanta Dipika, their guru lineage is from Nammalvar to Ramanuja to Manavala Mamunigal to Srimat Paravastu Kantopayantru Munindra Jiyar who firmly established Sattada Sri Vaishnavas order. They were Vadama brahmins who accepted the Divya Prabandham and stood in the ancient Parama Ekanta tradition of those who have renounced all associations. Ramanuja assigned Satanis to teach the Tamil Vedas to non-brahmins and to take care of the worship of the lord in shrines and temples. Hence, the term ‘Satani’ arose as a battle for temple control between vaidika and non-vaidika traditions.[1] Other sources indicate that they are descendants of mixed origin of both brahmins and non-brahmin castes.[7] However, according to Sri Vaishnava Siddhanta Dipika, only brahmins were called Satani. Sri Vaishnavas of other shudra origin were called Namadhari.[1]

    The endogamous sub-division of Satani are Ekakshari, Chathurakshari, Asthakshri, and Kulasekara. The Ekakshari (one syllable) hope to get salvation by reciting the one mystic syllable “Om”, the Chathurakshari believe in the religious efficacy of the four syllables “Ra-ma-nu-jah”, the Asthakshri hold that the recitation of the eight syllables “Om-na-mo-na-ra-ya-na-ya” will secure the eternal bliss and the Kulasekara claim to be the descendants of the Vaishnava saint Kulasekara Alwar.[7] The different sub-sects are Khadri Vaishnavas, Natacharmurti, Prathama Vaishnava, Sameraya, Sattadhava, Telugu Satani, and Venkadapuradavaru.[8] They are known by various different names like Chatani, Ayyawar, Vira Vaishnava, Vighas, Vishnu archaka,[7] Chatali, Prapanna Vaishnavas, Nambi Venkatapura Vaishnavas,[8] Sathata aiyyar, Satanaiah, Satanee, Chattadi Sathtavar, Sattadavar purohitar, Dasa-Nambi, and Sathatha Sri Vaishnavas.[9] They are also known as Koyil (temple) Sri Vaishnavas as they are Sri Vaishnava brahmins who have given up Vedic rites in order to give their full attention to temple service.[1]

    Many follow a lifestyle (diet, dress, household appointments, and marriage considerations) that are strongly similar to that of the Tenkalai Iyengars.[1] Their names have the honorary suffix Ayyangar, the title acharya, swamy, [7] alwar, alvar, iah, iyya[9] and the ayya honorific. They give special honor to the servants and insignia of Vishnu; considering themselves “servants of the servants” (Dasanudasa) of the lord and revere Hanuman, Garuda, Chakra, Panchajanya and Naamam. Above all, they honour the Alvars, especially Nammalvar, and recite the Alvar’s hymns for domestic rituals. Most have received their initiation (Panca-samskara) from the Koil Annan Acharya lineage of Srirangam, Vanamamalai Mutt at Nanguneri and Paravastu Mutt at Tirupati.[1]

    tirunagari caste

    From the eleventh through the sixteenth centuries, Satanis enjoyed a supervisory status in many of the most important Sri Vaishnava temples at Srirangam, Kanchipuram, Tirumala-Tirupati, and Melkote.[1] In the sixteenth century during Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya’s time, they were attached to Kandadai Ramanuja Ayyangar, a powerful acharyapurusha whose influence extended to the different temple centers and controlled the feeding houses or Ramanujakutam at Venkateswara Temple, Tirumala. They enjoyed numerous privileges and made donations in the name of their preceptor. Nevertheless, in the later period, when the influence of Kandadai was diminished, the Satanis do not appear to have enjoyed the same status.[10]

    Satanis enjoyed a greater status in Sri Vaishnava temples in the times past than they do today. In the course of time, given the weight of vaidika traditions and the slackening of Vijayanagara Empire patronage, Satanis who were never considered the equal of vaidika brahmins lost ground. However, they protected themselves from total annihilation by becoming a caste along with all the others, albeit relatively prestigious. The number of temples served by them has significantly declined in recent times. Their population in Srirangam was much larger in the past as some have left to serve other temples and some have sought a livelihood outside of temple service.[1] Till the 16th century, Satanis had a significant share in the temple authorities, however, it was almost erased from the delineation of the past when histories for Sri Vaishnavas were written. Hence, the identity of a Sri Vaishnava in the late nineteenth and twentieth century in the public domain meant essentially being brahmana adhering to the reverential lineage of the Alvars and acharyas till Ramanuja.[10]

    Privileges have been eroded as they used to recite alongside Sri Vaishnava brahmins at Iyal Gosti at Srirangam up to 1942 when the privilege was cut off by legal action. In a few major temples, Satanis receive prasada ahead of other brahmins. They also receive high honors on special occasions such as Vaikuntha Ekadashi at major temples.[1] In the 1931 Census Report for Mysore stated that “the request that the name Satani to be changed to Sattada Sri Vaishnava could not be accepted because Sri Vaishnava is the name of a distinctive group of Brahmins and Satani community is not generally treated as a Brahmin community. The adoption of the new name could be misleading.”[6] They are currently included in the Other Backward Classes (OBC) list by the state governments of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.[11][12]

    “Central List of OBCs for the State of Andhra Pradesh”Downloads-icon

    “Backward Classes Castes/ Communities in the State of Telangana”Downloads-icon

    Satanis (Telugu: సాతాని) or Sattada/Chattada Sri Vaishnavas are a Sri Vaishnava caste who render temple services in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Telangana in India.[1][2][3] Traditionally, they have rendered a variety of services in the Sri Vaishnava temples as overseers/supervisors (Dharmakartā), purohits/archakas (priests) of minor temples, guardians of temple properties, herald, singers and torch-bearers at festivals and providers of umbrellas, flower garlands and namam clay.[1] They have claimed Brahmin status, although this has been contested by Brahmins.[4][5][6]

    The name ‘Satani’ is supposed to be a corruption of ‘chyatani’ or ‘chyati’ which means “acting according to prescribed rites”.[7] In their social and religious customs, the Satani community is associated with the Tenkalai movement[5] of Sri Vaishnava faith propounded by Ramanuja and have a long history from the time of Ramanuja and Guru-lineages and literature dating, from, at least the 15th century. They follow the egalitarian anti-caste Alvars/Bhagavata Vaisnavism formalized by Pillai Lokacharya and Manavala Mamunigal. Their origin is shrouded in mystery. According to Sri Vaishnava Siddhanta Dipika, their guru lineage is from Nammalvar to Ramanuja to Manavala Mamunigal to Srimat Paravastu Kantopayantru Munindra Jiyar who firmly established Sattada Sri Vaishnavas order. They were Vadama brahmins who accepted the Divya Prabandham and stood in the ancient Parama Ekanta tradition of those who have renounced all associations. Ramanuja assigned Satanis to teach the Tamil Vedas to non-brahmins and to take care of the worship of the lord in shrines and temples. Hence, the term ‘Satani’ arose as a battle for temple control between vaidika and non-vaidika traditions.[1] Other sources indicate that they are descendants of mixed origin of both brahmins and non-brahmin castes.[7] However, according to Sri Vaishnava Siddhanta Dipika, only brahmins were called Satani. Sri Vaishnavas of other shudra origin were called Namadhari.[1]

    The endogamous sub-division of Satani are Ekakshari, Chathurakshari, Asthakshri, and Kulasekara. The Ekakshari (one syllable) hope to get salvation by reciting the one mystic syllable “Om”, the Chathurakshari believe in the religious efficacy of the four syllables “Ra-ma-nu-jah”, the Asthakshri hold that the recitation of the eight syllables “Om-na-mo-na-ra-ya-na-ya” will secure the eternal bliss and the Kulasekara claim to be the descendants of the Vaishnava saint Kulasekara Alwar.[7] The different sub-sects are Khadri Vaishnavas, Natacharmurti, Prathama Vaishnava, Sameraya, Sattadhava, Telugu Satani, and Venkadapuradavaru.[8] They are known by various different names like Chatani, Ayyawar, Vira Vaishnava, Vighas, Vishnu archaka,[7] Chatali, Prapanna Vaishnavas, Nambi Venkatapura Vaishnavas,[8] Sathata aiyyar, Satanaiah, Satanee, Chattadi Sathtavar, Sattadavar purohitar, Dasa-Nambi, and Sathatha Sri Vaishnavas.[9] They are also known as Koyil (temple) Sri Vaishnavas as they are Sri Vaishnava brahmins who have given up Vedic rites in order to give their full attention to temple service.[1]

    Many follow a lifestyle (diet, dress, household appointments, and marriage considerations) that are strongly similar to that of the Tenkalai Iyengars.[1] Their names have the honorary suffix Ayyangar, the title acharya, swamy, [7] alwar, alvar, iah, iyya[9] and the ayya honorific. They give special honor to the servants and insignia of Vishnu; considering themselves “servants of the servants” (Dasanudasa) of the lord and revere Hanuman, Garuda, Chakra, Panchajanya and Naamam. Above all, they honour the Alvars, especially Nammalvar, and recite the Alvar’s hymns for domestic rituals. Most have received their initiation (Panca-samskara) from the Koil Annan Acharya lineage of Srirangam, Vanamamalai Mutt at Nanguneri and Paravastu Mutt at Tirupati.[1]

    tirunagari caste

    From the eleventh through the sixteenth centuries, Satanis enjoyed a supervisory status in many of the most important Sri Vaishnava temples at Srirangam, Kanchipuram, Tirumala-Tirupati, and Melkote.[1] In the sixteenth century during Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya’s time, they were attached to Kandadai Ramanuja Ayyangar, a powerful acharyapurusha whose influence extended to the different temple centers and controlled the feeding houses or Ramanujakutam at Venkateswara Temple, Tirumala. They enjoyed numerous privileges and made donations in the name of their preceptor. Nevertheless, in the later period, when the influence of Kandadai was diminished, the Satanis do not appear to have enjoyed the same status.[10]

    Satanis enjoyed a greater status in Sri Vaishnava temples in the times past than they do today. In the course of time, given the weight of vaidika traditions and the slackening of Vijayanagara Empire patronage, Satanis who were never considered the equal of vaidika brahmins lost ground. However, they protected themselves from total annihilation by becoming a caste along with all the others, albeit relatively prestigious. The number of temples served by them has significantly declined in recent times. Their population in Srirangam was much larger in the past as some have left to serve other temples and some have sought a livelihood outside of temple service.[1] Till the 16th century, Satanis had a significant share in the temple authorities, however, it was almost erased from the delineation of the past when histories for Sri Vaishnavas were written. Hence, the identity of a Sri Vaishnava in the late nineteenth and twentieth century in the public domain meant essentially being brahmana adhering to the reverential lineage of the Alvars and acharyas till Ramanuja.[10]

    Privileges have been eroded as they used to recite alongside Sri Vaishnava brahmins at Iyal Gosti at Srirangam up to 1942 when the privilege was cut off by legal action. In a few major temples, Satanis receive prasada ahead of other brahmins. They also receive high honors on special occasions such as Vaikuntha Ekadashi at major temples.[1] In the 1931 Census Report for Mysore stated that “the request that the name Satani to be changed to Sattada Sri Vaishnava could not be accepted because Sri Vaishnava is the name of a distinctive group of Brahmins and Satani community is not generally treated as a Brahmin community. The adoption of the new name could be misleading.”[6] They are currently included in the Other Backward Classes (OBC) list by the state governments of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.[11][12]

    “Central List of OBCs for the State of Andhra Pradesh”Downloads-icon

    “Backward Classes Castes/ Communities in the State of Telangana”Downloads-icon

    India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: Bhārat Gaṇarājya),[23] is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west;[f] China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand, Myanmar and Indonesia.

    Modern humans arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa no later than 55,000 years ago.[24]
    Their long occupation, initially in varying forms of isolation as hunter-gatherers, has made the region highly diverse, second only to Africa in human genetic diversity.[25] Settled life emerged on the subcontinent in the western margins of the Indus river basin 9,000 years ago, evolving gradually into the Indus Valley Civilisation of the third millennium BCE.[26]
    By 1200 BCE, an archaic form of Sanskrit, an Indo-European language, had diffused into India from the northwest,[27] unfolding as the language of the Rigveda, and recording the dawning of Hinduism in India.[28] The Dravidian languages of India were supplanted in the northern and western regions.[29]
    By 400 BCE, stratification and exclusion by caste had emerged within Hinduism,[30]
    and Buddhism and Jainism had arisen, proclaiming social orders unlinked to heredity.[31]
    Early political consolidations gave rise to the loose-knit Maurya and Gupta Empires based in the Ganges Basin.[32]
    Their collective era was suffused with wide-ranging creativity,[33] but also marked by the declining status of women,[34] and the incorporation of untouchability into an organised system of belief.[g][35] In South India, the Middle kingdoms exported Dravidian-languages scripts and religious cultures to the kingdoms of Southeast Asia.[36]

    In the early medieval era, Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Zoroastrianism put down roots on India’s southern and western coasts.[37]
    Muslim armies from Central Asia intermittently overran India’s northern plains,[38]
    eventually establishing the Delhi Sultanate, and drawing northern India into the cosmopolitan networks of medieval Islam.[39]
    In the 15th century, the Vijayanagara Empire created a long-lasting composite Hindu culture in south India.[40]
    In the Punjab, Sikhism emerged, rejecting institutionalised religion.[41]
    The Mughal Empire, in 1526, ushered in two centuries of relative peace,[42]
    leaving a legacy of luminous architecture.[h][43]
    Gradually expanding rule of the British East India Company followed, turning India into a colonial economy, but also consolidating its sovereignty.[44] British Crown rule began in 1858. The rights promised to Indians were granted slowly,[45] but technological changes were introduced, and ideas of education, modernity and the public life took root.[46]
    A pioneering and influential nationalist movement emerged, which was noted for nonviolent resistance and became the major factor in ending British rule.[47] In 1947 the British Indian Empire was partitioned into two independent dominions, a Hindu-majority Dominion of India and a Muslim-majority Dominion of Pakistan, amid large-scale loss of life and an unprecedented migration.[48][49]

    India has been a federal republic since 1950, governed in a democratic parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society. India’s population grew from 361 million in 1951 to 1.211 billion in 2011.[50]
    During the same time, its nominal per capita income increased from US$64 annually to US$1,498, and its literacy rate from 16.6% to 74%. From being a comparatively destitute country in 1951,[51]
    India has become a fast-growing major economy and a hub for information technology services, with an expanding middle class.[52] It has a space programme which includes several planned or completed extraterrestrial missions. Indian movies, music, and spiritual teachings play an increasing role in global culture.[53]
    India has substantially reduced its rate of poverty, though at the cost of increasing economic inequality.[54]
    India is a nuclear-weapon state, which ranks high in military expenditure. It has disputes over Kashmir with its neighbours, Pakistan and China, unresolved since the mid-20th century.[55]
    Among the socio-economic challenges India faces are gender inequality, child malnutrition,[56]
    and rising levels of air pollution.[57]
    India’s land is megadiverse, with four biodiversity hotspots.[58] Its forest cover comprises 21.7% of its area.[59] India’s wildlife, which has traditionally been viewed with tolerance in India’s culture,[60] is supported among these forests, and elsewhere, in protected habitats.

    tirunagari caste

    According to the Oxford English Dictionary (third edition 2009), the name “India” is derived from the Classical Latin India, a reference to South Asia and an uncertain region to its east; and in turn derived successively from: Hellenistic Greek India ( Ἰνδία); ancient Greek Indos ( Ἰνδός); Old Persian Hindush, an eastern province of the Achaemenid empire; and ultimately its cognate, the Sanskrit Sindhu, or “river,” specifically the Indus River and, by implication, its well-settled southern basin.[61][62] The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi (Ἰνδοί), which translates as “The people of the Indus”.[63]

    The term Bharat (Bhārat; pronounced [ˈbʱaːɾət] (listen)), mentioned in both Indian epic poetry and the Constitution of India,[64][65] is used in its variations by many Indian languages. A modern rendering of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which applied originally to northern India,[66][67] Bharat gained increased currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India.[64][68]

    Hindustan ([ɦɪndʊˈstaːn] (listen)) is a Middle Persian name for India, introduced during the Mughal Empire and used widely since. Its meaning has varied, referring to a region encompassing present-day northern India and Pakistan or to India in its near entirety.[64][68][69]

    By 55,000 years ago, the first modern humans, or Homo sapiens, had arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa, where they had earlier evolved.[72][73][74] The earliest known modern human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago.[75] After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, and storage of agricultural surplus appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan, Pakistan.[76] These gradually developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation,[77][76] the first urban culture in South Asia,[78] which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India.[79] Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, Dholavira, and Kalibangan, and relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilisation engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade.[78]

    During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones.[80] The Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism,[81] were composed during this period,[82] and historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.[80] Most historians also consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west.[81] The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests, warriors, and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labelling their occupations impure, arose during this period.[83] On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation.[80] In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period,[84] as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, and craft traditions.[84]

    In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas.[85][86] The emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of its exemplar, Mahavira.[87] Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle class; chronicling the life of the Buddha was central to the beginnings of recorded history in India.[88][89][90] In an age of increasing urban wealth, both religions held up renunciation as an ideal,[91] and both established long-lasting monastic traditions. Politically, by the 3rd century BCE, the kingdom of Magadha had annexed or reduced other states to emerge as the Mauryan Empire.[92] The empire was once thought to have controlled most of the subcontinent except the far south, but its core regions are now thought to have been separated by large autonomous areas.[93][94] The Mauryan kings are known as much for their empire-building and determined management of public life as for Ashoka’s renunciation of militarism and far-flung advocacy of the Buddhist dhamma.[95][96]

  • what is afternoon
  • The Sangam literature of the Tamil language reveals that, between 200 BCE and 200 CE, the southern peninsula was ruled by the Cheras, the Cholas, and the Pandyas, dynasties that traded extensively with the Roman Empire and with West and South-East Asia.[97][98] In North India, Hinduism asserted patriarchal control within the family, leading to increased subordination of women.[99][92] By the 4th and 5th centuries, the Gupta Empire had created a complex system of administration and taxation in the greater Ganges Plain; this system became a model for later Indian kingdoms.[100][101] Under the Guptas, a renewed Hinduism based on devotion, rather than the management of ritual, began to assert itself.[102] This renewal was reflected in a flowering of sculpture and architecture, which found patrons among an urban elite.[101] Classical Sanskrit literature flowered as well, and Indian science, astronomy, medicine, and mathematics made significant advances.[101]

    The Indian early medieval age, from 600 to 1200 CE, is defined by regional kingdoms and cultural diversity.[103] When Harsha of Kannauj, who ruled much of the Indo-Gangetic Plain from 606 to 647 CE, attempted to expand southwards, he was defeated by the Chalukya ruler of the Deccan.[104] When his successor attempted to expand eastwards, he was defeated by the Pala king of Bengal.[104] When the Chalukyas attempted to expand southwards, they were defeated by the Pallavas from farther south, who in turn were opposed by the Pandyas and the Cholas from still farther south.[104] No ruler of this period was able to create an empire and consistently control lands much beyond their core region.[103] During this time, pastoral peoples, whose land had been cleared to make way for the growing agricultural economy, were accommodated within caste society, as were new non-traditional ruling classes.[105] The caste system consequently began to show regional differences.[105]

    In the 6th and 7th centuries, the first devotional hymns were created in the Tamil language.[106] They were imitated all over India and led to both the resurgence of Hinduism and the development of all modern languages of the subcontinent.[106] Indian royalty, big and small, and the temples they patronised drew citizens in great numbers to the capital cities, which became economic hubs as well.[107] Temple towns of various sizes began to appear everywhere as India underwent another urbanisation.[107] By the 8th and 9th centuries, the effects were felt in South-East Asia, as South Indian culture and political systems were exported to lands that became part of modern-day Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Philippines, Malaysia, and Java.[108] Indian merchants, scholars, and sometimes armies were involved in this transmission; South-East Asians took the initiative as well, with many sojourning in Indian seminaries and translating Buddhist and Hindu texts into their languages.[108]

    After the 10th century, Muslim Central Asian nomadic clans, using swift-horse cavalry and raising vast armies united by ethnicity and religion, repeatedly overran South Asia’s north-western plains, leading eventually to the establishment of the Islamic Delhi Sultanate in 1206.[109] The sultanate was to control much of North India and to make many forays into South India. Although at first disruptive for the Indian elites, the sultanate largely left its vast non-Muslim subject population to its own laws and customs.[110][111] By repeatedly repulsing Mongol raiders in the 13th century, the sultanate saved India from the devastation visited on West and Central Asia, setting the scene for centuries of migration of fleeing soldiers, learned men, mystics, traders, artists, and artisans from that region into the subcontinent, thereby creating a syncretic Indo-Islamic culture in the north.[112][113] The sultanate’s raiding and weakening of the regional kingdoms of South India paved the way for the indigenous Vijayanagara Empire.[114] Embracing a strong Shaivite tradition and building upon the military technology of the sultanate, the empire came to control much of peninsular India,[115] and was to influence South Indian society for long afterwards.[114]

    In the early 16th century, northern India, then under mainly Muslim rulers,[116] fell again to the superior mobility and firepower of a new generation of Central Asian warriors.[117] The resulting Mughal Empire did not stamp out the local societies it came to rule. Instead, it balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices[118][119] and diverse and inclusive ruling elites,[120] leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule.[121] Eschewing tribal bonds and Islamic identity, especially under Akbar, the Mughals united their far-flung realms through loyalty, expressed through a Persianised culture, to an emperor who had near-divine status.[120] The Mughal state’s economic policies, deriving most revenues from agriculture[122] and mandating that taxes be paid in the well-regulated silver currency,[123] caused peasants and artisans to enter larger markets.[121] The relative peace maintained by the empire during much of the 17th century was a factor in India’s economic expansion,[121] resulting in greater patronage of painting, literary forms, textiles, and architecture.[124] Newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Marathas, the Rajputs, and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience.[125] Expanding commerce during Mughal rule gave rise to new Indian commercial and political elites along the coasts of southern and eastern India.[125] As the empire disintegrated, many among these elites were able to seek and control their own affairs.[126]

    By the early 18th century, with the lines between commercial and political dominance being increasingly blurred, a number of European trading companies, including the English East India Company, had established coastal outposts.[127][128] The East India Company’s control of the seas, greater resources, and more advanced military training and technology led it to increasingly assert its military strength and caused it to become attractive to a portion of the Indian elite; these factors were crucial in allowing the company to gain control over the Bengal region by 1765 and sideline the other European companies.[129][127][130][131] Its further access to the riches of Bengal and the subsequent increased strength and size of its army enabled it to annexe or subdue most of India by the 1820s.[132] India was then no longer exporting manufactured goods as it long had, but was instead supplying the British Empire with raw materials. Many historians consider this to be the onset of India’s colonial period.[127] By this time, with its economic power severely curtailed by the British parliament and having effectively been made an arm of British administration, the company began more consciously to enter non-economic arenas like education, social reform, and culture.[133]

    Historians consider India’s modern age to have begun sometime between 1848 and 1885. The appointment in 1848 of Lord Dalhousie as Governor General of the East India Company set the stage for changes essential to a modern state. These included the consolidation and demarcation of sovereignty, the surveillance of the population, and the education of citizens. Technological changes—among them, railways, canals, and the telegraph—were introduced not long after their introduction in Europe.[134][135][136][137] However, disaffection with the company also grew during this time and set off the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Fed by diverse resentments and perceptions, including invasive British-style social reforms, harsh land taxes, and summary treatment of some rich landowners and princes, the rebellion rocked many regions of northern and central India and shook the foundations of Company rule.[138][139] Although the rebellion was suppressed by 1858, it led to the dissolution of the East India Company and the direct administration of India by the British government. Proclaiming a unitary state and a gradual but limited British-style parliamentary system, the new rulers also protected princes and landed gentry as a feudal safeguard against future unrest.[140][141] In the decades following, public life gradually emerged all over India, leading eventually to the founding of the Indian National Congress in 1885.[142][143][144][145]

    The rush of technology and the commercialisation of agriculture in the second half of the 19th century was marked by economic setbacks and many small farmers became dependent on the whims of far-away markets.[146] There was an increase in the number of large-scale famines,[147] and, despite the risks of infrastructure development borne by Indian taxpayers, little industrial employment was generated for Indians.[148] There were also salutary effects: commercial cropping, especially in the newly canalled Punjab, led to increased food production for internal consumption.[149] The railway network provided critical famine relief,[150] notably reduced the cost of moving goods,[150] and helped nascent Indian-owned industry.[149]

    After World War I, in which approximately one million Indians served,[151] a new period began. It was marked by British reforms but also repressive legislation, by more strident Indian calls for self-rule, and by the beginnings of a nonviolent movement of non-co-operation, of which Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi would become the leader and enduring symbol.[152] During the 1930s, slow legislative reform was enacted by the British; the Indian National Congress won victories in the resulting elections.[153] The next decade was beset with crises: Indian participation in World War II, the Congress’s final push for non-co-operation, and an upsurge of Muslim nationalism. All were capped by the advent of independence in 1947, but tempered by the partition of India into two states: India and Pakistan.[154]

    Vital to India’s self-image as an independent nation was its constitution, completed in 1950, which put in place a secular and democratic republic.[155] It has remained a democracy with civil liberties, an active Supreme Court, and a largely independent press.[156] Economic liberalisation, which began in the 1990s, has created a large urban middle class, transformed India into one of the world’s fastest-growing economies,[157] and increased its geopolitical clout. Indian movies, music, and spiritual teachings play an increasing role in global culture.[156] Yet, India is also shaped by seemingly unyielding poverty, both rural and urban;[156] by religious and caste-related violence;[158] by Maoist-inspired Naxalite insurgencies;[159] and by separatism in Jammu and Kashmir and in Northeast India.[160] It has unresolved territorial disputes with China[161] and with Pakistan.[161] India’s sustained democratic freedoms are unique among the world’s newer nations; however, in spite of its recent economic successes, freedom from want for its disadvantaged population remains a goal yet to be achieved.[162]

    India accounts for the bulk of the Indian subcontinent, lying atop the Indian tectonic plate, a part of the Indo-Australian Plate.[163] India’s defining geological processes began 75 million years ago when the Indian Plate, then part of the southern supercontinent Gondwana, began a north-eastward drift caused by seafloor spreading to its south-west, and later, south and south-east.[163] Simultaneously, the vast Tethyan oceanic crust, to its northeast, began to subduct under the Eurasian Plate.[163] These dual processes, driven by convection in the Earth’s mantle, both created the Indian Ocean and caused the Indian continental crust eventually to under-thrust Eurasia and to uplift the Himalayas.[163] Immediately south of the emerging Himalayas, plate movement created a vast trough that rapidly filled with river-borne sediment[164] and now constitutes the Indo-Gangetic Plain.[165] Cut off from the plain by the ancient Aravalli Range lies the Thar Desert.[166]

    The original Indian Plate survives as peninsular India, the oldest and geologically most stable part of India. It extends as far north as the Satpura and Vindhya ranges in central India. These parallel chains run from the Arabian Sea coast in Gujarat in the west to the coal-rich Chota Nagpur Plateau in Jharkhand in the east.[167] To the south, the remaining peninsular landmass, the Deccan Plateau, is flanked on the west and east by coastal ranges known as the Western and Eastern Ghats;[168] the plateau contains the country’s oldest rock formations, some over one billion years old. Constituted in such fashion, India lies to the north of the equator between 6° 44′ and 35° 30′ north latitude[i] and 68° 7′ and 97° 25′ east longitude.[169]

    India’s coastline measures 7,517 kilometres (4,700 mi) in length; of this distance, 5,423 kilometres (3,400 mi) belong to peninsular India and 2,094 kilometres (1,300 mi) to the Andaman, Nicobar, and Lakshadweep island chains.[170] According to the Indian naval hydrographic charts, the mainland coastline consists of the following: 43% sandy beaches; 11% rocky shores, including cliffs; and 46% mudflats or marshy shores.[170]

    Major Himalayan-origin rivers that substantially flow through India include the Ganges and the Brahmaputra, both of which drain into the Bay of Bengal.[172] Important tributaries of the Ganges include the Yamuna and the Kosi; the latter’s extremely low gradient, caused by long-term silt deposition, leads to severe floods and course changes.[173][174] Major peninsular rivers, whose steeper gradients prevent their waters from flooding, include the Godavari, the Mahanadi, the Kaveri, and the Krishna, which also drain into the Bay of Bengal;[175] and the Narmada and the Tapti, which drain into the Arabian Sea.[176] Coastal features include the marshy Rann of Kutch of western India and the alluvial Sundarbans delta of eastern India; the latter is shared with Bangladesh.[177] India has two archipelagos: the Lakshadweep, coral atolls off India’s south-western coast; and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, a volcanic chain in the Andaman Sea.[178]

    The Indian climate is strongly influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert, both of which drive the economically and culturally pivotal summer and winter monsoons.[179] The Himalayas prevent cold Central Asian katabatic winds from blowing in, keeping the bulk of the Indian subcontinent warmer than most locations at similar latitudes.[180][181] The Thar Desert plays a crucial role in attracting the moisture-laden south-west summer monsoon winds that, between June and October, provide the majority of India’s rainfall.[179] Four major climatic groupings predominate in India: tropical wet, tropical dry, subtropical humid, and montane.[182]

    Temperatures in India have risen by 0.7 °C (1.3 °F) between 1901 and 2018.[183] Climate change in India is often thought to be the cause. The retreat of Himalayan glaciers has adversely affected the flow rate of the major Himalayan rivers, including the Ganges and the Brahmaputra.[184] According to some current projections, the number and severity of droughts in India will have markedly increased by the end of the present century.[185]

    India is a megadiverse country, a term employed for 17 countries which display high biological diversity and contain many species exclusively indigenous, or endemic, to them.[186] India is a habitat for 8.6% of all mammal species, 13.7% of bird species, 7.9% of reptile species, 6% of amphibian species, 12.2% of fish species, and 6.0% of all flowering plant species.[187][188] Fully a third of Indian plant species are endemic.[189] India also contains four of the world’s 34 biodiversity hotspots,[58] or regions that display significant habitat loss in the presence of high endemism.[j][190]

    India’s forest cover is 99,278 km2 (38,331 sq mi), which is 21.67% of the country’s total land area.[59] It can be subdivided further into broad categories of canopy density, or the proportion of the area of a forest covered by its tree canopy.[191] Very dense forest, whose canopy density is greater than 70%, occupies 3.02% of India’s land area.[191][59] It predominates in the tropical moist forest of the Andaman Islands, the Western Ghats, and Northeast India.[192] Moderately dense forest, whose canopy density is between 40% and 70%, occupies 9.39% of India’s land area.[191][59] It predominates in the temperate coniferous forest of the Himalayas, the moist deciduous sal forest of eastern India, and the dry deciduous teak forest of central and southern India.[192] Open forest, whose canopy density is between 10% and 40%, occupies 9.26% of India’s land area,[191][59] and predominates in the babul-dominated thorn forest of the central Deccan Plateau and the western Gangetic plain.[192]

    Among the Indian subcontinent’s notable indigenous trees are the astringent Azadirachta indica, or neem, which is widely used in rural Indian herbal medicine,[193] and the luxuriant Ficus religiosa, or peepul,[194] which is displayed on the ancient seals of Mohenjo-daro,[195] and under which the Buddha is recorded in the Pali canon to have sought enlightenment.[196]

    Many Indian species have descended from those of Gondwana, the southern supercontinent from which India separated more than 100 million years ago.[198] India’s subsequent collision with Eurasia set off a mass exchange of species. However, volcanism and climatic changes later caused the extinction of many endemic Indian forms.[199] Still later, mammals entered India from Asia through two zoogeographical passes flanking the Himalayas.[192] This had the effect of lowering endemism among India’s mammals, which stands at 12.6%, contrasting with 45.8% among reptiles and 55.8% among amphibians.[188] Notable endemics are the vulnerable[200] hooded leaf monkey[201] and the threatened[202] Beddom’s toad[202][203] of the Western Ghats.

    India contains 172 IUCN-designated threatened animal species, or 2.9% of endangered forms.[204] These include the endangered Bengal tiger and the Ganges river dolphin. Critically endangered species include: the gharial, a crocodilian; the great Indian bustard; and the Indian white-rumped vulture, which has become nearly extinct by having ingested the carrion of diclofenac-treated cattle.[205] The pervasive and ecologically devastating human encroachment of recent decades has critically endangered Indian wildlife. In response, the system of national parks and protected areas, first established in 1935, was expanded substantially. In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act[206] and Project Tiger to safeguard crucial wilderness; the Forest Conservation Act was enacted in 1980 and amendments added in 1988.[207] India hosts more than five hundred wildlife sanctuaries and thirteen biosphere reserves,[208] four of which are part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves; twenty-five wetlands are registered under the Ramsar Convention.[209]

    India is the world’s most populous democracy.[211] A parliamentary republic with a multi-party system,[212] it has eight recognised national parties, including the Indian National Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), and more than 40 regional parties.[213] The Congress is considered centre-left in Indian political culture,[214] and the BJP right-wing.[215][216][217] For most of the period between 1950—when India first became a republic—and the late 1980s, the Congress held a majority in the parliament. Since then, however, it has increasingly shared the political stage with the BJP,[218] as well as with powerful regional parties which have often forced the creation of multi-party coalition governments at the centre.[219]

    In the Republic of India’s first three general elections, in 1951, 1957, and 1962, the Jawaharlal Nehru-led Congress won easy victories. On Nehru’s death in 1964, Lal Bahadur Shastri briefly became prime minister; he was succeeded, after his own unexpected death in 1966, by Nehru’s daughter Indira Gandhi, who went on to lead the Congress to election victories in 1967 and 1971. Following public discontent with the state of emergency she declared in 1975, the Congress was voted out of power in 1977; the then-new Janata Party, which had opposed the emergency, was voted in. Its government lasted just over two years. Voted back into power in 1980, the Congress saw a change in leadership in 1984, when Indira Gandhi was assassinated; she was succeeded by her son Rajiv Gandhi, who won an easy victory in the general elections later that year. The Congress was voted out again in 1989 when a National Front coalition, led by the newly formed Janata Dal in alliance with the Left Front, won the elections; that government too proved relatively short-lived, lasting just under two years.[220] Elections were held again in 1991; no party won an absolute majority. The Congress, as the largest single party, was able to form a minority government led by P. V. Narasimha Rao.[221]

    A two-year period of political turmoil followed the general election of 1996. Several short-lived alliances shared power at the centre. The BJP formed a government briefly in 1996; it was followed by two comparatively long-lasting United Front coalitions, which depended on external support. In 1998, the BJP was able to form a successful coalition, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA). Led by Atal Bihari Vajpayee, the NDA became the first non-Congress, coalition government to complete a five-year term.[222] Again in the 2004 Indian general elections, no party won an absolute majority, but the Congress emerged as the largest single party, forming another successful coalition: the United Progressive Alliance (UPA). It had the support of left-leaning parties and MPs who opposed the BJP. The UPA returned to power in the 2009 general election with increased numbers, and it no longer required external support from India’s communist parties.[223] That year, Manmohan Singh became the first prime minister since Jawaharlal Nehru in 1957 and 1962 to be re-elected to a consecutive five-year term.[224] In the 2014 general election, the BJP became the first political party since 1984 to win a majority and govern without the support of other parties.[225] The incumbent prime minister is Narendra Modi, a former chief minister of Gujarat. On 20 July 2017, Ram Nath Kovind was elected India’s 14th president and took the oath of office on 25 July 2017.[226][227][228]

    India is a federation with a parliamentary system governed under the Constitution of India—the country’s supreme legal document. It is a constitutional republic and representative democracy, in which “majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law”. Federalism in India defines the power distribution between the union and the states. The Constitution of India, which came into effect on 26 January 1950,[230] originally stated India to be a “sovereign, democratic republic;” this characterisation was amended in 1971 to “a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic”.[231] India’s form of government, traditionally described as “quasi-federal” with a strong centre and weak states,[232] has grown increasingly federal since the late 1990s as a result of political, economic, and social changes.[233][234]

    The Government of India comprises three branches:[235]

    India is a federal union comprising 28 states and 8 union territories (listed below as 1–28 and A–H, respectively).[251] All states, as well as the union territories of Jammu and Kashmir, Puducherry and the National Capital Territory of Delhi, have elected legislatures and governments following the Westminster system of governance. The remaining five union territories are directly ruled by the central government through appointed administrators. In 1956, under the States Reorganisation Act, states were reorganised on a linguistic basis.[252] There are over a quarter of a million local government bodies at city, town, block, district and village levels.[253]

    In the 1950s, India strongly supported decolonisation in Africa and Asia and played a leading role in the Non-Aligned Movement.[255] After initially cordial relations with neighbouring China, India went to war with China in 1962, and was widely thought to have been humiliated. India has had tense relations with neighbouring Pakistan; the two nations have gone to war four times: in 1947, 1965, 1971, and 1999. Three of these wars were fought over the disputed territory of Kashmir, while the fourth, the 1971 war, followed from India’s support for the independence of Bangladesh.[256] In the late 1980s, the Indian military twice intervened abroad at the invitation of the host country: a peace-keeping operation in Sri Lanka between 1987 and 1990; and an armed intervention to prevent a 1988 coup d’état attempt in the Maldives. After the 1965 war with Pakistan, India began to pursue close military and economic ties with the Soviet Union; by the late 1960s, the Soviet Union was its largest arms supplier.[257]

    Aside from ongoing its special relationship with Russia,[258] India has wide-ranging defence relations with Israel and France. In recent years, it has played key roles in the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation and the World Trade Organization. The nation has provided 100,000 military and police personnel to serve in 35 UN peacekeeping operations across four continents. It participates in the East Asia Summit, the G8+5, and other multilateral forums.[259] India has close economic ties with countries in South America,[260] Asia, and Africa; it pursues a “Look East” policy that seeks to strengthen partnerships with the ASEAN nations, Japan, and South Korea that revolve around many issues, but especially those involving economic investment and regional security.[261][262]

    tirunagari caste

    China’s nuclear test of 1964, as well as its repeated threats to intervene in support of Pakistan in the 1965 war, convinced India to develop nuclear weapons.[264] India conducted its first nuclear weapons test in 1974 and carried out additional underground testing in 1998. Despite criticism and military sanctions, India has signed neither the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty nor the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, considering both to be flawed and discriminatory.[265] India maintains a “no first use” nuclear policy and is developing a nuclear triad capability as a part of its “Minimum Credible Deterrence” doctrine.[266][267] It is developing a ballistic missile defence shield and, a fifth-generation fighter jet.[268][269] Other indigenous military projects involve the design and implementation of Vikrant-class aircraft carriers and Arihant-class nuclear submarines.[270]

    Since the end of the Cold War, India has increased its economic, strategic, and military co-operation with the United States and the European Union.[271] In 2008, a civilian nuclear agreement was signed between India and the United States. Although India possessed nuclear weapons at the time and was not a party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, it received waivers from the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Nuclear Suppliers Group, ending earlier restrictions on India’s nuclear technology and commerce. As a consequence, India became the sixth de facto nuclear weapons state.[272] India subsequently signed co-operation agreements involving civilian nuclear energy with Russia,[273] France,[274] the United Kingdom,[275] and Canada.[276]

    The President of India is the supreme commander of the nation’s armed forces; with 1.45 million active troops, they compose the world’s second-largest military. It comprises the Indian Army, the Indian Navy, the Indian Air Force, and the Indian Coast Guard.[277] The official Indian defence budget for 2011 was US$36.03 billion, or 1.83% of GDP.[278] For the fiscal year spanning 2012–2013, US$40.44 billion was budgeted.[279] According to a 2008 Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) report, India’s annual military expenditure in terms of purchasing power stood at US$72.7 billion.[280] In 2011, the annual defence budget increased by 11.6%,[281] although this does not include funds that reach the military through other branches of government.[282] As of 2012[update], India is the world’s largest arms importer; between 2007 and 2011, it accounted for 10% of funds spent on international arms purchases.[283] Much of the military expenditure was focused on defence against Pakistan and countering growing Chinese influence in the Indian Ocean.[281] In May 2017, the Indian Space Research Organisation launched the South Asia Satellite, a gift from India to its neighbouring SAARC countries.[284] In October 2018, India signed a US$5.43 billion (over ₹400 billion) agreement with Russia to procure four S-400 Triumf surface-to-air missile defence systems, Russia’s most advanced long-range missile defence system.[285]

    According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Indian economy in 2020 was nominally worth $2.7 trillion; it is the sixth-largest economy by market exchange rates, and is around $8.9 trillion, the third-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP).[289] With its average annual GDP growth rate of 5.8% over the past two decades, and reaching 6.1% during 2011–2012,[290] India is one of the world’s fastest-growing economies.[291] However, the country ranks 139th in the world in nominal GDP per capita and 118th in GDP per capita at PPP.[292] Until 1991, all Indian governments followed protectionist policies that were influenced by socialist economics. Widespread state intervention and regulation largely walled the economy off from the outside world. An acute balance of payments crisis in 1991 forced the nation to liberalise its economy;[293] since then it has moved slowly towards a free-market system[294][295] by emphasising both foreign trade and direct investment inflows.[296] India has been a member of WTO since 1 January 1995.[297]

    The 522-million-worker Indian labour force is the world’s second-largest, as of 2017[update].[277] The service sector makes up 55.6% of GDP, the industrial sector 26.3% and the agricultural sector 18.1%. India’s foreign exchange remittances of US$70 billion in 2014, the largest in the world, were contributed to its economy by 25 million Indians working in foreign countries.[298] Major agricultural products include: rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, and potatoes.[251] Major industries include: textiles, telecommunications, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, food processing, steel, transport equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, and software.[251] In 2006, the share of external trade in India’s GDP stood at 24%, up from 6% in 1985.[294] In 2008, India’s share of world trade was 1.68%;[299] In 2011, India was the world’s tenth-largest importer and the nineteenth-largest exporter.[300] Major exports include: petroleum products, textile goods, jewellery, software, engineering goods, chemicals, and manufactured leather goods.[251] Major imports include: crude oil, machinery, gems, fertiliser, and chemicals.[251] Between 2001 and 2011, the contribution of petrochemical and engineering goods to total exports grew from 14% to 42%.[301] India was the world’s second largest textile exporter after China in the 2013 calendar year.[302]

    Averaging an economic growth rate of 7.5% for several years prior to 2007,[294] India has more than doubled its hourly wage rates during the first decade of the 21st century.[303] Some 431 million Indians have left poverty since 1985; India’s middle classes are projected to number around 580 million by 2030.[304] Though ranking 51st in global competitiveness, as of 2010[update], India ranks 17th in financial market sophistication, 24th in the banking sector, 44th in business sophistication, and 39th in innovation, ahead of several advanced economies.[305] With seven of the world’s top 15 information technology outsourcing companies based in India, as of 2009[update], the country is viewed as the second-most favourable outsourcing destination after the United States.[306] India was ranked 48th in the Global Innovation Index in 2020, it has increased its ranking considerably since 2015, where it was 81st.[307][308][309][310] India’s consumer market, the world’s eleventh-largest, is expected to become fifth-largest by 2030.[304]

    Driven by growth, India’s nominal GDP per capita increased steadily from US$329 in 1991, when economic liberalisation began, to US$1,265 in 2010, to an estimated US$1,723 in 2016. It is expected to grow to US$2,191 by 2021.[19] However, it has remained lower than those of other Asian developing countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, and is expected to remain so in the near future.

    According to a 2011 PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) report, India’s GDP at purchasing power parity could overtake that of the United States by 2045.[312] During the next four decades, Indian GDP is expected to grow at an annualised average of 8%, making it potentially the world’s fastest-growing major economy until 2050.[312] The report highlights key growth factors: a young and rapidly growing working-age population; growth in the manufacturing sector because of rising education and engineering skill levels; and sustained growth of the consumer market driven by a rapidly growing middle-class.[312] The World Bank cautions that, for India to achieve its economic potential, it must continue to focus on public sector reform, transport infrastructure, agricultural and rural development, removal of labour regulations, education, energy security, and public health and nutrition.[313]

    According to the Worldwide Cost of Living Report 2017 released by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) which was created by comparing more than 400 individual prices across 160 products and services, four of the cheapest cities were in India: Bangalore (3rd), Mumbai (5th), Chennai (5th) and New Delhi (8th).[314]

    India’s telecommunication industry is the second-largest in the world with over 1.2 billion subscribers. It contributes 6.5% to India’s GDP.[315] After the third quarter of 2017, India surpassed the US to become the second largest smartphone market in the world after China.[316]

    The Indian automotive industry, the world’s second-fastest growing, increased domestic sales by 26% during 2009–2010,[317] and exports by 36% during 2008–2009.[318] At the end of 2011, the Indian IT industry employed 2.8 million professionals, generated revenues close to US$100 billion equalling 7.5% of Indian GDP, and contributed 26% of India’s merchandise exports.[319]

    The pharmaceutical industry in India emerged as a global player. As of 2021, with 3000 pharmaceutical companies and 10,500 manufacturing units India is the world’s third-largest pharmaceutical producer, largest producer of generic medicines and supply up to 50%—60% of global vaccines demand, these all contribute up to US$24.44 billions in exports and India’s local pharmacutical market is estimated up to US$42 billion.[320][321] India is among the top 12 biotech destinations in the world.[322][323] The Indian biotech industry grew by 15.1% in 2012–2013, increasing its revenues from ₹204.4 billion (Indian rupees) to ₹235.24 billion (US$3.94 billion at June 2013 exchange rates).[324]

    India’s capacity to generate electrical power is 300 gigawatts, of which 42 gigawatts is renewable.[325] The country’s usage of coal is a major cause of greenhouse gas emissions by India but its renewable energy is competing strongly.[326] India emits about 7% of global greenhouse gas emissions. This equates to about 2.5 tons of carbon dioxide per person per year, which is half the world average.[327][328] Increasing access to electricity and clean cooking with liquefied petroleum gas have been priorities for energy in India.[329]

    Despite economic growth during recent decades, India continues to face socio-economic challenges. In 2006, India contained the largest number of people living below the World Bank’s international poverty line of US$1.25 per day.[331] The proportion decreased from 60% in 1981 to 42% in 2005.[332] Under the World Bank’s later revised poverty line, it was 21% in 2011.[l][334] 30.7% of India’s children under the age of five are underweight.[335] According to a Food and Agriculture Organization report in 2015, 15% of the population is undernourished.[336][337] The Mid-Day Meal Scheme attempts to lower these rates.[338]

    According to a 2016 Walk Free Foundation report there were an estimated 18.3 million people in India, or 1.4% of the population, living in the forms of modern slavery, such as bonded labour, child labour, human trafficking, and forced begging, among others.[339][340][341] According to the 2011 census, there were 10.1 million child labourers in the country, a decline of 2.6 million from 12.6 million in 2001.[342]

    Since 1991, economic inequality between India’s states has consistently grown: the per-capita net state domestic product of the richest states in 2007 was 3.2 times that of the poorest.[343] Corruption in India is perceived to have decreased. According to the Corruption Perceptions Index, India ranked 78th out of 180 countries in 2018 with a score of 41 out of 100, an improvement from 85th in 2014.[344][345]

    With 1,210,193,422 residents reported in the 2011 provisional census report,[346] India is the world’s second-most populous country. Its population grew by 17.64% from 2001 to 2011,[347] compared to 21.54% growth in the previous decade (1991–2001).[347] The human sex ratio, according to the 2011 census, is 940 females per 1,000 males.[346] The median age was 28.7 as of 2020[update].[277] The first post-colonial census, conducted in 1951, counted 361 million people.[348] Medical advances made in the last 50 years as well as increased agricultural productivity brought about by the “Green Revolution” have caused India’s population to grow rapidly.[349]

    The average life expectancy in India is at 68 years—69.6 years for women, 67.3 years for men.[350] There are around 50 physicians per 100,000 Indians.[351] Migration from rural to urban areas has been an important dynamic in India’s recent history. The number of people living in urban areas grew by 31.2% between 1991 and 2001.[352] Yet, in 2001, over 70% still lived in rural areas.[353][354] The level of urbanisation increased further from 27.81% in the 2001 Census to 31.16% in the 2011 Census. The slowing down of the overall population growth rate was due to the sharp decline in the growth rate in rural areas since 1991.[355] According to the 2011 census, there are 53 million-plus urban agglomerations in India; among them Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad and Ahmedabad, in decreasing order by population.[356] The literacy rate in 2011 was 74.04%: 65.46% among females and 82.14% among males.[357] The rural-urban literacy gap, which was 21.2 percentage points in 2001, dropped to 16.1 percentage points in 2011. The improvement in the rural literacy rate is twice that of urban areas.[355] Kerala is the most literate state with 93.91% literacy; while Bihar the least with 63.82%.[357]

    India is home to two major language families: Indo-Aryan (spoken by about 74% of the population) and Dravidian (spoken by 24% of the population). Other languages spoken in India come from the Austroasiatic and Sino-Tibetan language families. India has no national language.[358] Hindi, with the largest number of speakers, is the official language of the government.[359][360] English is used extensively in business and administration and has the status of a “subsidiary official language”;[5] it is important in education, especially as a medium of higher education. Each state and union territory has one or more official languages, and the constitution recognises in particular 22 “scheduled languages”.

    The 2011 census reported the religion in India with the largest number of followers was Hinduism (79.80% of the population), followed by Islam (14.23%); the remaining were Christianity (2.30%), Sikhism (1.72%), Buddhism (0.70%), Jainism (0.36%) and others[m] (0.9%).[14] India has the third-largest Muslim population—the largest for a non-Muslim majority country.[361][362]

    Indian cultural history spans more than 4,500 years.[363] During the Vedic period (c. 1700 BCE – c. 500 BCE), the foundations of Hindu philosophy, mythology, theology and literature were laid, and many beliefs and practices which still exist today, such as dhárma, kárma, yóga, and mokṣa, were established.[63] India is notable for its religious diversity, with Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, Islam, Christianity, and Jainism among the nation’s major religions.[364] The predominant religion, Hinduism, has been shaped by various historical schools of thought, including those of the Upanishads,[365] the Yoga Sutras, the Bhakti movement,[364] and by Buddhist philosophy.[366]

    South Asia has an ancient tradition of art, which has exchanged influences with the parts of Eurasia. Seals from the third millennium BCE Indus Valley Civilization of Pakistan and northern India have been found, usually carved with animals, but a few with human figures. The “Pashupati” seal, excavated in Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan, in 1928–29, is the best known.[367][368] After this there is a long period with virtually nothing surviving.[368][369] Almost all surviving ancient Indian art thereafter is in various forms of religious sculpture in durable materials, or coins. There was probably originally far more in wood, which is lost. In north India Mauryan art is the first imperial movement.[370][371][372] In the first millennium CE, Buddhist art spread with Indian religions to Central, East and South-East Asia, the last also greatly influenced by Hindu art.[373] Over the following centuries a distinctly Indian style of sculpting the human figure developed, with less interest in articulating precise anatomy than ancient Greek sculpture but showing smoothly-flowing forms expressing prana (“breath” or life-force).[374][375] This is often complicated by the need to give figures multiple arms or heads, or represent different genders on the left and right of figures, as with the Ardhanarishvara form of Shiva and Parvati.[376][377]

    Most of the earliest large sculpture is Buddhist, either excavated from Buddhist stupas such as Sanchi, Sarnath and Amaravati,[378] or is rock-cut reliefs at sites such as Ajanta, Karla and Ellora. Hindu and Jain sites appear rather later.[379][380] In spite of this complex mixture of religious traditions, generally, the prevailing artistic style at any time and place has been shared by the major religious groups, and sculptors probably usually served all communities.[381] Gupta art, at its peak c. 300 CE – c. 500 CE, is often regarded as a classical period whose influence lingered for many centuries after; it saw a new dominance of Hindu sculpture, as at the Elephanta Caves.[382][383] Across the north, this became rather stiff and formulaic after c. 800 CE, though rich with finely carved detail in the surrounds of statues.[384] But in the South, under the Pallava and Chola dynasties, sculpture in both stone and bronze had a sustained period of great achievement; the large bronzes with Shiva as Nataraja have become an iconic symbol of India.[385][386]

    Ancient painting has only survived at a few sites, of which the crowded scenes of court life in the Ajanta Caves are by far the most important, but it was evidently highly developed, and is mentioned as a courtly accomplishment in Gupta times.[387][388] Painted manuscripts of religious texts survive from Eastern India about the 10th century onwards, most of the earliest being Buddhist and later Jain. No doubt the style of these was used in larger paintings.[389] The Persian-derived Deccan painting, starting just before the Mughal miniature, between them give the first large body of secular painting, with an emphasis on portraits, and the recording of princely pleasures and wars.[390][391] The style spread to Hindu courts, especially among the Rajputs, and developed a variety of styles, with the smaller courts often the most innovative, with figures such as Nihâl Chand and Nainsukh.[392][393] As a market developed among European residents, it was supplied by Company painting by Indian artists with considerable Western influence.[394][395] In the 19th century, cheap Kalighat paintings of gods and everyday life, done on paper, were urban folk art from Calcutta, which later saw the Bengal School of Art, reflecting the art colleges founded by the British, the first movement in modern Indian painting.[396][397]

    Bhutesvara Yakshis, Buddhist reliefs from Mathura, 2nd century CE

    Gupta terracotta relief, Krishna Killing the Horse Demon Keshi, 5th century

    Elephanta Caves, triple-bust (trimurti) of Shiva, 18 feet (5.5 m) tall, c. 550

    Jahangir Receives Prince Khurram at Ajmer on His Return from the Mewar Campaign, Balchand, c. 1635

    Krishna Fluting to the Milkmaids, Kangra painting, 1775–1785

    Much of Indian architecture, including the Taj Mahal, other works of Mughal architecture, and South Indian architecture, blends ancient local traditions with imported styles.[398] Vernacular architecture is also regional in its flavours. Vastu shastra, literally “science of construction” or “architecture” and ascribed to Mamuni Mayan,[399] explores how the laws of nature affect human dwellings;[400] it employs precise geometry and directional alignments to reflect perceived cosmic constructs.[401] As applied in Hindu temple architecture, it is influenced by the Shilpa Shastras, a series of foundational texts whose basic mythological form is the Vastu-Purusha mandala, a square that embodied the “absolute”.[402] The Taj Mahal, built in Agra between 1631 and 1648 by orders of Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife, has been described in the UNESCO World Heritage List as “the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world’s heritage”.[403] Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture, developed by the British in the late 19th century, drew on Indo-Islamic architecture.[404]

    The earliest literature in India, composed between 1500 BCE and 1200 CE, was in the Sanskrit language.[405] Major works of Sanskrit literature include the Rigveda (c. 1500 BCE – c. 1200 BCE), the epics: Mahābhārata ( c. 400 BCE – c. 400 CE) and the Ramayana ( c. 300 BCE and later); Abhijñānaśākuntalam (The Recognition of Śakuntalā, and other dramas of Kālidāsa ( c. 5th century CE) and Mahākāvya poetry.[406][407][408] In Tamil literature, the Sangam literature ( c. 600 BCE – c. 300 BCE) consisting of 2,381 poems, composed by 473 poets, is the earliest work.[409][410][411][412] From the 14th to the 18th centuries, India’s literary traditions went through a period of drastic change because of the emergence of devotional poets like Kabīr, Tulsīdās, and Guru Nānak. This period was characterised by a varied and wide spectrum of thought and expression; as a consequence, medieval Indian literary works differed significantly from classical traditions.[413] In the 19th century, Indian writers took a new interest in social questions and psychological descriptions. In the 20th century, Indian literature was influenced by the works of the Bengali poet, author and philosopher Rabindranath Tagore,[414] who was a recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature.

    Indian music ranges over various traditions and regional styles. Classical music encompasses two genres and their various folk offshoots: the northern Hindustani and southern Carnatic schools.[415] Regionalised popular forms include filmi and folk music; the syncretic tradition of the bauls is a well-known form of the latter. Indian dance also features diverse folk and classical forms. Among the better-known folk dances are: the bhangra of Punjab, the bihu of Assam, the Jhumair and chhau of Jharkhand, Odisha and West Bengal, garba and dandiya of Gujarat, ghoomar of Rajasthan, and the lavani of Maharashtra. Eight dance forms, many with narrative forms and mythological elements, have been accorded classical dance status by India’s National Academy of Music, Dance, and Drama. These are: bharatanatyam of the state of Tamil Nadu, kathak of Uttar Pradesh, kathakali and mohiniyattam of Kerala, kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh, manipuri of Manipur, odissi of Odisha, and the sattriya of Assam.[416]

    Theatre in India melds music, dance, and improvised or written dialogue.[417] Often based on Hindu mythology, but also borrowing from medieval romances or social and political events, Indian theatre includes: the bhavai of Gujarat, the jatra of West Bengal, the nautanki and ramlila of North India, tamasha of Maharashtra, burrakatha of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, terukkuttu of Tamil Nadu, and the yakshagana of Karnataka.[418] India has a theatre training institute the National School of Drama (NSD) that is situated at New Delhi It is an autonomous organisation under the Ministry of Culture, Government of India.[419]
    The Indian film industry produces the world’s most-watched cinema.[420] Established regional cinematic traditions exist in the Assamese, Bengali, Bhojpuri, Hindi, Kannada, Malayalam, Punjabi, Gujarati, Marathi, Odia, Tamil, and Telugu languages.[421] The Hindi language film industry (Bollywood) is the largest sector representing 43% of box office revenue, followed by the South Indian Telugu and Tamil film industries which represent 36% combined.[422]

    Television broadcasting began in India in 1959 as a state-run medium of communication and expanded slowly for more than two decades.[423][424] The state monopoly on television broadcast ended in the 1990s. Since then, satellite channels have increasingly shaped the popular culture of Indian society.[425] Today, television is the most penetrative media in India; industry estimates indicate that as of 2012[update] there are over 554 million TV consumers, 462 million with satellite or cable connections compared to other forms of mass media such as the press (350 million), radio (156 million) or internet (37 million).[426]

    Traditional Indian society is sometimes defined by social hierarchy. The Indian caste system embodies much of the social stratification and many of the social restrictions found on the Indian subcontinent. Social classes are defined by thousands of endogamous hereditary groups, often termed as jātis, or “castes”.[427] India declared untouchability to be illegal[428] in 1947 and has since enacted other anti-discriminatory laws and social welfare initiatives.

    Family values are important in the Indian tradition, and multi-generational patrilineal joint families have been the norm in India, though nuclear families are becoming common in urban areas.[429] An overwhelming majority of Indians, with their consent, have their marriages arranged by their parents or other family elders.[430] Marriage is thought to be for life,[430] and the divorce rate is extremely low,[431] with less than one in a thousand marriages ending in divorce.[432] Child marriages are common, especially in rural areas; many women wed before reaching 18, which is their legal marriageable age.[433] Female infanticide in India, and lately female foeticide, have created skewed gender ratios; the number of missing women in the country quadrupled from 15 million to 63 million in the 50-year period ending in 2014, faster than the population growth during the same period, and constituting 20 percent of India’s female electorate.[434] Accord to an Indian government study, an additional 21 million girls are unwanted and do not receive adequate care.[435] Despite a government ban on sex-selective foeticide, the practice remains commonplace in India, the result of a preference for boys in a patriarchal society.[436] The payment of dowry, although illegal, remains widespread across class lines.[437] Deaths resulting from dowry, mostly from bride burning, are on the rise, despite stringent anti-dowry laws.[438]

    Many Indian festivals are religious in origin. The best known include: Diwali, Ganesh Chaturthi, Thai Pongal, Holi, Durga Puja, Eid ul-Fitr, Bakr-Id, Christmas, and Vaisakhi.[439][440]

    In the 2011 census, about 73% of the population was literate, with 81% for men and 65% for women. This compares to 1981 when the respective rates were 41%, 53% and 29%. In 1951 the rates were 18%, 27% and 9%. In 1921 the rates 7%, 12% and 2%. In 1891 they were 5%, 9% and 1%,[441][442] According to Latika Chaudhary, in 1911 there were under three primary schools for every ten villages. Statistically, more caste and religious diversity reduced private spending. Primary schools taught literacy, so local diversity limited its growth.[443]

    Education system of India is the world’s second largest higher education System.[444] India had over 900 universities, 40,000 colleges[445] and 1.5 million schools.[446] In India’s higher education system, a significant number of seats are reserved under affirmative action policies for the historically disadvantaged. In recent decades India’s improved education system is often cited as one of the main contributors to its economic development.[447][448]

    From ancient times until the advent of the modern, the most widely worn traditional dress in India was draped.[449] For women it took the form of a sari, a single piece of cloth many yards long.[449] The sari was traditionally wrapped around the lower body and the shoulder.[449] In its modern form, it is combined with an underskirt, or Indian petticoat, and tucked in the waist band for more secure fastening. It is also commonly worn with an Indian blouse, or choli, which serves as the primary upper-body garment, the sari’s end—passing over the shoulder—serving to cover the midriff and obscure the upper body’s contours.[449] For men, a similar but shorter length of cloth, the dhoti, has served as a lower-body garment.[450]

    The use of stitched clothes became widespread after Muslim rule was established at first by the Delhi sultanate (ca 1300 CE) and then continued by the Mughal Empire (ca 1525 CE).[451] Among the garments introduced during this time and still commonly worn are: the shalwars and pyjamas, both styles of trousers, and the tunics kurta and kameez.[451] In southern India, the traditional draped garments were to see much longer continuous use.[451]

    Shalwars are atypically wide at the waist but narrow to a cuffed bottom. They are held up by a drawstring, which causes them to become pleated around the waist.[452] The pants can be wide and baggy, or they can be cut quite narrow, on the bias, in which case they are called churidars. When they are ordinarily wide at the waist and their bottoms are hemmed but not cuffed, they are called pyjamas. The kameez is a long shirt or tunic,[453] its side seams left open below the waist-line.[454] The kurta is traditionally collarless and made of cotton or silk; it is worn plain or with embroidered decoration, such as chikan; and typically falls to either just above or just below the wearer’s knees.[455]

    In the last 50 years, fashions have changed a great deal in India. Increasingly, in urban northern India, the sari is no longer the apparel of everyday wear, though they remain popular on formal occasions.[456] The traditional shalwar kameez is rarely worn by younger urban women, who favour churidars or jeans.[456] In white-collar office settings, ubiquitous air conditioning allows men to wear sports jackets year-round.[456] For weddings and formal occasions, men in the middle- and upper classes often wear bandgala, or short Nehru jackets, with pants, with the groom and his groomsmen sporting sherwanis and churidars.[456] The dhoti, once the universal garment of Hindu males, the wearing of which in the homespun and handwoven khadi allowed Gandhi to bring Indian nationalism to the millions,[457]
    is seldom seen in the cities.[456]

    The foundation of a typical Indian meal is a cereal cooked in a plain fashion and complemented with flavourful savoury dishes.[458] The cooked cereal could be steamed rice; chapati, a thin unleavened bread made from wheat flour, or occasionally cornmeal, and griddle-cooked dry;[459] the idli, a steamed breakfast cake, or dosa, a griddled pancake, both leavened and made from a batter of rice- and gram meal.[460] The savoury dishes might include lentils, pulses and vegetables commonly spiced with ginger and garlic, but also with a combination of spices that may include coriander, cumin, turmeric, cinnamon, cardamon and others as informed by culinary conventions.[458] They might also include poultry, fish, or meat dishes. In some instances, the ingredients might be mixed during the process of cooking.[461]

    A platter, or thali, used for eating usually has a central place reserved for the cooked cereal, and peripheral ones for the flavourful accompaniments, which are often served in small bowls. The cereal and its accompaniments are eaten simultaneously rather than a piecemeal manner. This is accomplished by mixing—for example of rice and lentils—or folding, wrapping, scooping or dipping—such as chapati and cooked vegetables or lentils.[458]

    India has distinctive vegetarian cuisines, each a feature of the geographical and cultural histories of its adherents.[463] The appearance of ahimsa, or the avoidance of violence toward all forms of life in many religious orders early in Indian history, especially Upanishadic Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism, is thought to have contributed to the predominance of vegetarianism among a large segment of India’s Hindu population, especially in southern India, Gujarat, the Hindi-speaking belt of north-central India, as well as among Jains.[463] Although meat is eaten widely in India, the proportional consumption of meat in the overall diet is low.[464] Unlike China, which has increased its per capita meat consumption substantially in its years of increased economic growth, in India the strong dietary traditions have contributed to dairy, rather than meat, becoming the preferred form of animal protein consumption.[465]

    The most significant import of cooking techniques into India during the last millennium occurred during the Mughal Empire. Dishes such as the pilaf,[466] developed in the Abbasid caliphate,[467] and cooking techniques such as the marinating of meat in yogurt, spread into northern India from regions to its northwest.[468] In the food served in Indian restaurants worldwide the diversity of Indian food has been partially concealed by the dominance of Punjabi cuisine. The popularity of tandoori chicken—cooked in the tandoor oven, which had traditionally been used for baking bread in the rural Punjab and the Delhi region, especially among Muslims, but which is originally from Central Asia—dates to the 1950s, and was caused in large part by an entrepreneurial response among people from the Punjab who had been displaced by the 1947 partition of India.[463]

    Cricket is the most popular sport in India.[469] Major domestic competitions include the Indian Premier League, which is the most-watched cricket league in the world and ranks sixth among all sports leagues.[470]

    Several traditional indigenous sports remain fairly popular, such as kabaddi, kho kho, pehlwani and gilli-danda. Some of the earliest forms of Asian martial arts, such as Kalarippayattu, musti yuddha, silambam, and marma adi, originated in India. Chess, commonly held to have originated in India as chaturaṅga, is regaining widespread popularity with the rise in the number of Indian grandmasters.[471][472] Pachisi, from which parcheesi derives, was played on a giant marble court by Akbar.[473]

    The improved results garnered by the Indian Davis Cup team and other Indian tennis players in the early 2010s have made tennis increasingly popular in the country.[474] India has a comparatively strong presence in shooting sports, and has won several medals at the Olympics, the World Shooting Championships, and the Commonwealth Games.[475][476] Other sports in which Indians have succeeded internationally include badminton[477] (Saina Nehwal and P V Sindhu are two of the top-ranked female badminton players in the world), boxing,[478] and wrestling.[479] Football is popular in West Bengal, Goa, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and the north-eastern states.[480]

    India has hosted or co-hosted several international sporting events: the 1951 and 1982 Asian Games; the 1987, 1996, and 2011 Cricket World Cup tournaments; the 2003 Afro-Asian Games; the 2006 ICC Champions Trophy; the 2009 World Badminton Championships; the 2010 Hockey World Cup; the 2010 Commonwealth Games; and the [2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup. Major international sporting events held annually in India include the Maharashtra Open, the Mumbai Marathon, the Delhi Half Marathon, and the Indian Masters. The first Formula 1 Indian Grand Prix featured in late 2011 but has been discontinued from the F1 season calendar since 2014.[482] India has traditionally been the dominant country at the South Asian Games. An example of this dominance is the basketball competition where the Indian team won three out of four tournaments to date.[483]







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    Andhra Pradesh (English: /ˌɑːndrə prəˈdɛʃ/;[12] Telugu: [ãːndʱrʌ prʌdeːɕ] listen (help·info)) is a state in the south-eastern coastal region of India.[13] It is the seventh-largest state by area covering an area of 162,975 km2 (62,925 sq mi)[6] and tenth-most populous state with 49,386,799 inhabitants.[14][15] It is bordered by Telangana to the north-west, Chhattisgarh to the north, Odisha to the north-east, Tamil Nadu to the south, Karnataka to the west and the Bay of Bengal to the east.[16] It has the second longest coastline in India after Gujarat, of about 974 km (605 mi).[17] Andhra Pradesh is the first state to be formed on a linguistic basis in India on 1 October 1953.[18] The state was once a major Buddhist pilgrimage site in the country and a Buddhist learning center which can be seen in many sites in the state in the form of ruins, chaityas and stupas[19][20] It is also known as the land of the world-famous diamond Koh-i-Noor and many other globally known diamonds due to their source in its Kollur Mine.[21] It is also known as the “rice bowl of India” for being a major producer of rice in India.[22] Its official language is Telugu; one of the classical languages of India, the fourth most spoken language in India and the 11th-most spoken language in the world.[23][24]

    Early inhabitants were known as the Andhras, tracing their history to the Vedic period when they were mentioned in the 8th century BCE Rigvedic text Aitareya Brahmana. According to the Aitareya Brahmana, the Andhras left North India from the banks of river Yamuna and migrated to South India.[25][26] The Assaka Mahajanapada (700–300 BCE) was an ancient kingdom located between the Godavari and Krishna rivers in southeastern India accounts that people in the region are descended from the Viswamitra are found in the Ramayana, the Mahabharata and the Puranas.[27][clarification needed] The region also derives its name from Satavahanas who are also known as Andhras, the earliest kings of Andhra Pradesh and India.[28] Early peoples supported local art culture by building temples and sculptures of the Buddhist monuments in the state.[25] It was ruled by Mauryan Empire, Satavahana dynasty, Salankayanas, Andhra Ikshvakus, Pallavas, Vishnukundinas, Eastern Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Cholas, Kakatiyas, Vijayanagara Empire, Gajapati Empire, Mughal Empire, Deccan sultanates, Qutb Shahi dynasty, and Asaf Jahis. In the 3rd century BCE, Andhra was a vassal kingdom of Ashoka but after his death Andhra became powerful and extended its empire to the whole of Maratha country and beyond.[29]

    Andhra Pradesh comprises two major regions, namely Rayalaseema in the south-west and Coastal Andhra bordering the Bay of Bengal in the east and north-east.[30] The state has thirteen districts, nine located in Coastal Andhra and four in Rayalaseema. The state also has a union territory, Yanam – a district of Puducherry which lies to the south of Kakinada in the Godavari delta on the eastern side of the state. It is the only state with three capitals (proposed). The largest city and commercial hub of the state, Visakhapatnam being the executive capital while Amaravati and Kurnool are legislative and judicial capitals, respectively.[a][31] The economy of Andhra Pradesh is the 8th largest in India, with a gross state domestic product (GSDP) of ₹9.71 trillion (US$130 billion) and has the country’s 17th-highest GSDP per capita of ₹168,000 (US$2,200).[8] Andhra Pradesh ranks 27th among Indian states in Human Development Index (HDI).[9] It has a jurisdiction over almost 15,000 square kilometres (5,800 sq mi) of territorial waters.[6][32]

    Andhra Pradesh hosted 121.8 million visitors in 2015, a 30% growth in tourist arrivals over the previous year, making it the third most-visited state in India.[33] The Tirumala Venkateswara Temple in Tirupati is one of the world’s most visited religious sites, with 18.25 million visitors per year.[34] The region is also home to a variety of other pilgrimage centres, such as the Pancharama Kshetras, Mallikarjuna Jyotirlinga and Kodanda Rama Temple. The state’s natural attractions include the beaches of Visakhapatnam, hill stations such as the Araku Valley and Horsley Hills, and the deltas of Konaseema in the Godavari river, and Diviseema in the Krishna river.

    tirunagari caste

    A group of people named Andhras was mentioned in Sanskrit texts such as Aitareya Brahmana (800–500 BCE). According to Aitareya Brahmana of the Rig Veda, the Andhras left north India from banks of River Yamuna and settled in south India.[35][36][37] The Satavahanas have been mentioned by the names Andhra, Andhrara-jateeya and Andhrabhrtya in the Puranic literature.[38][39] They did not refer themselves as Andhra in any of their coins or inscriptions; it is possible that they were termed as Andhras because of their ethnicity or because their territory included the Andhra region.[40][41][42]

    The Assaka Mahajanapada, one of the sixteen Vedic Mahajanapadas, included Andhra, Maharashtra and Telangana.[43] Archaeological evidence from places such as Amaravati, Dharanikota, and Vaddamanu suggests that the Andhra region was part of the Mauryan Empire. Amaravati might have been a regional centre for the Mauryan rule. After the death of Emperor Ashoka, Mauryan rule weakened around 200 BCE and was replaced by several smaller kingdoms in the Andhra region.[44]

    The Satavahana dynasty dominated the Deccan region from the 1st century BCE to the 3rd century CE.[45] The later Satavahanas made Dharanikota and Amaravathi their capital, which according to the Buddhists is the place where Nagarjuna, the philosopher of Mahayana lived in the 2nd and 3rd centuries.[46] The Andhra Ikshvakus, with their capital at Vijayapuri, succeeded the Satavahanas in the Krishna River valley in the latter half of the 2nd century.[47] Pallavas, who were originally executive officers under the Satavahana kings, were not a recognised political power before the 2nd century CE and were swept away by the Western Chalukyan invasion, led by Pulakesin II in the first quarter of the 7th century CE.[48] After the downfall of the Ikshvakus, the Vishnukundinas were the first great dynasty in the 5th and 6th centuries, and held sway over the entire Andhra country, including Kalinga and parts of Telangana. They played an important role in the history of Deccan during the 5th and 6th century CE, with Eluru, Amaravathi and Puranisangam.[49]

    The Salankayanas were an ancient dynasty that ruled the Andhra region between Godavari and Krishna with their capital at Vengi (modern Pedavegi) from 300 to 440 CE.[50] The Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi, whose dynasty lasted for around five hundred years from the 7th century until 1130 CE, eventually merged with the Chola dynasty. They continued to rule under the protection of the Chola dynasty until 1189 CE when the kingdom succumbed to the Hoysalas and the Yadavas.[51] The roots of the Telugu language have been seen on inscriptions found near the Guntur district and from others dating to the rule of Renati Cholas in the fifth century CE.[52][53]

    Kayastha chiefs descended from North Indian Kayasthas ruled over vast swathes of land in Andhra country, and they are recorded in Andhra history dating back to the 13th century CE.[54] Kakatiyas ruled Andhra Pradesh state for nearly two hundred years and constructed several forts. They were succeeded by the Musunuri Nayaks. Musunuri Nayaks led a confederation of Nayakas to overthrow the rule of the Delhi Sultanate in Telugu lands.[55]

    The Reddi kingdom (1325–1448 CE) was established by Prolaya Vema Reddi in the early 14th century, who ruled from present day Kondaveedu. Prolaya Vema Reddi was part of the confederation of states that started a movement against the invading Turkic Muslim armies of the Delhi Sultanate. They constructed Kondaveedu Fort[citation needed], which they ruled between 1328 and 1428, before it was taken over by the Gajpathis of Orissa, and later ravaged by the Muslim rulers of the Bahmani kingdom in 1458. The Vijayanagara emperor Krishnadevaraya captured it in 1516. The Golconda Sultans fought for the fort in 1531, 1536 and 1579, and Sultan Quli Qutb Shah captured it in 1579, renaming it Murtuzanagar. It was reconquered by Vijayanagara who overthrew sultanate rule across the entirety of modern-day Andhra Pradesh (excluding Telangana). After this rebellion, the Bahmani sultans launched no further military campaigns outside their kingdoms, because the Maratha empire soon emerged as the strongest power in India.[56][57][58] Efforts are in progress to classify Kondaveedu Fort as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[59]

  • why did abby leave ncis
  • The Vijayanagara Empire originated in the Deccan Plateau region in the early 14th century. It was established in 1336 by Harihara Raya I and his brother Bukka Raya I of the Sangama Dynasty.[60][61] The empire’s patronage enabled fine arts and literature to reach new heights in Kannada, Telugu, Tamil, and Sanskrit, while Carnatic music evolved into its current form.[62] During the Vijayanagara Empire, the Pemmasani Nayaks controlled parts of Andhra Pradesh and had large mercenary armies that were the vanguard of the Vijayanagara Empire in the sixteenth century.[63] The Lepakshi group of monuments are culturally and archaeologically significant as it is the location of shrines dedicated to Shiva, Vishnu, and Veerabhadra which were built during the Vijayanagara Kings’ period (1336–1646). The temples are the location of mural paintings of the Vijayanagara kings, Dravidian art, and inscriptions. Near the temple complex is a large granite Nandi bull. On a hillock known as Kurma Saila (‘tortoise-shaped hill’) are other temples to Papanatheswara, Raghunatha, Srirama, and Durga.[64][65]

    The Government of Andhra Pradesh has taken the initiative for including the “Lepakshi Group of Monuments” among the UNESCO World Heritage sites in India.[66][67]

    Harihara and Bukka, who served as treasury officers of the Kakatiyas of Warangal, founded the Vijayanagara Empire.[68] In 1347 CE, an independent Muslim state, the Bahmani Sultanate, was established in south India by Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah in a revolt against the Delhi Sultanate. The Qutb Shahi dynasty held sway over the Andhra country after the resolution of Vijayanagar empire by joint action of Mughals, Bijapur and Golconda sultanates.[69]

    In the early nineteenth century, Northern Circars was ceded to the British East India Company and became part of the Madras Presidency. Eventually, this region emerged as the Coastal Andhra region. Later the Nizam rulers of Hyderabad ceded five territories to the British that eventually became the Rayalaseema region. The Nizams retained control of the interior provinces as the princely state of Hyderabad, acknowledging British rule in return for local autonomy. However, Komaram Bheem, a tribal leader, started his fight against the erstwhile Asaf Jahi Dynasty for the liberation of Hyderabad State.[70] Meanwhile, the French occupied Yanam, in the Godavari delta, and (save for periods of British control) would hold it until 1954. In 1947, Vizianagaram was the largest Hindu princely state in Andhra Pradesh.

    India became independent from the United Kingdom in 1947. The Nizam wanted to retain the independence of the Princely Hyderabad State from India, but the people of the region launched a movement to join the Indian Union. The state of Hyderabad was integrated into the Indian Union with Operation Polo in 1948.[71]

    In an effort to gain an independent state based on linguistic identity, and to protect the interests of the Telugu-speaking people of Madras State, Potti Sreeramulu fasted to death in 1952. As Madras became a bone of contention, in 1949 a JVP committee report stated: “Andhra Province could be formed provided the Andhras give up their claim on the city of Madras [now Chennai]”. After Potti Sreeramulu’s death, the Telugu-speaking area of Andhra State was carved out of Madras State on 1 October 1953, with Kurnool as its capital city.[72] On the basis of the gentlemen’s agreement of 1 November 1956, the States Reorganisation Act formed combined Andhra Pradesh by merging Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking areas of the already existing Hyderabad State.[73] Hyderabad was made the capital of the new state. The Marathi-speaking areas of Hyderabad State merged with Bombay State and the Kannada-speaking areas were merged with Mysore State.

    In February 2014, the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 bill was passed by the Parliament of India for the formation of the Telangana state comprising ten districts. Hyderabad will remain as a joint capital for not exceeding ten years.[74] The new state of Telangana came into existence on 2 June 2014 after approval from the President of India.[75] Number of petitions questioning the validity of Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 is long pending for the verdict since April 2014 before the Supreme Court constitutional bench.[76]

    In 2017, Andhra Pradesh Government began operating from the newly planned capital city Amaravati.[77][78] In August 2020, Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly passed Andhra Pradesh Decentralisation and Inclusive Development of All Regions Act, 2020. According to its provisions, Visakhapatnam is the executive capital while Amaravati and Kurnool serve as legislative and judicial capitals, respectively.[31] The decision resulted in widespread protests by the farmers of Amaravati.[79] The act has been challenged in Andhra Pradesh High Court, which ordered to maintain status quo until the court completes its hearing.[2]

    Andhra Pradesh topographical map

    Map of Andhra Pradesh

    Krishna River at Srisailam

    The state has varied topography ranging from the hills of Eastern Ghats and Nallamala Hills to the shores of Bay of Bengal that support varied ecosystems, the rich diversity of flora and fauna. There are two main rivers namely, Krishna and Godavari, that flow through the state. The coastline of the state extends along the Bay of Bengal from Srikakulam to Nellore district with a length of 975 km (606 mi).[80] The plains to the east of Eastern Ghats form the Eastern Coastal plains. The coastal plains are for the most part of delta regions formed by the Godavari, Krishna, and Penna rivers. The Eastern Ghats are discontinuous and individual sections have local names. The Eastern Ghats are a major dividing line in the state’s geography. The Kadapa Basin[81][82][better source needed] formed by two arching branches of the Eastern Ghats is a mineral-rich area. The Ghats become more pronounced towards the south and extreme north of the coast. Most of the coastal plains are put to intense agricultural use. The Rayalaseema region has semi-arid conditions.

    The Andhra Pradesh Forest Department deals with protection, conservation and management of forests. The total forest cover of the state after the bifurcation is left with an area of 22,862 square kilometres (8,827 sq mi).[83] The forest in the state can be broadly divided into four major biotic provinces.[84] They are:

    Eastern Ghats region is home to dense tropical forests, while the vegetation becomes sparse as the Ghats give way to the Deccan Plateau, where shrub vegetation is more common. The vegetation found in the state is largely of dry deciduous types with a mixture of teak, Terminalia, Dalbergia, Pterocarpus, Anogeissus, etc.

    The state has many sanctuaries, national parks and zoological parks, such as Coringa, Krishna Wildlife Sanctuary, Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve, Kambalakonda Wildlife Sanctuary, Sri Venkateswara Zoological Park and Indira Gandhi Zoological Park. Atapaka Bird Sanctuary, Nelapattu Bird Sanctuary, Telineelapuram and Telukunchi Bird Sanctuaries and Pulicat Lake Bird Sanctuary attract many migratory birds.[85] The state possesses some rare and endemic plants like Cycas beddomei, Pterocarpus santalinus, Terminalia pallida, Syzygium alternifolium, Shorea talura, Shorea tumburgia, Psilotum nudum, etc.[84] The diversity of fauna includes tigers, panthers, hyenas, black bucks, cheetals, sambars, sea turtles and a number of birds and reptiles. The estuaries of the Godavari and Krishna rivers support rich mangrove forests with fishing cats and otters as keystone species.[84]

    The climate of Andhra Pradesh varies considerably, depending on the geographical region. Summers last from March to June. In the coastal plain, the summer temperatures are generally higher than the rest of the state, with temperature ranging between 20 and 41 °C (68 and 106 °F). July to September is the season for tropical rains. About one-third of the total rainfall is brought by the northeast monsoon. October and November see low-pressure systems and tropical cyclones form in the Bay of Bengal which, along with the northeast monsoon, bring rains to the southern and coastal regions of the state.

    November, December, January, and February are the winter months in Andhra Pradesh. Since the state has a long coastal belt the winters are not very cold. The range of winter temperature is generally 12 to 30 °C (54 to 86 °F). Lambasingi in Visakhapatnam district is also nicknamed as the “Kashmir of Andhra Pradesh” due to its relatively cool climate as compared to others and the temperature ranges from 0 to 10 °C (32 to 50 °F).[86][87]

    As of 2011[update] Census of India, the residual state had a population of 49,386,799 with a population density of 308/km2 (800/sq mi). According to the Polavaram ordinance bill 2014, 7 mandals of Khammam district in Telangana state merged with Andhra Pradesh to facilitate Polavaram project, due to which population of 247,515 added to Andhra Pradesh. Thus the final population of Andhra Pradesh in the year 2014, as per census 2011 is 49,634,314, with a density of 304.5/km2 (789/sq mi).

    The total population constitute, 70.4% of rural population with 34,776,389 inhabitants and 29.6% of urban population with 14,610,410 inhabitants. Children in the age group of 0–6 years are 5,222,384, constituting 10.6% of the total population, among them 2,686,453 are boys and 2,535,931 are girls. Visakhapatnam district has the largest urban population of 47.5% and Srikakulam district with 83.8%, has the largest rural population, among others districts in the state. The overall population of the state comprises 17.1% of Scheduled Caste and 5.3% of Scheduled Tribe population.[6]

    There are 24,738,068 male and 24,648,731 female citizens—a sex ratio of 996 females per 1000 males, higher than the national average of 926 per 1000. The literacy rate of the state stands at 67.41%. However, post bifurcation from Telangana, the state is expected to reach 91.1% by 2021.[88] West Godavari district has the highest literacy rate of 74.6% and Vizianagaram district has the least with 58.9%.[7][89]

    Andhra Pradesh ranks tenth of all Indian States in the Human Development Index scores[90] with a score of 0.416. The National Council of Applied Economic Research district analysis in 2001 reveals that Krishna, West Godavari and Chittoor are the three districts in rural AP with the highest Human Development Index scores in ascending order.

    Languages of Andhra Pradesh, excluding Telangana (Mandals transferred to Andhra Pradesh in 2014 were counted in Andhra Pradesh) (2011)[92]

    Telugu is the official language of Andhra Pradesh, which is also the mother tongue of nearly 90% of the population.[92][93][94] The Minister of Tourism and Culture has declared Telugu a Classical Language.[95]

    Urdu is the largest minority language.[92] Tamil, Kannada and Odia are also spoken mainly in the border-areas. Lambadi, Koya, Savara, Konda, Gadaba and a number of other languages are spoken by the Scheduled Tribes of the state.[96]

    Religion in Andhra Pradesh (excluding Telangana)[97]

    The majority of the people in Andhra Pradesh are Hindus while Muslims constitute a sizeable minority. According to the 2011 census, the major religious groups in the state are Hindus (90.87%), Muslims (7.32%) and Christians (1.38%). Buddhists, Sikhs, Jains and the people who declined to state their religion make up the remaining portion of population.[97]

    Srikalahasti Temple

    Venkateswara Temple, Tirumala

    Rock-cut Buddha statue at Bojjannakonda near Anakapalle, Visakhapatnam.

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    Venkateswara Temple at Tirupati is the world’s second-richest temple and is visited by millions of devotees throughout the year. Andhra Pradesh is home to Shankaracharya of Pushpagiri Peetham. Other Hindu saints include Sadasiva Brahmendra, Bhaktha Kannappa, Yogi Vemana, Sathya Sai Baba and Pothuluru Veerabrahmendra.[98]

    Buddhism spread to Andhra Pradesh early in its history. The Krishna river valley was “a site of extraordinary Buddhist activity for almost a thousand years.”[99] The ancient Buddhist sites in the lower Krishna valley, including Amaravati, Nagarjunakonda and Jaggayyapeta “can be traced to at least the third century BCE, if not earlier.”[100]

    The region played a central role in the development of Mahayana Buddhism, along with the Magadha-area in northeastern India.[101][102] A. K. Warder holds that “the Mahāyāna originated in the south of India and almost certainly in the Andhra country.”[103] According to Xing, “Several scholars have suggested that the Prajnaparamita probably developed among the Mahasamghikas in Southern India probably in the Andhra country, on the Krishna River.”[104] The Prajñāpāramitā Sutras belong to the earliest Mahayana Sutras.[105][106]

    Andhra Pradesh comprises three regions: Coastal Andhra, Uttarandhra and Rayalaseema.

    It has a total of 13 districts, six in Coastal Andhra region, three in Uttarandhra and four in the Rayalaseema region.

    Coastal Andhra Region :

    Uttarandhra Region :

    Rayalaseema Region :

    These 13 districts are further divided into 51 revenue divisions. There are as many as 7 revenue divisions in East Godavari, and only 2 in Vizianagaram district.[6][108]

    The 51 revenue divisions are in turn divided into 671 mandals.[c] Chittoor district has the most mandals with 66 and Vizianagaram has the least with 34.[110]

    There are a total of 31 cities which include, 16 municipal corporations and 14 municipalities. There are two cities with more than one million inhabitants, namely Visakhapatnam and Vijayawada.

    When the state was first created, Tanguturi Prakasam Pantulu, became the Chief Minister. After the unification with Telangana, Neelam Sanjiva Reddy became the first Chief Minister. He later served as the President of India.[111][112]

    The Indian National Congress (INC), the Praja Socialist Party and the Krishi Lok Party were the major parties in the 1950s. Later the Communist Party of India (CPI) became the dominant opposition party. In the 1967 state assembly elections, all socialist parties were eliminated and the CPI lost opposition party status.

    The INC ruled the state from 1956 to 1982. In 1983, the Telugu Desam Party (TDP) won the state elections and N. T. Rama Rao became the Chief Minister of the state for the first time. This broke the long-time single party monopoly enjoyed by the INC. The 1989 elections ended the rule of Rao, with the INC returning to power with Marri Chenna Reddy at the helm. He was replaced by Janardhan Reddy in 1990, who was replaced by Kotla Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy in 1992.

    In 1994, Andhra Pradesh gave a mandate to the Telugu Desam Party again, and Rao became the Chief Minister again. Nara Chandrababu Naidu, Rao’s son-in-law, came to power in 1995 with the backing of a majority of the MLAs. The Telugu Desam Party won both the assembly and Lok Sabha election in 1999 under the leadership of Chandrababu Naidu. Thus Naidu held the record for the longest-serving Chief Minister (1995 to 2004).[113]

    In 2004, Congress returned to power with a new chief ministerial face, YS Rajashekara Reddy, better known as YSR. He also won the 2009 elections, but shortly afterward was killed in a helicopter crash in September of that year. He was succeeded by two other Congressmen, namely Konijeti Rosaiah and Nallari Kiran Kumar Reddy, the last resigning over the impending division of Telangana.

    In the last elections held in the unified state in 2014, the TDP got a mandate in their favour in the residuary (new) state. After Telangana became a separate state, Naidu, the chief of the TDP became the Chief Minister on 8 June 2014, for the new state of Andhra Pradesh.[114]

    As of 2014, the Legislative Assembly of Andhra Pradesh is the lower house of the state with 175 members and the Legislative Council is the upper house with 58 members. In the Parliament of India, Andhra Pradesh has 11 seats in the Rajya Sabha, and 25 seats in the Lok Sabha.[115] There are a total of 175 Assembly constituencies in the state. East Godavari district has the highest number of constituencies with 19 and Vizianagaram district has the least with 9 assembly seats.[116] Whereas, the legislative council of the state has 58 seats, which is one-third of total assembly seats.[117]

    In the 2019 elections, YSR’s son Y. S. Jaganmohan Reddy of the YSR Congress Party (founded in 2011) became the Chief Minister with a resounding mandate by winning 151 out of 175 seats.

    Andhra Pradesh was ranked eighth among other Indian states in terms of GSDP for the financial year 2014–2015. The GSDP at current prices was ₹5,200.3 billion (US$69 billion) and at constant prices was ₹2,645.21 billion (US$35 billion).[118] The domestic product of agriculture sector accounts for ₹545.99 billion (US$7.3 billion) and industrial sector for ₹507.45 billion (US$6.7 billion). The service sector of the state accounts more percentage of the GSDP with a total of ₹1,305.87 billion (US$17 billion).[119] In the 2010 list by Forbes magazine, several people from Andhra Pradesh were among the top 100 richest Indians.[120]

    Lush green farms in Konaseema, East Godavari

    Map of Sugar industries in Andhra Pradesh

    Andhra Pradesh’s economy is mainly based on agriculture and livestock. Four important rivers of India, the Godavari, Krishna, Penna, and Tungabhadra flow through the state and provide irrigation. 60 percent of the population is engaged in agriculture and related activities. Rice is the major food crop and staple food of the state. It is an exporter of many agricultural products and is also known as “Rice Bowl of India”.[121][122] The state has three Agricultural Economic Zones in Chittoor district for mango pulp and vegetables, Krishna district for mangoes, Guntur district for chilies.[123]

    Besides rice, farmers also grow jowar, bajra, maize, minor millet, coarse grain, many varieties of pulses, oil seeds, sugarcane, cotton, chili pepper, mango nuts and tobacco. Crops used for vegetable oil production such as sunflower and peanuts are popular. There are many multi-state irrigation projects under development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects and Nagarjuna Sagar Dam.[124]

    Livestock and poultry is also another profitable business, which involves rearing cattle in enclosed areas for commercial purposes. The state is also a largest producer of eggs in the country and hence, it is nicknamed as “Egg Bowl of Asia”.[125][126]

    Fisheries contribute 10% of total fish and over 70% of the shrimp production[127] of India. The geographical location of the state allows marine fishing as well as inland fish production. The most exported marine exports include Vannamei shrimp[128]

    Andhra Pradesh is investing in building infrastructure in the state such as highways and making every service of the government digital. National Highway 16 passes through Andhra Pradesh. The highways in the state are also being widened. APSFL is an initiative of the government of Andhra Pradesh to set up an optical fiber network throughout the thirteen districts of Andhra Pradesh. This network provides internet connectivity, telephony and IPTV with fiber to private and corporate users of Andhra Pradesh.[129] The state also has seaports such as Visakhapatnam Port, Kakinada Port, Krishnapatnam Port for import and export and a shipyard for building ships at Visakhapatnam. Major airports in the state are Visakhapatnam, Rajahmundry, Vijayawada, with Visakhapatnam, Tirupati and Vijayawada being international airports.

    The industrial sector of the state includes some of the key sectors like pharmaceutical, automobile, textiles etc. Sricity located in Chittoor district is an integrated business city which is home to firms including PepsiCo, Isuzu Motors, Cadbury India, Kellogg’s, Colgate-Palmolive, Kobelco etc.[130] The PepsiCo firm has its largest plant in India at Sri City.[131] The state is also emerging as destination for the automobile industry which already hosts companies including Ashok Leyland in Krishna district, Hero Motors in Chittoor district, Kia Motors in Anantapur district.

    The state is also emerging in information technology and biotechnology. The IT/ITES revenues of Visakhapatnam is at ₹14.45 billion (US$190 million) in 2012–2013. The development of IT in Tier-II and Tier-III cities like Vijayawada, Kakinada and Tirupati is also improving. In the fiscal year 2012–2013, Vijayawada’s IT/ITeS revenues were ₹1,153 million (US$15 million). Tirupati with ₹693 million (US$9.2 million) and Kakinada with ₹615 million (US$8.2 million) stand next.[132] For the benefit of state, that is, after separating Telangana from Andhra, people of Andhra protested for special status during January in 2017.[citation needed]

    Andhra Pradesh is one of the storehouses of mineral resources in India. Andhra Pradesh with varied geological formations, contain rich and variety of industrial minerals and building stones.[133]

    Andhra Pradesh is listed at the top in the deposit and production of mica in India. Minerals found in the state include limestone, reserves of oil and natural gas, manganese, asbestos, iron ore, ball clay, fire clay, gold diamonds, graphite, dolomite, quartz, tungsten, steatitic, feldspar, silica sand. It has about one-third of India’s limestone reserves and is known for large exclusive deposits of barytes and galaxy granite in the international market.[133]

    Mining is identified as one of the growth engines for the overall development of industry and infrastructure. The Tummalapalle Uranium mine in Andhra has confirmed 49,000 tonnes (48,000 long tons; 54,000 short tons) of ore and there are indications that it could hold reserves totaling three times its current size. 700 million tonnes (690,000,000 long tons; 770,000,000 short tons) of metal grade Bauxite deposits in proximity to Visakhapatnam Port.

    Reliance Industries struck nine trillion cubic feet of gas reserves in the KG basin, 150 km (93 mi) off the Andhra Pradesh coast near Kakinada. Discovery of a large quantity of natural gas in KG Basin is expected to provide rapid economic growth.[134] During 2016, nearly 3.8 trillion m3 (134 trillion cu ft) of methane hydrate deposits were explored in KG basin whose extraction was adequate to impart energy security for many decades to India.[135]

    The state is a pioneer nationwide in solar power generation. APGENCO is the power generating company owned by the state.[136] The state has become power surplus with excess power generation being exported to other states.[137] The state is abundantly endowed with solar power and high head PHES sites to convert the solar power available during the day time in to round the clock power supply.[138] PHES projects also has synergy with the lift irrigation projects in storing water available during the monsoon season and supplying to the uplands throughout the year. Ultimate water and energy requirements of the state can be fully met by the combination of cheap solar power, PHES and irrigation projects economically harnessing renewable energy without much damage to the environment.[139]

    Thermal (natural gas and coal based) and renewable power plants totaling to 21,000 MW were installed in the state by the year 2015. Local power plants of 9,600 MW capacity only are supplying electricity in the state, which includes Simhadri Super Thermal Power Station (2000 MW) of NTPC, Vizag Thermal Power Station (1040 MW), Rayalaseema Thermal Power Station (1650 MW), Sri Damodaram Sanjeevaiah Thermal Power Station (1600 MW), and Narla Tata Rao Thermal Power Plant (1760 MW). Hydel power plants have a capacity of 1671 MW.[140]

    Andhra Pradesh has rich culture and heritage.[141]

    Kuchipudi, the cultural dance recognized as the official dance form of the state of Andhra Pradesh, originated in the village of Kuchipudi in Krishna district. It entered the Guinness World Records for performing Mahabrinda Natyam with a total of 6,117 dancers in Vijayawada.[142]

    Andhra Pradesh has thirteen geographical indications in categories of agricultural handicrafts, foodstuff and textiles as per Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999.[143] It increased to fifteen with the addition of Banaganapalle Mangoes[144] and Bandar laddu.[145] The other GI tagged goods are, Bobbili Veena, Budithi Bell and Brass Craft, Dharmavaram Handloom Pattu Sarees and Paavadas, Guntur Sannam, Kondapalli Toys, Machilipatnam Kalamkari, Mangalagiri Sarees and Fabrics, Srikalahasti Kalamkari, Tirupati Laddu, Uppada Jamdani Sari and Venkatagiri Sari.[143]

    Machilipatnam and Srikalahasti Kalamkari are the two unique textile art forms practised in India.[146] There are also other notable handicrafts present in the state, like the soft limestone idol carvings of Durgi.[147] Etikoppaka in Visakhapatnam district is notable for its lac industry, producing lacquered wooden.[148][149]

    The state has many museums, which features a varied collection of ancient sculptures, paintings, idols, weapons, cutlery, and inscriptions, and religious artifacts such as the Amaravati Archaeological Museum,[150] Visakha Museum and Telugu Cultural Museum in Visakhapatnam displays the history of the pre-independence and the Victoria Jubilee Museum in Vijayawada with a large collection of artifacts.

    Nannayya, Tikkana and Yerrapragada form the trinity who translated the Sanskrit epic Mahabharata into Telugu language. Nannayya wrote the first treatise on Telugu grammar called Andhra Shabda Chintamani in Sanskrit, as there was no grammatical work in Telugu prior to that.[151] Pothana is the poet who composed the classic Srimad Maha Bhagavatamu, a Telugu translation of Sri Bhagavatam. Vemana is notable for his philosophical poems. The Vijayanagara emperor Krishnadevaraya wrote Amuktamalyada. Telugu literature after Kandukuri Veeresalingam is termed as Adhunika Telugu Sahityam (Modern Telugu literature). He is known as Gadya Tikkana and was the author of Telugu social novel, Satyavati Charitam. Jnanpith Award holders from the state include Viswanatha Satyanarayana. The Andhra Pradesh native and revolutionary poet Sri Sri brought new forms of expressionism into Telugu literature.[152]

    The print media in the state consists mainly of Telugu and English newspapers. Eenadu, Sakshi, Andhra Jyothi, and Tel.J.D.Patrika Vaartha all these are Telugu newspapers. English newspapers include Deccan Chronicle and The Hans India.[153][154]

    Many composers of Carnatic music like Annamacharya, Kshetrayya, and Bhadrachala Ramadas were of Telugu descent. Modern Carnatic music composers and singers like Ghantasala, Sujatha Puligella and M. Balamuralikrishna are also of Telugu descent. The Telugu film industry hosts many music composers and playback singers such as S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, P. Susheela, S. Janaki and P. B. Sreenivas. Folk songs are very important and popular in the many rural areas of the state. Forms such as the Burra katha and Poli are still performed today.[155] Harikathaa Kalakshepam (or Harikatha) involves the narration of a story, intermingled with various songs relating to the story. Harikatha was originated in Andhra.[156] Burra katha is an oral storytelling technique with the topic be either a Hindu mythological story or a contemporary social issue.[157] Rangasthalam is an Indian theatre in the Telugu language, based predominantly in Andhra Pradesh.[158] Gurajada Apparao wrote the play Kanyasulkam in 1892, often considered the greatest play in the Telugu language.[159] C. Pullaiah is cited as the father of Telugu theatre movement.[160][161]

    The Telugu film industry is largely based in Hyderabad and Visakhapatnam. The Telugu film culture (also known as “Tollywood”) is the second-largest film industry in India next to the Bollywood film industry.[162] Film producer D. Ramanaidu holds a Guinness Record for the most films produced by a person.[163] In the years 2005, 2006 and 2008, the Telugu film industry produced the largest number of films in India, exceeding the number of films produced in Bollywood.[164][165] The industry holds the Guinness World Record for the largest film production facility in the world.[166]

    Telugu people’s traditional sweet Pootharekulu originated from Atreyapuram village of East Godavari district.

    The state has several beaches in its coastal districts such as Rushikonda, Mypadu, Suryalanka etc.;[167] caves such as, Borra Caves,[168] Indian rock-cut architecture depicting Undavalli Caves[169] and the country’s second longest caves- the Belum Caves.[170] The valleys and hills include, Araku Valley, Horsley Hills, Papi Hills etc.[171] Arma Konda peak located in Visakhapatnam district is the highest peak in Eastern Ghats.

    The state is home to various religious pilgrim destinations such as, Tirumala Temple, Simhachalam Temple, Annavaram temple, Srisailam temple, Kanaka Durga Temple, Amaravati, Srikalahasti, Shahi Jamia Masjid in Adoni, Gunadala Church in Vijayawada, Buddhist centres at Amaravati, and Nagarjuna Konda.[172]

    The state is well connected to other states through road and rail networks. It is also connected to other countries by means of airways and seaports as well. With a long seacoast along the Bay of Bengal, it also has many ports for sea trade. The state has one of the largest railway junctions at Vijayawada and one of the largest seaports at Visakhapatnam.

    The state has a total road network of 53,403 km (33,183 mi), of which 6,401 km (3,977 mi) of National highways, 14,722 km (9,148 mi) of state highways and 32,280 km (20,060 mi) of district roads.[173] NH 16, with a highway network of around 1,000 km (620 mi) in the state, is a part of Golden Quadrilateral Project undertaken by National Highways Development Project. It also forms part of AH 45 which comes under the Asian Highway Network.

    The state government owned Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) is the major public bus transport, which runs thousands of buses connecting different parts of the state. Pandit Nehru Bus Station (PNBS) in Vijayawada is one of the largest bus terminals in Asia.[174] From 30 January 2019, all the vehicles in the state are registered as AP–39, followed by an alphabet and four digits.[175]

    Andhra Pradesh[176] has a total broad-gauge railway route of 3,703.25 km (2,301.09 mi) and has no metre-gauge railway.[177] The rail density of the state is 16.59 per 1,000 km (620 mi), compared to an all India average of 20.[178] The Howrah–Chennai main line which runs through the state is proposed to be upgraded into a high-speed rail corridor through the Diamond Quadrilateral project of the Indian Railways.[179][180]

    The railway network spans two zones, further subdivided into divisions – Vijayawada, Guntur and Guntakal railway divisions of South Central Railway zone, and Waltair railway division of East Coast Railway zone.[181][182] There is a demand for creating a unified zone for the state based out of Visakhapatnam.[citation needed]

    There are three A1 and twenty three A-category railway stations in the state.[183] Visakhapatnam has been declared the cleanest railway station in the country.[184] The railway station of Shimiliguda was the first highest broad gauge railway station in the country.[185]

    As on date the Railways lines in Andhra Pradesh are under the following Railway zones/Divisions

    Visakhapatnam Airport, is the only airport in the state with operating international flights while Vijayawada Airport at Gannavaram has launched an international flight to Singapore, recently.[186] The state has four other domestic airports, Rajahmundry Airport, Kadapa Airport, a privately owned, public use airport at Puttaparthi, and Tirupati Airport located in the city of Tirupati. There are also 16 small air strips located in the state.[187]

    Andhra Pradesh has one of the country’s largest port at Visakhapatnam in terms of cargo handling.[188] The other famous ports are Krishnapatnam Port (Nellore), Gangavaram Port and Kakinada Port. Gangavaram Port is a deep seaport which can accommodate ocean liners up to 200,000–250,000 DWT.[189] There are 14 notified non-major ports at Bheemunipatnam, S.Yanam, Machilipatnam, Nizampatnam, and Vadarevu.[190][191]

    Andhra Pradesh has an overall literacy rate of 67.41% as per the 2011 Indian census.[7] The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools, managed and regulated by the School Education Department of the state.[192][193] There are urban, rural and residential schools.[194][195] As per the child info and school information report (2018–19), there were a total of 7,041,568 students,[196] enrolled in 62,063 schools respectively.[197] The Directorate of Government Examinations of the state administers and conduct the Secondary School Certificate (SSC) examination.[198] More than 600,000 students have appeared for the 2019 SSC exam and recorded an overall pass percentage of 94.88% with a 100% pass percentage in 5,464 schools.[199] The mediums of instruction are primarily Telugu and English with a very few opting for Urdu, Hindi, Kannada, Odia and Tamil.[200]

    Higher education in the state is administered by the Department of Higher Education.[201] The central universities are All India Institute of Medical Sciences, IIM Visakhapatnam, IIT Tirupati, NIT Tadepalligudem, IIITDM Kurnool,[202] Indian Institute of Petroleum and Energy,[203] NIDV, Central University of Andhra Pradesh, IIIT Sri City, IISER Tirupati, Agriculture University, Guntur and IIFT Kakinada. The Government of Andhra Pradesh established Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies (RGUKT) in 2008 to cater to the education needs of the rural youth of Andhra Pradesh.[204] As per the University Grants Commission, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, GITAM, KL University and Vignan University are the Deemed Universities in the state.[205] There are 18 state universities in the districts providing higher education in horticulture, law, medical, technology, Vedic and veterinary.[206] Andhra University is the oldest of the universities in the state, established in 1926.[207][208]

    Research institutes have been set up by the central state[which?] government. Naval Science and Technological Laboratory (NSTL), National Institute of Oceanography, Visakhapatnam (NIO), School of Planning and Architecture at Vijayawada is an autonomous research institute under Ministry of Human Resource Development of Government of India, National Atmospheric Research Laboratory carry out fundamental and applied research in atmospheric and space sciences,[209] Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Tirupati,[210] Society for Applied Microwave Electronics Engineering and Research, Visakhapatnam Central Tobacco Research Institute, Rajahmundry under control of ICAR (Indian Council of Agriculture Research) conducts fundamental and applied research on tobacco for the benefit of the farming community,[211] Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research (IIOPR) at Pedavegi near Eluru in West Godavari district serves as a centre for conducting and co-ordinating research on all aspects of oil palm conservation, improvement, production, protection, post-harvest technology and transfer of technology,[212] CCRH Regional Research Institute at Gudivada, Clinical Research Institute at Tirupati and National Institute of Oceanography[213] at Visakhapatnam are some of them.[214]

    Satish Dhawan Space Centre, also known as Sriharikota Range (SHAR), at barrier island of Sriharikota in Nellore district is a satellite launching station operated by Indian Space Research Organisation.[215] It is India’s primary orbital launch site. India’s lunar orbiter Chandrayaan-1 was launched from the centre at 6:22 AM IST on 22 October 2008.[216]

    The Sports Authority of Andhra Pradesh is the governing body which looks after the infrastructure development in cricket, field hockey, association football, skating, Olympic weightlifting, chess, water sports, tennis, badminton, table tennis, cycling, etc.[217]

    Cricket is one of the most popular sports in the state. The ACA-VDCA Stadium in Visakhapatnam is the home to Andhra Pradesh cricket team. The venue regularly hosts international as well as domestic matches. Notable cricketers from Andhra Pradesh include former Indian captain Mohammad Azharuddin, Maharajkumar of Vizianagram, M. V. Narasimha Rao, M. S. K. Prasad, VVS Laxman, Tirumalasetti Suman, Arshad Ayub, Ambati Rayudu, Venkatapathy Raju, Sravanthi Naidu, Yalaka Venugopal Rao, and Hanuma Vihari.

    Humpy Koneru, from Gudivada in Krishna district, is an Indian chess Grandmaster.

    Karnam Malleswari, the first female Indian to win an Olympic medal, hails from Srikakulam district. She won the bronze medal on 19 September 2000, in the 69 kg (152 lb) category with a lift of 240 kg (530 lb).[218]

    Krishnam Raju Gadiraju of Bhimavaram, is a four-time world record holder. He is a speedsolver and unicyclist.[219]

    Pullela Gopichand is a former Indian badminton player. He won the All England Open Badminton Championships in 2001, becoming the second Indian to win after Prakash Padukone.[220][221][222]

    Cherukuri Lenin (1985 or 1986 – 24 October 2010) was an Indian archer and coach who won a silver medal at the Asian Grand Prix in Malaysia and was a national archery coach.


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    Karnataka (/kərˈnɑːtəkə/; ISO: Karnāṭaka, Kannada pronunciation: [kəɾˈnɑːʈəkɑ]) is a state in South India. The state is in the south western region of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act. Originally known as the State of Mysore /maɪˈsɔːr/, it was renamed Karnataka in 1973. The state corresponds to the Carnatic region. Its capital and largest city is Bangalore.

    Karnataka is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, Goa to the northwest, Maharashtra to the north, Telangana to the northeast, Andhra Pradesh to the east, Tamil Nadu to the southeast, and Kerala to the south. It is the only southern state to have land borders with all of the other 4 southern Indian sister states. The state covers an area of 191,976 square kilometres (74,122 sq mi), or 5.83 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the sixth largest Indian state by area. With 61,130,704 inhabitants at the 2011 census, Karnataka is the eighth largest state by population, comprising 31 districts. Kannada, one of the classical languages of India, is the most widely spoken and official language of the state. Other minority languages spoken include Urdu, Konkani, Marathi, Tulu, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Kodava and Beary. Karnataka also contains some of the only villages in India where Sanskrit is primarily spoken.[10][11][12]

    Though several etymologies have been suggested for the name Karnataka, the generally accepted one is that Karnataka is derived from the Kannada words karu and nādu, meaning “elevated land”. Karu Nadu may also be read as karu, meaning “black” and nadu, meaning “region”, as a reference to the black cotton soil found in the Bayalu Seeme region of the state. The British used the word Carnatic, sometimes Karnatak, to describe both sides of peninsular India, south of the Krishna.[13]

    With an antiquity that dates to the paleolithic, Karnataka has been home to some of the most powerful empires of ancient and medieval India. The philosophers and musical bards patronised by these empires launched socio-religious and literary movements which have endured to the present day. Karnataka has contributed significantly to both forms of Indian classical music, the Carnatic and Hindustani traditions.

    tirunagari caste

    The economy of Karnataka is the Sixth-largest of any Indian state with ₹16.39 trillion (US$220 billion) in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹231,000 (US$3,100).[14][15] Karnataka has the nineteenth highest ranking among Indian states in Human Development Index.[9]

    Karnataka’s pre-history goes back to a paleolithic hand-axe culture evidenced by discoveries of, among other things, hand axes and cleavers in the region.[16] Evidence of neolithic and megalithic cultures have also been found in the state. Gold discovered in Harappa was found to be imported from mines in Karnataka, prompting scholars to hypothesise about contacts between ancient Karnataka and the Indus Valley Civilisation ca. 3300 BCE.[17][18]

    Prior to the third century BCE, most of Karnataka formed part of the Nanda Empire before coming under the Mauryan empire of Emperor Ashoka. Four centuries of Satavahana rule followed, allowing them to control large areas of Karnataka. The decline of Satavahana power led to the rise of the earliest native kingdoms, the Kadambas and the Western Gangas, marking the region’s emergence as an independent political entity. The Kadamba Dynasty, founded by Mayurasharma, had its capital at Banavasi;[19][20] the Western Ganga Dynasty was formed with Talakad as its capital.[21][22]

    These were also the first kingdoms to use Kannada in administration, as evidenced by the Halmidi inscription and a fifth-century copper coin discovered at Banavasi.[23][24] These dynasties were followed by imperial Kannada empires such as the Badami Chalukyas,[25][26] the Rashtrakuta Empire of Manyakheta[27][28] and the Western Chalukya Empire,[29][30] which ruled over large parts of the Deccan and had their capitals in what is now Karnataka. The Western Chalukyas patronised a unique style of architecture and Kannada literature which became a precursor to the Hoysala art of the 12th century.[31][32] Parts of modern-day Southern Karnataka (Gangavadi) were occupied by the Chola Empire at the turn of the 11th century.[33] The Cholas and the Hoysalas fought over the region in the early 12th century before it eventually came under Hoysala rule.[33]

    At the turn of the first millennium, the Hoysalas gained power in the region. Literature flourished during this time, which led to the emergence of distinctive Kannada literary metres, and the construction of temples and sculptures adhering to the Vesara style of architecture.[34][35][36][37] The expansion of the Hoysala Empire brought minor parts of modern Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu under its rule. In the early 14th century, Harihara and Bukka Raya established the Vijayanagara empire with its capital, Hosapattana (later named Vijayanagara), on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in the modern Bellary district. The empire rose as a bulwark against Muslim advances into South India, which it completely controlled for over two centuries.[38][39]

    In 1565, Karnataka and the rest of South India experienced a major geopolitical shift when the Vijayanagara empire fell to a confederation of Islamic sultanates in the Battle of Talikota.[40] The Bijapur Sultanate, which had risen after the demise of the Bahmani Sultanate of Bidar, soon took control of the Deccan; it was defeated by the Moghuls in the late 17th century.[41][42] The Bahmani and Bijapur rulers encouraged Urdu and Persian literature and Indo-Saracenic architecture, the Gol Gumbaz being one of the high points of this style.[43] During the sixteenth century, Konkani Hindus migrated to Karnataka, mostly from Salcette, Goa,[44] while during the seventeenth and eighteenth century, Goan Catholics migrated to North Canara and South Canara, especially from Bardes, Goa, as a result of food shortages, epidemics and heavy taxation imposed by the Portuguese.[45]

  • average soybean yield per acre
  • In the period that followed, parts of northern Karnataka were ruled by the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Maratha Empire, the British, and other powers.[46] In the south, the Mysore Kingdom, a former vassal of the Vijayanagara Empire, was briefly independent.[47] With the death of Krishnaraja Wodeyar II, Haidar Ali, the commander-in-chief of the Mysore army, gained control of the region. After his death, the kingdom was inherited by his son Tipu Sultan.[48] To contain European expansion in South India, Haidar Ali and later Tipu Sultan fought four significant Anglo-Mysore Wars, the last of which resulted in Tippu Sultan’s death and the incorporation of Mysore into the British Raj in 1799.[49] The Kingdom of Mysore was restored to the Wodeyars and Mysore remained a princely state under the British Raj.

    As the “doctrine of lapse” gave way to dissent and resistance from princely states across the country, Kittur Chennamma, Sangolli Rayanna and others spearheaded rebellions in Karnataka in 1830, nearly three decades before the Indian Rebellion of 1857. However, Kitturu was taken over by the British East India Company even before the doctrine was officially articulated by Lord Dalhousie in 1848.[50] Other uprisings followed, such as the ones at Supa, Bagalkot, Shorapur, Nargund and Dandeli. These rebellions—which coincided with the Indian Rebellion of 1857—were led by Mundargi Bhimarao, Bhaskar Rao Bhave, the Halagali Bedas, Raja Venkatappa Nayaka and others. By the late 19th century, the independence movement had gained momentum; Karnad Sadashiva Rao, Aluru Venkata Raya, S. Nijalingappa, Kengal Hanumanthaiah, Nittoor Srinivasa Rau and others carried on the struggle into the early 20th century.[51]

    After India’s independence, the Maharaja, Jayachamarajendra Wodeyar, allowed his kingdom’s accession to India. In 1950, Mysore became an Indian state of the same name; the former Maharaja served as its Rajpramukh (head of state) until 1975. Following the long-standing demand of the Ekikarana Movement, Kodagu- and Kannada-speaking regions from the adjoining states of Madras, Hyderabad and Bombay were incorporated into the Mysore state, under the States Reorganisation Act of 1956. The thus expanded state was renamed Karnataka, seventeen years later, on 1 November 1973.[52] In the early 1900s through the post-independence era, industrial visionaries such as Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvarayya, born in Muddenahalli, Chikballapur district, played an important role in the development of Karnataka’s strong manufacturing and industrial base.

    The state has three principal geographical zones:

    The bulk of the state is in the Bayaluseeme region, the northern part of which is the second-largest arid region in India.[53] The highest point in Karnataka is the Mullayanagiri hills in Chikmagalur district which has an altitude of 1,925 metres (6,316 ft). The two main river systems of the state are the Krishna and its tributaries, the Bhima, Ghataprabha, Vedavathi, Malaprabha and Tungabhadra in North Karnataka, and the Kaveri and its tributaries, the Hemavati, Shimsha, Arkavati, Lakshmana Thirtha and Kabini, in South Karnataka. Most of these rivers flow out of Karnataka eastward, reaching the sea at the Bay of Bengal. Other prominent rivers such as the Sharavati in Shimoga and Netravati in Dakshina Kannada flow westward, reaching the sea at the Arabian Sea. A large number of dams and reservoirs are constructed across these rivers which richly add to the irrigation and hydroelectricity power generation capacities of the state.

    Karnataka consists of four main types of geological formations[54] – the Archean complex made up of Dharwad schists and granitic gneisses, the Proterozoic non-fossiliferous sedimentary formations of the Kaladgi and Bhima series, the Deccan trappean and intertrappean deposits and the tertiary and recent laterites and alluvial deposits. Significantly, about 60% of the state is composed of the Archean complex which consist of gneisses, granites and charnockite rocks. Laterite cappings that are found in many districts over the Deccan Traps were formed after the cessation of volcanic activity in the early tertiary period. Eleven groups of soil orders are found in Karnataka, viz. Entisols, Inceptisols, Mollisols, Spodosols, Alfisols, Ultisols, Oxisols, Aridisols, Vertisols, Andisols and Histosols.[54] Depending on the agricultural capability of the soil, the soil types are divided into six types, viz. red, lateritic, black, alluvio-colluvial, forest and coastal soils.

    About 38,724 km2 (14,951 sq mi) of Karnataka (i.e. 20% of the state’s geographic area) is covered by forests. The forests are classified as reserved, protected, unclosed, village and private forests. The percentage of forested area is slightly less than the all-India average of about 23%, and significantly less than the 33% prescribed in the National Forest Policy.[55]

    Karnataka experiences four seasons. The winter in January and February is followed by summer between March and May, the monsoon season between June and September and the post-monsoon season from October till December. Meteorologically, Karnataka is divided into three zones – coastal, north interior and south interior. Of these, the coastal zone receives the heaviest rainfall with an average rainfall of about 3,638.5 mm (143 in) per annum, far in excess of the state average of 1,139 mm (45 in). Amagaon in Khanapura taluka of Belgaum district received 10,068 mm (396 in) of rainfall in the year 2010.[56] In the year 2014, Kokalli in Sirsi taluka of Uttara Kannada district received 8,746 mm (344 in) of rainfall.[57] Agumbe in Thirthahalli taluka and Hulikal of Hosanagara taluka in Shimoga district were the rainiest cities in Karnataka, situated in one of the wettest regions in the world.[58]

    The state is projected to warm about 2.0 °C (4 °F) by 2030. The monsoon is set to provide less rainfall. Agriculture in Karnataka is mostly rainfed as opposed to irrigated, making it highly vulnerable to expected changes in the monsoon.[59] The highest recorded temperature was 45.6 °C (114 °F) in Raichuru district. The lowest recorded temperature was 2.8 °C (37 °F) at Bidar district.[60]

    There are 31 districts in Karnataka. Each district (zila) is governed by a district commissioner (ziladar). The districts are further divided into sub-districts (talukas), which are governed by sub-commissioners (talukdars); sub-divisions comprise blocks (tehsils/hobli), which are governed by block development officers (tehsildars), which contain village councils (panchayats), town municipal councils (purasabhe), city municipal councils (nagarasabhe), and city municipal corporations (mahanagara palike).

    According to the 2011 census of India,[61] the total population of Karnataka was 61,095,297 of which 30,966,657 (50.7%) were male and 30,128,640 (49.3%) were female, or 1000 males for every 973 females. This represents a 15.60% increase over the population in 2001. The population density was 319 per km2 and 38.67% of the people lived in urban areas. The literacy rate was 75.36% with 82.47% of males and 68.08% of females being literate. 84.00% of the population were Hindu, 12.92% were Muslim, 1.87% were Christian, 0.72% were Jains, 0.16% were Buddhist, 0.05% were Sikh and 0.02% were belonging to other religions and 0.27% of the population did not state their religion.[62]

    In 2007 the state had a birth rate of 2.2%, a death rate of 0.7%, an infant mortality rate of 5.5% and a maternal mortality rate of 0.2%. The total fertility rate was 2.2.[63]

    In the field of speciality health care, Karnataka’s private sector competes with the best in the world.[64] Karnataka has also established a modicum of public health services having a better record of health care and child care than most other states of India. In spite of these advances, some parts of the state still leave much to be desired when it comes to primary health care.[65]

    Karnataka has a parliamentary system of government with two democratically elected houses, the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council. The Legislative Assembly consists of 224 members who are elected for five-year terms.[66] The Legislative Council is a permanent body of 75 members with one-third (25 members) retiring every two years.[66]

    The government of Karnataka is headed by the Chief Minister who is chosen by the ruling party members of the Legislative Assembly. The Chief Minister, along with the council of ministers, executes the legislative agenda and exercises most of the executive powers.[67] However, the constitutional and formal head of the state is the Governor who is appointed for a five-year term by the President of India on the advice of the Union government.[68] The people of Karnataka also elect 28 members to the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Indian Parliament.[69] The members of the state Legislative Assembly elect 12 members to the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of the Indian Parliament.

    For administrative purposes, Karnataka has been divided into four revenue divisions, 49 sub-divisions, 31 districts, 175 taluks and 745 hoblies / revenue circles.[70] The administration in each district is headed by a Deputy Commissioner who belongs to the Indian Administrative Service and is assisted by a number of officers belonging to Karnataka state services. The Deputy Commissioner of Police, an officer belonging to the Indian Police Service and assisted by the officers of the Karnataka Police Service, is entrusted with the responsibility of maintaining law and order and related issues in each district. The Deputy Conservator of Forests, an officer belonging to the Indian Forest Service, is entrusted with the responsibility of managing forests, environment and wildlife of the district, he will be assisted by the officers belonging to Karnataka Forest Service and officers belonging to Karnataka Forest Subordinate Service. Sectoral development in the districts is looked after by the district head of each development department such as Public Works Department, Health, Education, Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, etc. The judiciary in the state consists of the Karnataka High Court (Attara Kacheri) in Bangalore, Dharwad, and Gulbarga, district and session courts in each district and lower courts and judges at the taluk level.

    Politics in Karnataka has been dominated by three political parties, the Indian National Congress, the Janata Dal (Secular) and the Bharatiya Janata Party.[71] Politicians from Karnataka have played prominent roles in federal government of India with some of them having held the high positions of Prime Minister and Vice-President. Border disputes involving Karnataka’s claim on the Kasaragod[72] and Solapur[73] districts and Maharashtra’s claim on Belgaum are ongoing since the states reorganisation.[74]
    The official emblem of Karnataka has a Ganda Berunda in the centre. Surmounting this are four lions facing the four directions, taken from the Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath. The emblem also carries two Sharabhas with the head of an elephant and the body of a lion.

    Karnataka had an estimated GSDP (Gross State Domestic Product) of about US$115.86 billion in the 2014–15 fiscal year.[75] The state registered a GSDP growth rate of 7% for the year 2014–2015.[76] Karnataka’s contribution to India’s GDP in the year 2014–15 was 7.54%.[75] With GDP growth of 17.59% and per capita GDP growth of 16.04%, Karnataka is on the 6th position among all states and union territories.[77][78] In an employment survey conducted for the year 2013–2014, the unemployment rate in Karnataka was 1.8% compared to the national rate of 4.9%.[79] In 2011–2012, Karnataka had an estimated poverty ratio of 20.91% compared to the national ratio of 21.92%.[80]

    Nearly 56% of the workforce in Karnataka is engaged in agriculture and related activities.[81] A total of 12.31 million hectares of land, or 64.6% of the state’s total area, is cultivated.[82] Much of the agricultural output is dependent on the southwest monsoon as only 26.5% of the sown area is irrigated.[82]

    Karnataka is the manufacturing hub for some of the largest public sector industries in India, including Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, National Aerospace Laboratories, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Bharat Earth Movers Limited and HMT (formerly Hindustan Machine Tools), which are based in Bangalore. Many of India’s premier science and technology research centres, such as Indian Space Research Organisation, Central Power Research Institute, Bharat Electronics Limited and the Central Food Technological Research Institute, are also headquartered in Karnataka. Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Limited is an oil refinery, located in Mangalore.

    The state has also begun to invest heavily in solar power centred on the Pavagada Solar Park. As of December 2017, the state has installed an estimated 2.2 gigawatts of block solar panelling and in January 2018 announced a tender to generate a further 1.2 gigawatts in the coming years: Karnataka Renewable Energy Development suggests that this will be based on 24 separate systems (or ‘blocks’) generating 50 megawatts each.[83]

    Since the 1980s, Karnataka has emerged as the pan-Indian leader in the field of IT (information technology). In 2007, there were nearly 2,000 firms operating in Karnataka. Many of them, including two of India’s biggest software firms, Infosys and Wipro, are also headquartered in the state.[84] Exports from these firms exceeded ₹500 billion (equivalent to ₹1.4 trillion or US$18 billion in 2020) in 2006–07, accounting for nearly 38% of all IT exports from India.[84] The Nandi Hills area in the outskirts of Devanahalli is the site of the upcoming $22 billion, 50 km2 BIAL IT Investment Region, one of the largest infrastructure projects in the history of Karnataka.[85] All this has earned the state capital, Bangalore, the sobriquet Silicon Valley of India.[86]

    Karnataka also leads the nation in biotechnology. It is home to India’s largest biocluster, with 158 of the country’s 320 biotechnology firms being based here.[87] The state accounts for 75% of India’s floriculture, an upcoming industry which supplies flowers and ornamental plants worldwide.[88]

    Seven of India’s banks, Canara Bank, Syndicate Bank, Corporation Bank, Vijaya Bank, Karnataka Bank, ING Vysya Bank and the State Bank of Mysore originated in this state.[89] The coastal districts of Udupi and Dakshina Kannada have a branch for every 500 persons—the best distribution of banks in India.[90] In March 2002, Karnataka had 4767 branches of different banks with each branch serving 11,000 persons, which is lower than the national average of 16,000.[91]

    A majority of the silk industry in India is headquartered in Karnataka, much of it in Doddaballapura in Bangalore Rural district and the state government intends to invest ₹700 million (equivalent to ₹1.2 billion or US$16 million in 2020) in a “Silk City” at Muddenahalli in Chikkaballapura district.[92][93][94]

    Air transport in Karnataka, as in the rest of the country, is still a fledgling but fast expanding sector. Karnataka has airports at Bangalore, Mangalore, Belgaum, Hubli, Hampi, Bellary, Gulbarga, and Mysore with international operations from Bangalore and Mangalore airports.[95] Shimoga and Bijapur airports are being built under the UDAN Scheme.[96][97][98]

    Karnataka has a railway network with a total length of approximately 3,089 kilometres (1,919 mi). Until the creation of the South-Western Railway Zone headquartered at Hubballi in 2003, the railway network in the state was in the Southern Railway zone, South-Central Railway Zone and Western Railway zone. Several parts of the state now come under the South Western Railway zone with 3 Railway Divisions at Bangalore, Mysore, Hubli, with the remainder under the Southern Railway zone and Konkan Railway Zone, which is considered one of India’s biggest railway projects of the century due to the difficult terrain.[99] Bangalore and other cities in the state are well-connected with intrastate and inter-state destinations.

    Karnataka has 11 ports, including the New Mangalore Port, a major port and ten minor ports, of which three were operational in 2012.[100] The New Mangalore port was incorporated as the ninth major port in India on 4 May 1974.[101] This port handled 32.04 million tonnes of traffic in the fiscal year 2006–07 with 17.92 million tonnes of imports and 14.12 million tonnes of exports. The port also handled 1015 vessels including 18 cruise vessels during the year 2006–07. Foreigners can enter Mangalore through the New Mangalore Port with the help of Electronic visa (e-visa).[102] Cruise ships from Europe, North America and UAE arrive at New Mangalore Port to visit the tourist places across Coastal Karnataka.[103][104] The port of Mangalore is among the 4 major ports of India that receive over 25 international cruise ships every year.[105]

    The total lengths of National Highways and State Highways in Karnataka are 3,973 and 9,829 kilometres (2,469 and 6,107 mi), respectively.[106][107]

    tirunagari caste

    The state transport corporations, transports an average of 2.2 million passengers daily and employs about 25,000 people.[108] The Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) and The Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC) headquartered in Bangalore, The Kalyana Karnataka Road Transport Corporation (KKRTC) headquartered in Gulbarga, and The North Western Karnataka Road Transport Corporation (NWKRTC) headquartered in Hubballi are the 4 state-owned transport corporations.

    The diverse linguistic and religious ethnicities that are native to Karnataka, combined with their long histories, have contributed immensely to the varied cultural heritage of the state. Apart from Kannadigas, Karnataka is home to Tuluvas, Kodavas and Konkanis. Minor populations of Tibetan Buddhists and tribes like the Soligas, Yeravas, Todas and Siddhis also live in Karnataka. The traditional folk arts cover the entire gamut of music, dance, drama, storytelling by itinerant troupes, etc. Yakshagana of Malnad and coastal Karnataka, a classical dance drama, is one of the major theatrical forms of Karnataka. Contemporary theatre culture in Karnataka remains vibrant with organisations like Ninasam, Ranga Shankara, Rangayana and Prabhat Kalavidaru continuing to build on the foundations laid by Gubbi Veeranna, T. P. Kailasam, B. V. Karanth, K V Subbanna, Prasanna and others.[109] Veeragase, Kamsale, Kolata and Dollu Kunitha are popular dance forms. The Mysore style of Bharatanatya, nurtured and popularised by the likes of the legendary Jatti Tayamma, continues to hold sway in Karnataka, and Bangalore also enjoys an eminent place as one of the foremost centres of Bharatanatya.[110]

    Karnataka also has a special place in the world of Indian classical music, with both Karnataka[111] (Carnatic) and Hindustani styles finding place in the state, and Karnataka has produced a number of stalwarts in both styles. The Haridasa movement of the sixteenth century contributed significantly to the development of Karnataka (Carnatic) music as a performing art form. Purandara Dasa, one of the most revered Haridasas, is known as the Karnataka Sangeeta Pitamaha (‘Father of Karnataka a.k.a. Carnatic music’).[112] Celebrated Hindustani musicians like Gangubai Hangal, Mallikarjun Mansur, Bhimsen Joshi, Basavaraja Rajaguru, Sawai Gandharva and several others hail from Karnataka, and some of them have been recipients of the Kalidas Samman, Padma Bhushan and Padma Vibhushan awards. Noted Carnatic musicians include Violin T. Chowdiah, Veena Sheshanna, Mysore Vasudevachar, Doreswamy Iyengar and Thitte Krishna Iyengar.

    Gamaka is another classical music genre based on Carnatic music that is practised in Karnataka. Kannada Bhavageete is a genre of popular music that draws inspiration from the expressionist poetry of modern poets. The Mysore school of painting has produced painters like Sundarayya, Tanjavur Kondayya, B. Venkatappa and Keshavayya.[113] Chitrakala Parishat is an organisation in Karnataka dedicated to promoting painting, mainly in the Mysore painting style.

    Saree is the traditional dress of women in Karnataka. Women in Kodagu have a distinct style of wearing the saree, different from the rest of Karnataka. Dhoti, known as Panche in Karnataka, is the traditional attire of men. Shirt, Trousers and Salwar kameez are widely worn in Urban areas. Mysore Peta is the traditional headgear of southern Karnataka, while the pagadi or pataga (similar to the Rajasthani turban) is preferred in the northern areas of the state.

    Rice and Ragi form the staple food in South Karnataka, whereas Jolada rotti, Sorghum is staple to North Karnataka. Bisi bele bath, Jolada rotti, Ragi mudde, Uppittu, Benne Dose, Masala Dose and Maddur Vade are some of the popular food items in Karnataka. Among sweets, Mysore Pak, Karadantu of Gokak and Amingad, Belgaavi Kunda and Dharwad pedha are popular. Apart from this, coastal Karnataka and Kodagu have distinctive cuisines of their own. Udupi cuisine of coastal Karnataka is popular all over India.

    Adi Shankaracharya (788–820) chose Sringeri in Karnataka to establish the first of his four mathas (monastery). Madhvacharya (1238–1317) was the chief proponent of Tattvavada (Philosophy of Reality), popularly known as Dvaita or Dualistic school of Hindu philosophy – one of the three most influential Vedanta philosophies. Madhvacharya was one of the important philosophers during the Bhakti movement. He was a pioneer in many ways, going against standard conventions and norms. According to tradition, Madhvacharya is believed to be the third incarnation of Vayu (Mukhyaprana), after Hanuman and Bhima. The Haridasa devotional movement is considered one of the turning points in the cultural history of India. Over a span of nearly six centuries, several saints and mystics helped shape the culture, philosophy, and art of South India and Karnataka in particular by exerting considerable spiritual influence over the masses and kingdoms that ruled South India.

    This movement was ushered in by the Haridasas (literally “servants of Lord Hari”) and took shape in the 13th century – 14th century CE, period, prior to and during the early rule of the Vijayanagara empire. The main objective of this movement was to propagate the Dvaita philosophy of Madhvacharya (Madhva Siddhanta) to the masses through a literary medium known as Dasa Sahitya literature of the servants of the Lord. Purandara dasa is widely recognised as the “Pithamaha” of Carnatic Music for his immense contribution. Ramanujacharya, the leading expounder of Vishishtadvaita, spent many years in Melkote. He came to Karnataka in 1098 CE and lived here until 1122 CE. He first lived in Tondanur and then moved to Melkote where the Cheluvanarayana Swamy Temple and a well-organised matha were built. He was patronised by the Hoysala king, Vishnuvardhana.[114]

    In the twelfth century, Lingayatism emerged in northern Karnataka as a protest against the rigidity of the prevailing social and caste system. Leading figures of this movement were Basava, Akka Mahadevi and Allama Prabhu, who established the Anubhava Mantapa which was the centre of all religious and philosophical thoughts and discussions pertaining to Lingayats. These three social reformers did so by the literary means of “Vachana Sahitya” which is very famous for its simple, straight forward and easily understandable Kannada language. Lingayatism preached women equality by letting women wear Ishtalinga i.e. Symbol of god around their neck. Basava shunned the sharp hierarchical divisions that existed and sought to remove all distinctions between the hierarchically superior master class and the subordinate, servile class. He also supported inter-caste marriages and Kaayaka Tatva of Basavanna. This was the basis of the Lingayat faith which today counts millions among its followers.[115]

    The Jain philosophy and literature have contributed immensely to the religious and cultural landscape of Karnataka.

    Islam, which had an early presence on the west coast of India as early as the tenth century, gained a foothold in Karnataka with the rise of the Bahamani and Bijapur sultanates that ruled parts of Karnataka.[116] Christianity reached Karnataka in the sixteenth century with the arrival of the Portuguese and St. Francis Xavier in 1545.[117]

    Buddhism was popular in Karnataka during the first millennium in places such as Gulbarga and Banavasi. A chance discovery of edicts and several Mauryan relics at Sannati in Gulbarga district in 1986 has proven that the Krishna River basin was once home to both Mahayana and Hinayana Buddhism. There are Tibetan refugee camps in Karnataka.

    Mysore Dasara is celebrated as the Nada habba (state festival) and this is marked by major festivities at Mysore. Bangalore Karaga, celebrated in the heart of Bangalore, is the second most important festival celebrated in Karnataka.[118] Ugadi (Kannada New Year), Makara Sankranti (the harvest festival), Ganesh Chaturthi, Gowri Habba, Ram Navami, Nagapanchami, Basava Jayanthi, Deepavali, and Balipadyami are the other major festivals of Karnataka.

    Languages of Karnataka (2011 census)[119]

    Kannada is the official language of the state of Karnataka, as the native language of 66.46% of its population as of 2011 and is one of the classical languages of India. Urdu is the second largest language, spoken by 10.83% of the population, and is the language of Muslims outside the coastal region. Telugu (5.84%) is a major language in areas bordering Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka as well as Bangalore, while Tamil (3.45%) is a major language of Bangalore and in the Kolar district. Marathi (3.29%) is concentrated in areas of Uttara Kannada, Belgaum and Bidar districts bordering Maharashtra. Lambadi is spoken by the Lambadis scattered throughout North Karnataka, while Hindi is spoken in Bangalore. Tulu (2.61%), Konkani (1.29%), and Malayalam (1.27%) are all found in linguistically diverse Coastal Karnataka, where a number of mixed and distinct dialects such as Are Bhashe, Beary Bhashe, and Nayawathi are found. Kodava Takk is the language of Kodagu.[119][120][121]

    Kannada played a crucial role in the creation of Karnataka: linguistic demographics played a major role in defining the new state in 1956. Tulu, Konkani and Kodava are other minor native languages that share a long history in the state. Urdu is spoken widely by the Muslim population. Less widely spoken languages include Beary bashe and certain languages such as Sankethi. Some of the regional languages in Karnataka are Tulu, Kodava, Konkani and Beary.[122][123][124]

    Kannada features a rich and ancient body of literature including religious and secular genre, covering topics as diverse as Jainism (such as Puranas), Lingayatism (such as Vachanas), Vaishnavism (such as Haridasa Sahitya) and modern literature. Evidence from edicts during the time of Ashoka (reigned 274–232 BCE) suggest that Buddhist literature influenced the Kannada script and its literature. The Halmidi inscription, the earliest attested full-length inscription in the Kannada language and script, dates from 450 CE, while the earliest available literary work, the Kavirajamarga, has been dated to 850 CE. References made in the Kavirajamarga, however, prove that Kannada literature flourished in the native composition metres such as Chattana, Beddande and Melvadu during earlier centuries. The classic refers to several earlier greats (purvacharyar) of Kannada poetry and prose.[125]

    Kuvempu, the renowned Kannada poet and writer who wrote Jaya Bharata Jananiya Tanujate, the state anthem of Karnataka[126]
    was the first recipient of the Karnataka Ratna, the highest civilian award bestowed by the Government of Karnataka. Contemporary Kannada literature has received considerable acknowledgement in the arena of Indian literature, with eight Kannada writers winning India’s highest literary honour, the Jnanpith award.

    Tulu is the majority language in the coastal district of Dakshina Kannada and is the second most spoken in the Udupi district.[127] This region is also known as Tulu Nadu.[128] Tulu Mahabharato, written by Arunabja in the Tigalari script, is the oldest surviving Tulu text.[129] Tigalari script was used by Brahmins to write Sanskrit language. The use of the Kannada script for writing Tulu and non-availability of print in Tigalari script contributed to the marginalisation of Tigalari script.

    In Karnataka Konkani is mostly spoken in the Uttara Kannada and Dakshina Kannada districts and in parts of Udupi, Konkani use the Devanagari Script (which is official)/Kannada script( Optional ) for writing as identified by government of Karnataka.[130][131] The Kodavas who mainly reside in the Kodagu district, speak Kodava Takk. Two regional variations of the language exist, the northern Mendale Takka and the southern Kiggaati Takka.[132] Kodava Takk use the Kannada script for writing. English is the medium of education in many schools and widely used for business communication in most private companies.

    All of the state’s languages are patronised and promoted by governmental and quasi-governmental bodies. The Kannada Sahitya Parishat and the Kannada Sahitya Akademi are responsible for the promotion of Kannada while the Karnataka Konkani Sahitya Akademi,[133] the Tulu Sahitya Akademi and the Kodava Sahitya Akademi promote their respective languages.

    As per the 2011 census, Karnataka had a literacy rate of 75.36%, with 82.47% of males and 68.08% of females in the state being literate.[5] In 2001, the literacy rate of the state were 67.04%, with 76.29% of males and 57.45% of females being literate.[134]

    The Indian Institute of Science and Manipal Academy of Higher Education were ranked within the top 10 universities of India by NIRF 2020.[135] The state is home to some of the premier educational and research institutions of India such as the Indian Institute of Management – Bangalore, the Indian Institute of Technology – Dharwad the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences – Bangalore, the National Institute of Technology Karnataka – Surathkal and the National Law School of India University – Bangalore.

    In March 2006, Karnataka had 54,529 primary schools with 252,875 teachers and 8.495 million students,[136] and 9498 secondary schools with 92,287 teachers and 1.384 million students.[136] There are three kinds of schools in the state, viz., government-run, private aided (financial aid is provided by the government) and private unaided (no financial aid is provided). The primary languages of instruction in most schools are Kannada and English.

    The syllabus taught in the schools is either of KSEEB (SSLC) and Pre-University Couse (PUC) of the State Syllabus, the CBSE of the Central Syllabus, CISCE, IGCSE, IB, NIOS, etc., are all defined by the Department of Public Instruction of the Government of Karnataka. The state has two Sainik Schools – Kodagu Sainik School in Kodagu and Vijayapura Sainik School in Vijayapura.

    To maximise attendance in schools, the Karnataka Government has launched a mid-day meal scheme in government and aided schools in which free lunch is provided to the students.[138]

    Statewide board examinations are conducted at the end of secondary education. Students who qualify are allowed to pursue a two-year pre-university course, after which they become eligible to pursue under-graduate degrees.

    There are 481-degree colleges affiliated with one of the universities in the state, viz. Bangalore University, Rani Channamma University, Belagavi, Gulbarga University, Karnatak University, Kuvempu University, Mangalore University and Mysore University.[139] In 1998, the engineering colleges in the state were brought under the newly formed Visvesvaraya Technological University headquartered in Belgaum, whereas the medical colleges are run under the jurisdiction of the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences headquartered in Bangalore. Some of these baccalaureate colleges are accredited with the status of a deemed university. There are 186 engineering, 39 medical and 41 dental colleges in the state.[140] Udupi, Sringeri, Gokarna and Melkote are well-known places of Sanskrit and Vedic learning. In 2015 the Central Government decided to establish the first Indian Institute of Technology in Karnataka at Dharwad.[141] Tulu and Konkani[142] languages are taught as an optional subject in the twin districts of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi.[143]

    Christ University, Jain University, CMR University, Dayananda Sagar University, PES University, and REVA University are famous private universities in Karnataka.

    The era of Kannada newspapers started in the year 1843 when Hermann Mögling, a missionary from Basel Mission, published the first Kannada newspaper called Mangaluru Samachara in Mangalore. The first Kannada periodical, Mysuru Vrittanta Bodhini was started by Bhashyam Bhashyacharya in Mysore. Shortly after Indian independence in 1948, K. N. Guruswamy founded The Printers (Mysuru) Private Limited and began publishing two newspapers, Deccan Herald and Prajavani. Presently The Times of India and Vijaya Karnataka are the largest-selling English and Kannada newspapers respectively.[144][145] A vast number of weekly, biweekly and monthly magazines are under publication in both Kannada and English. Udayavani, Kannadaprabha, Samyukta Karnataka, VarthaBharathi, Sanjevani, Eesanje, Hosa digantha, Karavali Ale are also some popular dailies published from Karnataka.

    Doordarshan is the broadcaster of the Government of India and its channel DD Chandana is dedicated to Kannada. Prominent Kannada channels include Colors Kannada, Zee Kannada, Star Suvarna and Udaya TV.

    Karnataka occupies a special place in the history of Indian radio. In 1935, Aakashvani, the first private radio station in India, was started by Prof. M.V. Gopalaswamy in Mysore.[146] The popular radio station was taken over by the local municipality and later by All India Radio (AIR) and moved to Bangalore in 1955. Later in 1957, AIR adopted the original name of the radio station, Aakashavani as its own. Some of the popular programs aired by AIR Bangalore included Nisarga Sampada and Sasya Sanjeevini which were programs that taught science through songs, plays, and stories. These two programs became so popular that they were translated and broadcast in 18 different languages and the entire series was recorded on cassettes by the Government of Karnataka and distributed to thousands of schools across the state.[146] Karnataka has witnessed a growth in FM radio channels, mainly in the cities of Bangalore, Mangalore and Mysore, which has become hugely popular.[147][148]

    Karnataka’s smallest district, Kodagu, is a major contributor to Indian field hockey, producing numerous players who have represented India at the international level.[149] The annual Kodava Hockey Festival is the largest hockey tournament in the world.[150] Bangalore has hosted a WTA tennis event and, in 1997, it hosted the fourth National Games of India.[151] The Sports Authority of India, the premier sports institute in the country, and the Nike Tennis Academy are also situated in Bangalore. Karnataka has been referred to as the cradle of Indian swimming because of its high standards in comparison to other states.

    One of the most popular sports in Karnataka is cricket. The state cricket team has won the Ranji Trophy seven times, second only to Mumbai in terms of success.[152] Chinnaswamy Stadium in Bangalore regularly hosts international Cricket matches and is also the home of the National Cricket Academy, which was opened in 2000 to nurture potential international players. Many cricketers have represented India and in one international match held in the 1990s; players from Karnataka composed the majority of the national team.[153][154] The Royal Challengers Bangalore, an Indian Premier League franchise, the Bengaluru Football Club, an Indian Super League franchise, the Bengaluru Yodhas, a Pro Wrestling League franchise, the Bengaluru Blasters, a Premier Badminton League franchise and the Bengaluru Bulls, a Pro Kabaddi League franchise are based in Bangalore. The Karnataka Premier League is an inter-regional Twenty20 cricket tournament played in the state.

    Notable sportsmen from Karnataka include B.S. Chandrasekhar, Roger Binny, E. A. S. Prasanna, Anil Kumble, Javagal Srinath, Rahul Dravid, Venkatesh Prasad, Robin Uthappa, Vinay Kumar, Gundappa Vishwanath, Syed Kirmani, Stuart Binny, K. L. Rahul, Mayank Agarwal, Manish Pandey, Karun Nair, Ashwini Ponnappa, Mahesh Bhupathi, Rohan Bopanna, Prakash Padukone who won the All England Badminton Championships in 1980 and Pankaj Advani who has won three world titles in cue sports by the age of 20 including the amateur World Snooker Championship in 2003 and the World Billiards Championship in 2005.[155][156]

    Bijapur district has produced some of the best-known road cyclists in the national circuit. Premalata Sureban was part of the Indian contingent at the Perlis Open ’99 in Malaysia. In recognition of the talent of cyclists in the district, the state government laid down a cycling track at the B.R. Ambedkar Stadium at a cost of ₹4 million (US$53,000).[157]

    Karnataka is home to a variety of wildlife. It has a recorded forest area of 38,720 km2 (14,950 sq mi) which constitutes 20.19% of the total geographical area of the state. These forests support 25% of the elephant and 10% of the tiger population of India. Many regions of Karnataka are as yet unexplored, so new species of flora and fauna are found periodically. The Western Ghats, a biodiversity hotspot, includes the western region of Karnataka. Two sub-clusters in the Western Ghats, viz. Talacauvery and Kudremukh, both in Karnataka, are on the tentative list of World Heritage Sites of UNESCO.[158] The Bandipur and Nagarahole National Parks, which fall outside these subclusters, were included in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve in 1986, a UNESCO designation.[159] The Indian roller and the Indian elephant are recognised as the state bird and animal while sandalwood and the lotus are recognised as the state tree and flower respectively. Karnataka has five national parks: Anshi, Bandipur, Bannerghatta, Kudremukh and Nagarhole.[160] It also has 27 wildlife sanctuaries of which seven are bird sanctuaries.[161]

    Wild animals that are found in Karnataka include the elephant, the tiger, the leopard, the gaur, the sambar deer, the chital or spotted deer, the muntjac, the bonnet macaque, the slender loris, the common palm civet, the small Indian civet, the sloth bear, the dhole, the striped hyena, the Bengal fox and the golden jackal. Some of the birds found here are the great hornbill, the Malabar pied hornbill, the Ceylon frogmouth, herons, ducks, kites, eagles, falcons, quails, partridges, lapwings, sandpipers, pigeons, doves, parakeets, cuckoos, owls, nightjars, swifts, kingfishers, bee-eaters and munias.[160] Some species of trees found in Karnataka are Callophyllum tomentosa, Callophyllum wightianum, Garcina cambogia, Garcina morealla, Alstonia scholaris, Flacourtia montana, Artocarpus hirsutus, Artocarpus lacoocha, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Grewia tilaefolia, Santalum album, Shorea talura, Emblica officinalis, Vitex altissima and Wrightia tinctoria. Wildlife in Karnataka is threatened by poaching, habitat destruction, human-wildlife conflict and pollution.[160]

    By virtue of its varied geography and long history, Karnataka hosts numerous spots of interest for tourists. There is an array of ancient sculptured temples, modern cities, scenic hill ranges, forests and beaches. Karnataka has been ranked as the fourth most popular destination for tourism among the states of India.[162] Karnataka has the second highest number of nationally protected monuments in India, second only to Uttar Pradesh,[163] in addition to 752 monuments protected by the State Directorate of Archaeology and Museums. Another 25,000 monuments are yet to receive protection.[164][165]

    The districts of the Western Ghats and the southern districts of the state have popular eco-tourism locations including Kudremukh, Madikeri and Agumbe. Karnataka has 25 wildlife sanctuaries and five national parks. Popular among them are Bandipura National Park, Bannerghatta National Park and Nagarhole National Park. The ruins of the Vijayanagara Empire at Hampi and the monuments of Pattadakal are on the list of UNESCO’s World Heritage Sites. The cave temples at Badami and the rock-cut temples at Aihole representing the Badami Chalukyan style of architecture are also popular tourist destinations. The Hoysala temples at Beluru and Halebidu, which were built with Chloritic schist (soapstone) are proposed UNESCO World Heritage sites.[166] The Gol Gumbaz and Ibrahim Rauza are famous examples of the Deccan Sultanate style of architecture. The monolith of Gomateshwara Bahubali at Shravanabelagola is the tallest sculpted monolith in the world, attracting tens of thousands of pilgrims during the Mahamastakabhisheka festival.[167]

    The waterfalls of Karnataka and Kudremukh are considered by some to be among the “1001 Natural Wonders of the World”.[168] Jog Falls is India’s tallest single-tiered waterfall with Gokak Falls, Unchalli Falls, Magod Falls, Abbey Falls and Shivanasamudra Falls among other popular waterfalls.[168]

    Several popular beaches dot the coastline, including Murudeshwara, Gokarna, Malpe and Karwar. In addition, Karnataka is home to several places of religious importance. Several Hindu temples including the famous Udupi Sri Krishna Matha, the Marikamba Temple at Sirsi, the Kollur Mookambika Temple, the Sri Manjunatha Temple at Dharmasthala, Kukke Subramanya Temple, Janardhana and Mahakali Temple at Ambalpadi, Sharadamba Temple at Shringeri attract pilgrims from all over India. Most of the holy sites of Lingayatism, like Kudalasangama and Basavana Bagewadi, are found in northern parts of the state. Shravanabelagola, Mudabidri and Karkala are famous for Jain history and monuments. Jainism had a stronghold in Karnataka in the early medieval period with Shravanabelagola as its most important centre. The Shettihalli Rosary Church near Shettihalli, an example of French colonial Gothic architecture, is a rare example of a Christian ruin, is a popular tourist site.[169][170]

    Karnataka has become a center of health care tourism and has the highest number of approved health systems and alternative therapies in India. Along with some ISO certified government-owned hospitals, private institutions which provide international-quality services, Hospitals in Karnataka treat around 8,000 health tourists every year.[171]



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    Tamil Nadu (/ˌtæmɪl ˈnɑːduː/; Tamil: [ˈtamiɻ ˈnaːɽɯ] (listen)) is a state in South India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian subcontinent and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh. It is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri Mountains, the Meghamalai Hills, and Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, and by the Indian Ocean on the south. The state shares a maritime border with the nation of Sri Lanka. Its official language is Tamil, which is one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world.

    The region was ruled by several regimes, including the “three crowned rulers” – Chera, Chola and Pandyan states, which shape the region’s cuisine, culture, and architecture. After the fall of the Kingdom of Mysore, the British Colonial rule during the modern period led to the emergence of Chennai, then known as Madras, as a metropolitan city. Modern-day Tamil Nadu was formed in 1956 after the reorganisation of states on linguistic lines. The state is home to a number of historic buildings, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, hill stations and three World Heritage Sites.[8][9][10]

    The economy of Tamil Nadu is the second-largest in India, with a gross state domestic product (GSDP) of ₹21.6 trillion (US$290 billion) and has the country’s 11th-highest GSDP per capita of ₹229,000 (US$3,000).[3] It ranks 11th among all Indian states in human development index.[6] Tamil Nadu is the most urbanised state in India, and one of the most industrialised states; the manufacturing sector accounts for more than one-third of the state’s GDP.[11] Tamil Nadu is the tenth largest Indian state by area and the sixth largest by population.

    tirunagari caste

    Archaeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in the Indian peninsula.[12] In Attirampakkam near Chennai, archaeologists from the Sharma Centre for Heritage Education excavated ancient stone tools which suggest that a humanlike population existed in the Tamil Nadu region somewhere around 1,000 years before homo sapiens arrived from Africa.[13][14] A Neolithic stone celt (a hand-held axe) with the Indus script on it was discovered at Sembian-Kandiyur near Mayiladuthurai in Tamil Nadu. According to epigraphist Iravatham Mahadevan, this was the first datable artefact bearing the Indus script to be found in Tamil Nadu. According to Mahadevan, the find was evidence of the use of the Harappan language, and therefore that the “Neolithic people of the Tamil country spoke a Harappan language”. The date of the celt was estimated at between 1500 BCE and 2000 BCE.[15][16][17] In Adichanallur, 24 km (15 mi) from Tirunelveli, archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) unearthed 169 clay urns containing human skulls, skeletons, bones, husks, grains of rice, charred rice, and celts of the Neolithic period, 3,800 years ago.[18] The ASI archaeologists have proposed that the script used at that site, Tamil Brahmi, is “very rudimentary” and date it somewhere between the 5th century BCE and 3rd century BCE.[19][20] About 60 per cent of the total epigraphical inscriptions found by the ASI in India are from Tamil Nadu, and most of these are in the Tamil language.[21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28] In Keezhadi near Madurai, excavations have revealed a large urban settlement dating to the 6th century BCE, during the time of urbanisation in the Gangetic plain. During this dig, some potsherds were uncovered with a script similar to Indus script, leading some to conclude it was a transition between the Indus Valley script and Tamil Brahmi script used in the Sangam period.[29]

    The early history of the people and rulers of Tamil Nadu is a topic in Tamil literary sources known as Sangam literature. Numismatic, archaeological and literary sources corroborate that the Sangam period lasted for about eight centuries, from 500 BCE to 300 CE. The recent excavations in Alagankulam archaeological site suggests that Alagankulam is one of the important trade centers or port cities of the Sangam Era.[31]

    Ancient Tamil Nadu contained three monarchical states, headed by kings called Vendhar and several tribal chieftaincies, headed by the chiefs called by the general denomination Vel or Velir. Still lower at the local level there were clan chiefs called kizhar or mannar.[32] The kings were known as the Moovendar, the three crowned kings, and were the Cheras, Cholas and Pandyas. The Cheras controlled the western part of Tamilkam, what is today western Tamil Nadu and Kerala. The Pandyas controlled the south, what is today southern Tamil Nadu. The Cholas had their base in the Kaveri delta and controlled what is today northern Tamil Nadu. Although these dynasties were never conquered by outside powers, there were still significant diplomatic contacts between them and kingdoms to the north. They were mentioned on the pillars of Ashoka.[33]

    These rulers sponsored some of the earliest Tamil literature. The oldest Sangam work we have knowledge of is the Tolkappiyam, a book of Tamil grammar. Most Sangam literature dealt with themes of love and war. In these poems, a glimpse of Tamil society at the time can be glimpsed. The land was fertile, and people pursued different occupations depending on what regions they were in. Their gods included figures such as Seyyon and Kotravai, who were worshipped at different places.[34] The rulers patronised Buddhism and Jainism, and starting in the CE period references to Vedic customs begin to grow.[35]

    Significant trade was also undertaken with the outside world. Much commerce from the Romans and Han China converged in the Tamil region, and the seaports of Muziris and Korkai were very popular destinations.[36] One of the most prized goods from Tamilkam was spices such as black pepper, but other spices, pearls and silk were also widely traded there.[37]

    Starting in 300, however, there was a significant drop in Sangam literature. Some have attributed this to the Kalabhras, a dynasty which conquered much of Tamilkam during that time. Historians have speculated these rulers were antagonistic towards the astika schools which were dominant in later centuries, which is why later texts always portray their rule in a bad light, if at all.[38] During their rule, Samanar traditions greatly impacted literature written during this time. Literacy was widespread and epics such as the Cilappatikaram were written. The most prominent of these works is the Tirukkuṟaḷ written by Valluvar, a collection of couplets covering all aspects of life from ethics to love. This text is still treated with great reverence by those in the present-day.[39] Around the 7th century CE, the Kalabhras were overthrown by the Pandyas and Cholas,[40] who continued to patronise Buddhists and Jains before the Saiva and Vaishnava revivalism in the Bhakti movement.[41]

  • area code 521
  • Kallanai or Grand Anicut, an ancient dam built on the Kaveri River in Thanjavur district by Karikala Chola around the 2nd century CE[42][43][44][45]

    Shore Temple built by the Pallavas at Mamallapuram during the 8th century, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site

    Vettuvan Koil, the unfinished temple is believed to have been built during the 8th century by Pandyas in Kalugumalai, a panchayat town in Thoothukudi district.

    During the 4th to 8th centuries, Tamil Nadu saw the rise of the Pallava dynasty under Mahendravarman I and his son Mamalla Narasimhavarman I.[46] The Pallavas ruled parts of South India with Kanchipuram as their capital. Tamil architecture reached its peak during Pallava rule. Narasimhavarman II built the Shore Temple which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

    Much later, the Pallavas were replaced by the Chola dynasty as the dominant kingdom in the 9th century and they in turn were replaced by the Pandyan Dynasty in the 13th century. The Pandyan capital Madurai was in the deep south away from the coast. They had extensive trade links with the southeast Asian maritime empires of Srivijaya and their successors, as well as contacts, even formal diplomatic contacts, reaching as far as the Roman Empire. During the 13th century, Marco Polo mentioned the Pandyas as the richest empire in existence. Temples such as the Meenakshi Amman Temple at Madurai and Nellaiappar Temple at Tirunelveli are the best examples of Pandyan temple architecture.[47] The Pandyas excelled in both trade and literature. They controlled the pearl fisheries along the south coast of India, between Sri Lanka and India, which produced some of the finest pearls in the known ancient world.

    During the 9th century, the Chola dynasty was once again revived by Vijayalaya Chola, who established Thanjavur as Chola’s new capital by conquering central Tamil Nadu from Mutharaiyar and the Pandya king Varagunavarman II. Aditya I and his son Parantaka I expanded the kingdom to the northern parts of Tamil Nadu by defeating the last Pallava king, Aparajitavarman. Parantaka Chola II expanded the Chola empire into what is now interior Andhra Pradesh and coastal Karnataka, while under the great Rajaraja Chola and his son Rajendra Chola, the Cholas rose to a notable power in southeast Asia. Now the Chola Empire stretched as far as Bengal and Sri Lanka. At its peak, the empire spanned almost 3,600,000 km2 (1,400,000 sq mi). Rajaraja Chola conquered all of peninsular South India and parts of Sri Lanka. Rajendra Chola’s navy went even further, occupying coasts from Burma (now) to Vietnam, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Sumatra, Java, Malaya, Philippines[48] in South East Asia and Pegu islands. He defeated Mahipala, the king of Bengal, and to commemorate his victory he built a new capital and named it Gangaikonda Cholapuram.

    The Cholas were prolific temple builders right from the times of the first medieval king Vijayalaya Chola. These are the earliest specimen of Dravidian temples under the Cholas. His son Aditya I built several temples around the Kanchi and Kumbakonam regions. The Cholas went on to becoming a great power and built some of the most imposing religious structures in their lifetime and they also renovated temples and buildings of the Pallavas, acknowledging their common socio-religious and cultural heritage. The celebrated Nataraja temple at Chidambaram and the Ranganathaswamy Temple at Srirangam, Tiruchirappalli, held special significance for the Cholas which have been mentioned in their inscriptions as their tutelary deities. Rajaraja Chola I and his son Rajendra Chola built temples such as the Brihadeshvara Temple of Thanjavur and Brihadeshvara Temple of Gangaikonda Cholapuram, the Airavatesvara Temple of Darasuram and the Sarabeswara (Shiva) Temple, also called the Kampahareswarar Temple at Thirubhuvanam, the last two temples being located near Kumbakonam. The first three of the above four temples are titled Great Living Chola Temples among the UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

    The granite gopuram (tower) of Brihadisvara Temple, 1010 CE

    Airavatesvara Temple built by Rajaraja Chola II in the 12th century CE

    The pyramidal structure above the sanctum at Brihadisvara Temple, Gangaikonda Cholapuram

    Brihadisvara Temple Entrance Gopurams at Thanjavur

    The Muslim invasions of southern India triggered the establishment of the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire with Vijayanagara in modern Karnataka as its capital. The Vijayanagara empire eventually conquered the entire Tamil country by c. 1370 and ruled for almost two centuries until its defeat in the Battle of Talikota in 1565 by a confederacy of Deccan sultanates. Subsequently, as the Vijayanagara Empire went into decline after the mid-16th century, many local rulers, called Nayaks, succeeded in gaining the trappings of independence. This eventually resulted in the further weakening of the empire; many Nayaks declared themselves independent, among whom the Nayaks of Madurai and Tanjore were the first to declare their independence, despite initially maintaining loose links with the Vijayanagara kingdom.[47] The Nayaks of Madurai and Nayaks of Thanjavur were the most prominent Nayaks of the 17th century. They reconstructed some of the well-known temples in Tamil Nadu such as the Meenakshi Temple.

    By the early 18th century, the political scene in Tamil Nadu saw a major change-over and was under the control of many minor rulers aspiring to be independent. The fall of the Vijayanagara empire and the Chandragiri Nayakas gave the sultanate of Golconda a chance to expand into the Tamil heartland. When the sultanate was incorporated into the Mughal Empire in 1688, the northern part of current-day Tamil Nadu was administrated by the Nawab of the Carnatic, who had his seat in Arcot from 1715 onward. Meanwhile, to the south, the fall of the Thanjavur Nayaks led to a short-lived Thanjavur Maratha kingdom. The fall of the Madurai Nayaks brought up many small Nayakars of southern Tamil Nadu, who ruled small parcels of land called Palayams. The chieftains of these Palayams were known as Palaiyakkarar (or ‘polygar’ as called by British) and were ruling under the nawabs of the Carnatic.

    Europeans started to establish trade centers during the 17th century in the eastern coastal regions. Around 1609, the Dutch established a settlement in Pulicat,[49] while the Danes had their establishment in Tharangambadi also known as Tranquebar.[50] In 1639, the British, under the East India Company, established a settlement further south of Pulicat, in present-day Chennai. British constructed Fort St. George[51] and established a trading post at Madras.[52] The office of mayoralty of Madras was established in 1688. The French established trading posts at Pondichéry by 1693. The British and French were competing to expand the trade in the northern parts of Tamil Nadu which also witnessed many battles like Battle of Wandiwash as part of the Seven Years’ War.[53] British reduced the French dominions in India to Puducherry. Nawabs of the Carnatic bestowed tax revenue collection rights on the East India Company for defeating the Kingdom of Mysore. Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah surrendered much of his territory to the East India Company which firmly established the British in the northern parts. In 1762, a tripartite treaty was signed between Thanjavur Maratha, Carnatic, and the British by which Thanjavur became a vassal of the Nawab of the Carnatic which eventually ceded to the British.

    In the south, Nawabs granted taxation rights to the British which led to conflicts between British and the Palaiyakkarar, which resulted in series of wars called Polygar war to establish independent states by the aspiring Palaiyakkarar. Puli Thevar was one of the earliest opponents of the British rule in South India.[54] Thevar’s prominent exploits were his confrontations with Marudhanayagam, who later rebelled against the British in the late 1750s and early 1760s. Rani Velu Nachiyar, was the first woman freedom fighter of India and Queen of Sivagangai.[55] She was drawn to war after her husband Muthu Vaduganatha Thevar (1750–1772), King of Sivaganga was murdered at Kalayar Kovil temple by British. Before her death, Queen Velu Nachi granted powers to the Maruthu brothers to rule Sivaganga.[56] Kattabomman (1760–1799), Palaiyakkara chief of Panchalakurichi who fought the British in the First Polygar War.[57] He was captured by the British at the end of the war and hanged near Kayattar in 1799. Veeran Sundaralingam (1700–1800) was the General of Kattabomman Nayakan’s palayam, who died in the process of blowing up a British ammunition dump in 1799 which killed more than 150 British soldiers to save Kattapomman Palace. Oomaithurai, younger brother of Kattabomman, took asylum under the Maruthu brothers, Periya Marudhu and Chinna Marudhu and raised an army.[58] They formed a coalition with Dheeran Chinnamalai and Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja, which fought the British in Second Polygar Wars. Dheeran Chinnamalai (1756–1805), Polygar chieftain of Kongu and ally of Tipu Sultan who fought the British in the Second Polygar War. After winning the Polygar wars in 1801, the East India Company consolidated most of southern India into the Madras Presidency.

    The Pudukkottai Thondaimans rose to power over the Pudukkottai area by the end of the 17th Century. The Pudukkottai kingdom has the distinction of being the only princely state in Tamil Nadu, and only became part of the Indian union in 1948 after independence.[59]

    At the beginning of the 19th century, the British firmly established governance over the entirety of Tamil Nadu. The Vellore mutiny on 10 July 1806 was the first instance of a large-scale mutiny by Indian sepoys against the British East India Company, predating the Indian Rebellion of 1857 by half a century.[60] The revolt, which took place in Vellore, was brief, lasting one full day, but brutal as mutineers broke into the Vellore fort and killed or wounded 200 British troops, before they were subdued by reinforcements from nearby Arcot.[61][62]

    The British Raj was formed after the British crown took over the control governance from the company and the remainder of the 19th century did not witness any native resistance until the beginning of 20th century Indian Independence movement. During the administration of Governor George Harris (1854–1859) measures were taken to improve education and increase the representation of Indians in the administration. Legislative powers are given to the Governor’s council under the Indian Councils Act 1861 and 1909 Minto-Morley Reforms eventually led to the establishment of the Madras Legislative Council. Failure of the summer monsoons and administrative shortcomings of the Ryotwari system resulted in two severe famines in the Madras Presidency, the Great Famine of 1876–78 and the Indian famine of 1896–97 killed millions of Tamils.[63] The famine led to the migration of many Tamil peasants as bonded labourers for the British to countries like Malaysia and Mauritius, which eventually formed the present Tamil diaspora.

    Tamil Nadu provided a significant number of freedom fighters to the Independence struggle such as V. O. Chidambaram Pillai and Bharatiyar.[64] The Tamils (particularly Tamil Malaysians) formed a significant percentage of the members of the Indian National Army (INA), founded by Subhas Chandra Bose to fight the British colonial rule in India.[65][66] Lakshmi Sahgal from Tamil Nadu was a prominent leader in the INA’s Rani of Jhansi Regiment.

    In 1916 Dr. T.M. Nair and Rao Bahadur Thygaraya Chetty released the Non-Brahmin Manifesto[67] and helped to form the Justice Party, an organisation that sought to reduce Brahmin domination of the civil service. The party won the legislative assembly elections of 1921, which was boycotted by the Congress. This party implemented reservations in government jobs and education for non-Brahmins in 1926, and stayed in power for 13 years. The other main movement was the self-respect movement of E. V. Ramaswamy, better known as Periyar. Periyar campaigned for an end to what he saw as Aryan domination of culture and life in Tamil Nadu. To this end, he became an advocate of rationalism, and campaigned against the caste system, religion, and superstition.[67]

    Further steps towards eventual self-rule were taken in 1935 when the British Government passed the Government of India Act 1935. Fresh local elections were held and in Tamil Nadu the Congress party captured power defeating the Justice party. In 1938, Periyar along with C. N. Annadurai launched an agitation against the Congress ministry’s decision to introduce the teaching of Hindi in schools. Thereafter, the Justice party was taken over by Periyar who renamed it Dravidar Kazhagam and took it out of electoral politics. The group became an advocate for a separate Dravida Nadu (lit. land of the Dravidians) during discussions of the partition of India.[68]

    When India became independent in 1947, Madras presidency became Madras State, comprising present-day Tamil Nadu and coastal Andhra Pradesh, South Canara district of Karnataka, and parts of Kerala. The state was subsequently split up along linguistic lines. In 1969, Madras State was renamed Tamil Nadu, meaning “Tamil country”.[69]

    Tamil Nadu covers an area of 130,058 km2 (50,216 sq mi) [3], and is the tenth-largest state in India. The bordering states are Kerala to the west, Karnataka to the north-west and Andhra Pradesh to the north. To the east is the Bay of Bengal and the state encircles the union territory of Puducherry. The southernmost tip of the Indian Peninsula is Kanyakumari which is the meeting point of the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal, and the Indian Ocean.

    The western, southern, and the northwestern parts are hilly and rich in vegetation. The Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats meet at the Nilgiri Hills. The Western Ghats traverse the entire western border with Kerala, effectively blocking much of the rain-bearing clouds of the south-west monsoon from entering the state. The eastern parts are fertile coastal plains and the northern parts are a mix of hills and plains. The central and the south-central regions are arid plains and receive less rainfall than the other regions.

    Tamil Nadu has the country’s third-longest coastline at about 906.9 km (563.5 mi).[70] Pamban Island and a group of smaller limestone shoals make up the northern portion of Ram Setu, which was formerly a natural bridge linking India with Sri Lanka. Tamil Nadu’s coastline bore the brunt of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami when it hit India, which caused 7,793 direct deaths in the state. Tamil Nadu falls mostly in a region of low seismic hazard with the exception of the western border areas that lie in a low to moderate hazard zone; as per the 2002 Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) map, Tamil Nadu falls in Zones II and III. Historically, parts of this region have experienced seismic activity in the M5.0 range.[71]

    Tamil Nadu is mostly dependent on monsoon rains and thereby is prone to droughts when the monsoons fail. The climate of the state ranges from dry sub-humid to semi-arid. The state has two distinct periods of rainfall:

    The annual rainfall of the state is about 945 mm (37.2 in) of which 48 per cent is through the northeast monsoon, and 32 per cent through the southwest monsoon. Since the state is entirely dependent on rains for recharging its water resources, monsoon failures lead to acute water scarcity and severe drought.[72] Tamil Nadu is divided into seven agro-climatic zones: northeast, northwest, west, southern, high rainfall, high altitude hilly, and Kaveri Delta (the most fertile agricultural zone).

    There are about 2,000 species of wildlife that are native to Tamil Nadu. Protected areas provide safe habitat for large mammals including elephants, tigers, leopards, wild dogs, sloth bears, gaurs, lion-tailed macaques, Nilgiri langurs, Nilgiri tahrs, grizzled giant squirrels and sambar deer, resident and migratory birds such as cormorants, darters, herons, egrets, open-billed storks, spoonbills and white ibises, little grebes, Indian moorhen, black-winged stilts, a few migratory ducks and occasionally grey pelicans, marine species such as the dugongs, turtles, dolphins, Balanoglossus and a wide variety of fish and insects.

    Indian Angiosperm diversity comprises 17,672 species with Tamil Nadu leading all states in the country, with 5640 species accounting for 1/3 of the total flora of India. This includes 1,559 species of medicinal plants, 533 endemic species, 260 species of wild relatives of cultivated plants and 230 red-listed species. The gymnosperm diversity of the country is 64 species of which Tamil Nadu has four indigenous species and about 60 introduced species. The Pteridophytes diversity of India includes 1,022 species of which Tamil Nadu has about 184 species. Vast numbers of bryophytes, lichen, fungi, algae, and bacteria are among the wild plant diversity of Tamil Nadu.

    tirunagari caste

    Common plant species include the state tree: palmyra palm, eucalyptus, rubber, cinchona, clumping bamboos (Bambusa arundinacea), common teak, Anogeissus latifolia, Indian laurel, grewia, and blooming trees like Indian laburnum, ardisia, and solanaceae. Rare and unique plant life includes Combretum ovalifolium, ebony (Diospyros nilagrica), Habenaria rariflora (orchid), Alsophila, Impatiens elegans, Ranunculus reniformis, and royal fern.[73]

    Tamil Nadu has a wide range of biomes extending east from the South Western Ghats montane rain forests in the Western Ghats through the South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests and Deccan thorn scrub forests to tropical dry broadleaf forests and then to the beaches, estuaries, salt marshes, mangroves, seagrasses and coral reefs of the Bay of Bengal.
    The state has a range of flora and fauna with many species and habitats. To protect this diversity of wildlife there are Protected areas of Tamil Nadu as well as biospheres which protect larger areas of natural habitat often include one or more national parks. The Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve established in 1986 is a marine ecosystem with seaweed seagrass communities, coral reefs, salt marshes, and mangrove forests. The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve located in the Western Ghats and Nilgiri Hills comprises part of adjoining states of Kerala and Karnataka. The Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve is in the southwest of the state bordering Kerala in the Western Ghats. Tamil Nadu is home to five declared national parks located in Anamalai, Mudumalai, Mukurthi, Gulf of Mannar, Guindy located in the center of Chennai City and Vandalur located in South Chennai. Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve, Mukurthi National Park and Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve are the tiger reserves in the state.

    The governor is the constitutional head of the state while the Chief Minister is the head of the government and the head of the council of ministers.[74] The Chief Justice of the Madras High Court is the head of the judiciary.[74] The present Governor, Chief Minister and the Chief Justice are R. N. Ravi,[75] M. K. Stalin[76] and Sanjib Banerjee[77] respectively. Administratively the state is divided into 38 districts. Chennai, the capital of the state is the fourth largest urban agglomeration in India and is also one of the major metropolitan cities of India. The state comprises 39 Lok Sabha constituencies and 234 Legislative Assembly constituencies.[78]

    Tamil Nadu had a bicameral legislature until 1986, when it was replaced with a unicameral legislature, like most other states in India. The term length of the government is five years. The present government is headed by M.K.Stalin of the DMK (Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam) party after his recent victory in the Tamil Nadu Legislative Elections in 2021 . The Tamil Nadu legislative assembly is housed at the Fort St. George in Chennai. The state had come under the President’s rule on four occasions – first from 1976 to 1977, next for a short period in 1980, then from 1988 to 1989 and the latest in 1991.

    Tamil Nadu has been a pioneering state of E-Governance initiatives in India. A large part of the government records like land ownership records are digitised and all major offices of the state government like Urban Local Bodies – all the corporations and municipal office activities – revenue collection, land registration offices, and transport offices have been computerised. Tamil Nadu is one of the states where law and order have been maintained largely successfully.[79] The Tamil Nadu Police Force is over 140 years old. It is the fifth-largest state police force in India (as of 2015, total police force of TN is 1,11,448) and has the highest proportion of women police personnel in the country (total women police personnel of TN is 13,842 which is about 12.42%) to specifically handled violence against women in Tamil Nadu.[80][81] In 2003, the state had a total police population ratio of 1:668, higher than the national average of 1:717.

    Tamil Nadu is divided into four major divisions as per the ancient Tamil kings namely Pallava Nadu division, Chera Nadu division, Chola Nadu division and Pandya Nadu division and the four divisions are further subdivided into 38 districts, which are listed below. A district is administered by a District Collector who is mostly an Indian Administrative Service (IAS) member, appointed by State Government. Districts are further divided into 226 Taluks administrated by Tahsildars comprising 1127 Revenue blocks administrated by Revenue Inspector (RI). A District has also one or more Revenue Divisions (in total 76) administrated by Revenue Divisional Officer (RDO), constituted by many Revenue Blocks. 16,564 Revenue villages (Village Panchayat) are the primary grassroots level administrative units which in turn might include many villages and administered by a Village Administrative Officer (VAO), many of which form a Revenue Block. Cities and towns are administered by Municipal corporations and Municipalities respectively. The urban bodies include 15 city corporations, 152 municipalities and 529 town panchayats.[82][83][84] The rural bodies include 31 district panchayats, 385 panchayat unions and 12,524 village panchayats.[85][86][87]

    The state capital of Chennai is the most populous city in the state with more than 8,900,000 residents, followed by Coimbatore, Madurai, Trichy and Salem, respectively.[88][89] Chennai is also the sixth-most populous city in India according to the 2011 Indian census.

    Prior to Indian independence, Tamil Nadu was under British colonial rule as part of the Madras Presidency. The main party in Tamil Nadu at that time was the Indian National Congress (INC). Regional parties have dominated state politics since 1916. One of the earliest regional parties, the South Indian Welfare Association, a forerunner to Dravidian parties in Tamil Nadu, was started in 1916. The party was called after its English organ, Justice Party, by its opponents. Later, South Indian Liberal Federation was adopted as its official name. The reason for the victory of the Justice Party in elections was the non-participation of the INC, demanding complete independence of India.

    The Justice Party which was under E. V. Ramasamy was renamed Dravidar Kazhagam in 1944. It was a non-political party which demanded the establishment of an independent state called Dravida Nadu. However, due to the differences between its two leaders E. V. Ramasamy and C. N. Annadurai, the party was split.

    C. N. Annadurai left the party Dravida Kazhagam to form the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK). The DMK decided to enter politics in 1956. After the demise of C. N. Annadurai, M. Karunanidhi became the leader of the party which was supported by majority leaders including then famous actor M. G. Ramachandran. As a breakaway faction of the DMK. In 1972, M. G. Ramachandran founded the new Dravidian party All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) named after his political mentor C. N. Annadurai popularly called “Anna”. After the demise of M. G. Ramachandran, J. Jayalalithaa succeeded the leadership of the AIADMK party and was fondly called Amma (The Mother) by millions.[90]

    Tamil Nadu is the seventh most populous state in India. 48.4 per cent of the state’s population lives in urban areas, the third-highest percentage among large states in India. The state has registered the lowest fertility rate in India in the year 2005–06 with 1.7 children born for each woman, lower than required for population sustainability.[92][93]

    At the 2011 India census, Tamil Nadu had a population of 72,147,030.[94] The sex ratio of the state is 995 with 36,137,975 males and 36,009,055 females. There are a total of 23,166,721 households.[94] The total children under the age of 6 is 7,423,832. A total of 14,438,445 people constituting 20.01 per cent of the total population belonged to Scheduled Castes (SC) and 794,697 people constituting 1.10 per cent of the population belonged to Scheduled tribes (ST).[94][95]

    The state has 51,837,507 literates, making the literacy rate 80.33 per cent. There are a total of 27,878,282 workers, comprising 4,738,819 cultivators, 6,062,786 agricultural labourers, 1,261,059 in house hold industries, 11,695,119 other workers, 4,120,499 marginal workers, 377,220 marginal cultivators, 2,574,844 marginal agricultural labourers, 238,702 marginal workers in household industries and 929,733 other marginal workers.[96]

    India has a human development index calculated as 0.619, while the corresponding figure for Tamil Nadu is 0.736, placing it among the top states in the country.[97][98] The life expectancy at birth for males is 65.2 years and for females it is 67.6 years.[99] However, it has a high level of poverty, especially in rural areas. In 2004–2005, the poverty line was set at ₹351.86/month for rural areas and ₹547.42/month for urban areas. Poverty in the state dropped from 51.7 per cent in 1983 to 21.1 per cent in 2001.[100] For the period 2004–2005, the Trend in Incidence of Poverty in the state was 22.5 per cent compared with the national figure of 27.5 per cent. The World Bank is currently assisting the state in reducing poverty, high drop-out and low completion of secondary schools continue to hinder the quality of training in the population. Other problems include class, gender, inter-district, and urban-rural disparities. Based on URP – Consumption for the period 2004–2005, the percentage of the state’s population below the poverty line was 27.5 per cent. The Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative ranks Tamil Nadu to have a Multidimensional Poverty Index of 0.141, which is in the level of Ghana among the developing countries.[101] Corruption is a major problem in the state with Transparency International ranking it the second most corrupt among the states of India.[102]

    Religion in Tamil Nadu (2011)[103]

    Hinduism is followed by majority of the population of Tamil Nadu. Christianity and Islam has a considerable following.[104]

    Tamil is the sole official language of Tamil Nadu while English is declared an additional official language for communication purposes.[5][unreliable source?] When India adopted national standards Tamil was the first language to be recognised as a classical language of India.[105] As of 2011 census report, Tamil is spoken as the first language by 88.37 percentage of the state’s population followed by Telugu (5.87%), Kannada (1.78%), Urdu (1.75%), Malayalam (1%) and other languages (1.23%).[106]

    The Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) rights in Tamil Nadu are among the most progressive in India.[108][109] Chennai Rainbow Pride has been held in the Capital city of Chennai annually since 2009.[110] Tamil Nadu is also the first Indian state to ban conversion therapy, following the Madras High Court.[111] Tamil Nadu was the first Indian state to introduce a transgender welfare policy, wherein transgender people can avail free sex reassignment surgery in government hospitals. The state was also the first to ban forced sex-selective surgeries on intersex infants.[112][113]

    In 2019, the Madras High Court ruled that the term “bride” under the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 includes trans women and thereby legalising marriage between a man and a transgender woman.[114]

    Distribution of languages in Tamil Nadu[5]

    Tamil Nadu is one of the most literate states in India.[115] Tamil Nadu has performed reasonably well in terms of literacy growth during the decade 2001–2011. A survey conducted by the industry body Assocham ranks Tamil Nadu top among Indian states with about 100 per cent gross enrolment ratio (GER) in primary and upper primary education. One of the basic limitations for improvement in education in the state is the rate of absence of teachers in public schools, which at 21.4 per cent is significant.[116] The analysis of primary school education in the state by Pratham shows a low drop-off rate but the poor quality of state education compared to other states.[117]
    Tamil Nadu has 37 universities, 552 engineering colleges[118] 449 polytechnic colleges[119] and 566 arts and science colleges, 34,335 elementary schools, 5,167 high schools, 5,054 higher secondary schools and 5,000 hospitals. Some of the notable educational institutes present in Tamil Nadu are Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Anna University, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design and Manufacturing, Kancheepuram, Vellore Institute of Technology, Indian Institute of Management Tiruchirappalli, Annamalai University (Chidambaram), Loyola College, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Presidency College, Chennai, College of Engineering, Guindy, Madras Institute of Technology, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore Institute of Technology, Government College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu Dr. Ambedkar Law University, Tamil Nadu National Law University, Government Law College, Coimbatore, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Madras Medical College, Stanley Medical College, Madras Veterinary College, University of Madras, Coimbatore Medical College and Institute of Road and Transport Technology.

    Tamil Nadu now has 69 per cent reservation in educational institutions for socially backward sections of society, the highest among all Indian states.[120] The Midday Meal Scheme programme in Tamil Nadu was first initiated by Kamaraj, then it was expanded by M G Ramachandran in 1983.

    For the year 2014–15 Tamil Nadu’s GSDP was ₹9.767 trillion (US$130 billion), and growth was 14.86.[122] It ranks third in foreign direct investment (FDI) approvals (cumulative 1991–2002) of ₹225.826 billion ($5,000 million), next only to Maharashtra and Delhi constituting 9.12 per cent of the total FDI in the country.[123] The per capita income in 2007–2008 for the state was ₹72,993 ranking third among states with a population over 10 million and has steadily been above the national average.[124]

    According to the 2011 Census, Tamil Nadu is the most urbanised state in India (49 per cent), accounting for 9.6 per cent of the urban population while only comprising 6 per cent of India’s total population.[125][126] Services contribute to 45 per cent of the economic activity in the state, followed by manufacturing at 34 per cent and agriculture at 21 per cent. The government is the major investor in the state with 51 per cent of total investments, followed by private Indian investors at 29.9 per cent and foreign private investors at 14.9 per cent. Tamil Nadu has a network of about 113 industrial parks and estates offering developed plots with supporting infrastructure. According to the publications of the Tamil Nadu government, the Gross State Domestic Product at Constant Prices (The base year 2004–2005) for the year 2011–2012 is ₹4.281 trillion (US$57 billion), an increase of 9.39 per cent over the previous year. The per capita income at the current price is ₹72,993.

    Tamil Nadu has six Nationalized Home Banks which originated in this state; Two government-sector banks Indian Bank and Indian Overseas Bank in Chennai, and four private-sector banks City Union Bank in Kumbakonam, Karur Vysya Bank, Lakshmi Vilas Bank in Karur, and Tamilnad Mercantile Bank Limited in Tuticorin.

    Tamil Nadu has historically been an agricultural state and is a leading producer of agricultural products in India. In 2008, Tamil Nadu was India’s fifth biggest producer of rice. The total cultivated area in the state was 5.60 million hectares in 2009–10.[127] The Cauvery delta region is known as the Rice Bowl of Tamil Nadu.[128][better source needed] In terms of production, Tamil Nadu accounts for 10 per cent in fruits and 6 per cent in vegetables, in India.[129] Annual food grains production in the year 2007–08 was 10035,000 mt.[127]

    The state is the largest producer of bananas, turmeric, flowers,[129] tapioca,[129] the second largest producer of mango,[129] natural rubber,[130] coconut, groundnut and the third largest producer of coffee, sapota,[129] tea[131] and sugarcane. Tamil Nadu’s sugarcane yield per hectare is the highest in India. The state has 17,000 hectares of land under oil palm cultivation, the second highest in India.[132]

    Dr. M.S. Swaminathan, known as the “father of the Indian Green Revolution” was from Tamil Nadu.[133] Tamil Nadu Agricultural University with its seven colleges and thirty-two research stations spread over the entire state contributes to evolving new crop varieties and technologies and disseminating through various extension agencies. Among states in India, Tamil Nadu is one of the leaders in livestock, poultry, and fisheries production. Tamil Nadu had the second largest number of poultry amongst all the states and accounted for 17.7 per cent of the total poultry population in India.[134] In 2003–2004, Tamil Nadu had produced 3783.6 million of eggs, which was the second-highest in India representing 9.37 per cent of the total egg production in the country.[135] With the second-longest coastline in India, Tamil Nadu represented 27.54 per cent of the total value of fish and fishery products exported by India in 2006. Namakkal is also one of the major centers of egg production in India.
    Oddanchatram is one of the major centers for vegetable supply in Tamil Nadu and is also known as the vegetable city of Tamil Nadu.Coimbatore is one of the major centers for poultry production.[136][137]

    Tamil Nadu is one of the leading states in the textile sector and it houses the country’s largest spinning industry accounting for almost 80 per cent of the total installed capacity in India. When it comes to yarn production, the State contributes 40 per cent of the total production in the country. There are 2,614 Hand Processing Units (25 per cent of total units in the country) and 985 Power Processing Units (40 per cent of total units in the country) in Tamil Nadu. According to official data, the textile industry in Tamil Nadu accounts for 17 per cent of the total invested capital in all the industries.[138] Coimbatore is often referred to as the “Manchester of South India” due to its cotton production and textile industries.[139] Tirupur is the country’s largest exporter of knitwear.[140][141][142] for its cotton production.

    Tamil Nadu accounts for 60 per cent of leather tanning capacity in India[143] and 38 per cent of all leather footwear, garments and components. The state also accounts for 50 per cent of leather exports[144][145] from India, valued at around US$3.3 billion of the total US$6.5 billion from India. Hundreds of leather and tannery facilities are located around Vellore and its nearby towns.

    Tamil Nadu has seen major investments in the automobile industry over many decades manufacturing cars, railway coaches, battle-tanks, tractors, motorcycles, automobile spare parts and accessories, tyres and heavy vehicles. Chennai is known as the Detroit of India.[146] Major global automobile companies including BMW, Ford, Robert Bosch, Renault-Nissan, Caterpillar, Hyundai, Mitsubishi Motors, and Michelin as well as Indian automobile majors like Mahindra & Mahindra, Ashok Leyland, Eicher Motors, Isuzu Motors, TI cycles, Hindustan Motors, TVS Motors, Irizar-TVS, Royal Enfield, MRF, Apollo Tyres, TAFE Tractors, Daimler AG Company invested ₹4 billion for establishing a new plant in Tamil Nadu.[147]

    Tamil Nadu is one of the highly industrialised states in India. Over 11% of the S&P CNX 500 conglomerates have corporate offices in Tamil Nadu.[148][citation needed]

    The state government owns Tamil Nadu Newsprint and Papers, in Karur.[149]

    Coimbatore is also referred to as “the Pump City” as it supplies two-thirds of India’s requirements of motors and pumps. The city is one of the largest exporters of wet grinders and auto components and the term “Coimbatore Wet Grinder” has been given a Geographical indication.[150]

    Electronics manufacturing is a growing industry in Tamil Nadu, with many international companies like Nokia, Flex, Motorola, Sony-Ericsson, Foxconn, Samsung, Cisco, Moser Baer, Lenovo, Dell, Sanmina-SCI, Bosch, Texas Instruments having chosen Chennai as their South Asian manufacturing hub. Products manufactured include circuit boards and cellular phone handsets.[151]

    Tamil Nadu is the second largest software exporter by value in India. Software exports from Tamil Nadu grew from ₹76 billion ($1.6 billion) in 2003–04 to ₹207 billion {$5 billion} by 2006–07 according to NASSCOM[152] and to ₹366 billion in 2008–09 which shows 29 per cent growth in software exports according to STPI. Major national and global IT companies such as Atos Syntel, Infosys, Wipro, HCL Technologies, Tata Consultancy Services, Verizon, Hewlett-Packard Enterprise, Amazon.com, Capgemini, CGI, PayPal, IBM, NTT DATA, Accenture, Ramco Systems, Robert Bosch GmbH, DXC Technology, Cognizant, Tech Mahindra, Virtusa, LTI, Mphasis, Mindtree, Zoho, Mywebbee, and many others have offices in Tamil Nadu. The top engineering colleges in Tamil Nadu have been a major recruiting hub for the IT firms. According to estimates, about 50 per cent of the human resources required for the IT and ITES industry was being sourced from the state.[153] Coimbatore is the second largest software producer in the state, next to Chennai.[154]

    Chennai has emerged as the SaaS Capital of India.[155][156][157][158] The SaaS sector in/around Chennai generates US$1 billion in revenue and employs about 10000 personnel.[158]

    Tamil Nadu has a transportation system that connects all parts of the state. Tamil Nadu is served by an extensive road network, providing links between urban centers, agricultural market-places and rural areas. There are 29 national highways in the state, covering a total distance of 5,006.14 km (3,110.67 mi).[159][160] The state is also a terminus for the Golden Quadrilateral project that connects Indian metropolises like (New Delhi, Mumbai, Bengaluru, Chennai and Kolkata). The state has a total road length of 167,000 km (104,000 mi), of which 60,628 km (37,672 mi) are maintained by the Highways Department. This is nearly 2.5 times higher than the density of all-India road network.[161] The major road junctions are Chennai, Vellore, Madurai, Trichy, Coimbatore, Tiruppur, Salem, Tirunelveli, Thoothukudi, Karur, Kumbakonam, Krishnagiri, Dindigul and Kanniyakumari. Road transport is provided by state owned Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation and State Express Transport Corporation. Almost every part of the state is well connected by buses 24 hours a day. The state accounted for 13.6 per cent of all accidents in the country with 66,238 accidents in 2013, 11.3 per cent of all road accident deaths and 15 per cent of all road-related injuries, according to data provided by the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. Although Tamil Nadu accounts for the highest number of road accidents in India, it also leads in having reduced the number of fatalities in accident-prone areas with deployment of personnel and a sustained awareness campaign. The number of deaths at areas decreased from 1,053 in 2011 to 881 in 2012 and 867 in 2013.[162]

    Tamil Nadu has a well-developed rail network as part of Southern Railway. Headquartered at Chennai, the Southern Railway network extends over a large area of India’s southern peninsula, covering the states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Puducherry, a small portion of Karnataka and a small portion of Andhra Pradesh. Express trains connect the state capital Chennai with Mumbai, Delhi, and Kolkata. Puratchi Thalaivar Dr. M.G. Ramachandran Central Railway Station is the gateway for trains towards the north whereas Chennai Egmore serves as the gateway for the south. Tamil Nadu has a total railway track length of 5,952 km (3,698 mi) and there are 532 railway stations in the state. The network connects the state with most major cities in India. The Nilgiri Mountain Railway (part of the Mountain Railways of India) is one of the UNESCO World Heritage Site connecting Ooty on the hills and Mettupalayam in the foothills which is in turn connected to Coimbatore. The centenary old Pamban Bridge over sea connecting Rameswaram in Pamban island to the mainland is an engineering marvel. It is one of the oldest cantilever bridges still in operation, the double-leaf bascule bridge section can be raised to let boats and small ships pass through the Palk Strait in the Indian Ocean. The government of Tamil Nadu created a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) for implementing the Chennai Metro Rail Project. This SPV named as “Chennai Metro Rail Limited” was incorporated on 3 December 2007 under the Companies Act. It has now been converted into a joint venture of the governments of India and of Tamil Nadu with equal equity holding. Chennai has a well-established suburban railway network and is constructing a Chennai Metro with phase1 operational since July 2015. Major railway junctions (four and above lines) in the state are Chennai, Coimbatore, Katpadi, Madurai, Salem, Erode, Dindigul, Karur, Nagercoil, Tiruchirapalli, and Tirunelveli. Chennai Central, Chennai Egmore, Coimbatore Junction, Tiruchirappalli Junction, Madurai Junction, Salem Junction and Katpadi Junction are upgraded to A1 grade level. Loco sheds are located at Erode, Arakkonam, Royapuram in Chennai and Tondaiyarpet in Chennai, Ponmalai (GOC) in Tiruchirappalli as Diesel Loco Shed. The loco shed at Erode is a huge composite electric and diesel Loco shed. MRTS which covers from Chennai Beach to Velachery, and metro rails also running from Washermenpet to Airport metro station and Central metro station to St.Thomas Mount metro station.

    Tamil Nadu has four international airports, namely Chennai International Airport, Coimbatore International Airport, Tiruchirapalli International Airport and Madurai International Airport. It has the largest number of International Airports along with Kerala. Salem Airport, Thoothukudi Airport and Vellore Airport are the domestic airports. Chennai International Airport is a major international airport and aviation hub in South Asia. Besides civilian airports, the state has four air bases of the Indian Air Force namely Thanjavur AFS, Tambram AFS, Coimbatore AFS and two naval air stations INS Rajali and INS Parundu of Indian Navy. Neyveli Airport is being renovated since 2019[163] to start the service from mid 2020.[citation needed]

    Tamil Nadu has three major seaports located at Chennai, Ennore and Thoothukudi, as well as seven other minor ports including Cuddalore and Nagapattinam.[127] Chennai Port is an artificial harbour situated on the Coromandel Coast and is the second principal port in the country for handling containers. Ennore Port handles all the coal and ore traffic in Tamil Nadu. The volume of cargo in the ports grew by 13 per cent during 2005.[164]

    In Tamil Nadu, the Government of India is to set up a new Rocket launch pad near Kulasekharapatnam in Thoothukudi district for which the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has begun work. The location was selected because of its nearness to the equator like the Sriharikota spaceport in the Satish Dhawan Space Centre.[165]

    Tamil Nadu has four mobile service providers namely BSNL,[166] Airtel,[167] Jio[168] and Vi (Vodafone Idea).[169] BSNL provides 2G and 3G mobile internet connections; Airtel and Vi provide 2G, 3G and 4G services and Jio offers only 4G across Tamil Nadu. Airtel Broadband,[170] Act Broadband[171] BSNL, Hathway[172] and few others are providing high speed Fiber Optic broadband connection in many cities and rural areas across Tamil Nadu.

    Tamil Nadu government is planning to lay 55,000 km of optical fibre cable across the state and provide high-speed internet up to 1 Gbit/s and connect all the corporations, municipalities, town panchayats and village panchayats. This infrastructure would also benefit all the government departments, entrepreneurs and individual homes.[173]

    Tamil Nadu has the third largest installed power generation capacity in the country. The Kalpakkam Nuclear Power Plant, Ennore Thermal Plant, Neyveli Lignite Power Plant, many hydroelectric plants including Mettur Dam, hundreds of windmills and the Narimanam Natural Gas Plants are major sources of Tamil Nadu’s electricity. The state generates a significant proportion of its power needs from renewable sources with wind power installed capacity at over 7154 MW,[174] accounting for 38 per cent of total installed wind power in India .[175] It is presently adding the Koodankulam Nuclear Power Plant to its energy grid, which on completion would be the largest atomic power plant in the country with 2000MW installed capacity.[176] The total installed capacity of electricity in the state by January 2014 was 20,716 MW.[177] Tamil Nadu ranks first nationwide in diesel-based thermal electricity generation with a national market share of over 34 per cent.[178] From a power surplus state in 2005–06, Tamil Nadu has become a state facing severe power shortage over the recent years due to lack of new power generation projects and delay in commercial power generation at Kudankulam Atomic Power Project. The Tuticorin Thermal Power Station has five 210 megawatt generators. The first generator was commissioned in July 1979. The thermal power plants under construction include the coal-based 1000 MW NLC TNEB Power Plant. From the current 17MW installed solar power, Tamil Nadu state government’s new policy aims to increase the installed capacity to 3000MW by 2016.[179] Kamuthi Solar Power Project was commissioned by Adani Power in Kamuthi, Ramanathapuram district.[180] With a generating capacity of 648 MWp at a single location, it is the world’s sixth largest (as of 2018) solar park.[181][182]

    Tamil Nadu is known for its rich tradition of literature, art, music and dance which continue to flourish today. Tamil Nadu is a land most known for its monumental ancient Hindu temples and classical form of dance Bharata Natyam.[184] Unique cultural features like Bharatanatyam[185] (dance), Tanjore painting,[186] and Tamil architecture were developed and continue to be practised in Tamil Nadu.[187]

    Tamil written literature has existed for over 2,300 years.[188] The earliest period of Tamil literature, Sangam literature, is roughly dated from ca. 300 BCE – 300 CE.[189][190] It is one of the oldest Indian literature amongst all others.[191] The earliest epigraphic records found on rock edicts and hero stones date from around the 3rd century BCE.[192][193]

    Most early Tamil literary works are in verse form, with prose not becoming more common until later periods. The Sangam literature collection contains 2381 poems composed by 473 poets, some 102 of whom remain anonymous.[194] Sangam literature is primarily secular, dealing with everyday themes in a Tamilakam context.[195] The Sangam literature also deals with human relations and emotions.[196] The available literature from this period was categorised and compiled in the 10th century into two categories based roughly on chronology. The categories are: Pathinenmaelkanakku (The Major Eighteen Anthology Series) comprising Eṭṭuttokai (The Eight Anthologies) and the Pattupattu (Ten Idylls) and Pathinenkilkanakku (The Minor Eighteen Anthology Series).

    Much of Tamil grammar is extensively described in the oldest known grammar book for the Tamil language, the Tolkāppiyam.Modern Tamil is largely based on the 13th-century grammar book Naṉṉūl which restated and clarified the rules of the Tolkāppiyam, with some modifications. Traditional Tamil grammar consists of five parts, namely eḻuttu, sol, poruḷ, yāppu, aṇi. Of these, the last two are mostly applied in poetry.[197] Notable example of Tamil poetry include the Tirukkural written by Tiruvalluvar.

    In 1578, the Portuguese published a Tamil book in old Tamil script named ‘Thambiraan Vanakkam’, thus making Tamil the first Indian language to be printed and published.[198] Tamil Lexicon, published by the University of Madras, is the first among the dictionaries published in any Indian language.[199] During the Indian Independence Movement, many Tamil poets and writers sought to provoke national spirit, social equity and secularist thoughts among the common man, notably Subramanya Bharathy and Bharathidasan.

    Pongal, also called Tamizhar Thirunaal (festival of Tamils) or Makara Sankranti elsewhere in India, a four-day harvest festival is one of the most widely celebrated festivals throughout Tamil Nadu.[200] The Tamil language saying Thai Pirandhal Vazhi Pirakkum – literally meaning, the birth of the month of Thai will pave way for new opportunities – is often quoted with reference to this festival. The first day, Bhogi Pongal is celebrated by throwing away and destroying old clothes and materials by setting them on fire to mark the end of the old and emergence of the new. The second day, Surya Pongal is the main day which falls on the first day of the tenth Tamil month of Thai (14 January or 15 January in the western calendar). On the third day, Maattu Pongal is meant to offer thanks to the cattle, as they provide milk and are used to plough the lands. Jallikattu, a bull-taming contest, marks the main event of this day. Alanganallur is famous for its Jallikattu[201][202] contest usually held on the third day of Pongal. During this final day, Kaanum Pongal – the word kaanum, means ‘to view’ in Tamil. In 2011 the Madras High Court Bench ordered the cockfight at Santhapadi and Modakoor Melbegam villages permitted during the Pongal festival while disposing of a petition filed attempting to ban the cockfight.[203]
    The first month in the Tamil calendar is Chittirai and the first day of this month in mid-April is celebrated as Tamil New Year. The Thiruvalluvar calendar is 31 years ahead of the Gregorian calendar, i.e. Gregorian 2000 is Thiruvalluvar 2031. Aadi Perukku is celebrated on the 18th day of the Tamil month Aadi, which celebrates the rising of the water level in the river Kaveri. Apart from the major festivals, in every village and town of Tamil Nadu, the inhabitants celebrate festivals for the local gods once a year and the time varies from place to place. Most of these festivals are related to the goddess Maariyamman, the mother goddess of the rain. Other major Hindu festivals including Deepavali (Death of Narakasura), Ayudha Poojai, Saraswathi Poojai (Dasara), Ayya Vaikunda Avataram, Krishna Jayanthi and Vinayaka Chathurthi are also celebrated. Eid ul-Fitr, Bakrid, Milad un Nabi, Muharram are celebrated by Muslims whereas Christmas, Good Friday, Easter are celebrated by Christians in the state. Mahamagam a bathing festival at Kumbakonam in Tamil Nadu is celebrated once in 12 years. People from all the corners of the country come to Kumbakonam for the festival. This festival is also called Kumbamela of South.[204][205]

    Thoothukudi is the place of origin of the Thoothukudi macaroon, Tirunelveli is known for its wheat Halva, Salem is renowned for its unique mangoes, Madurai is the place of origin of the milk dessert Jigarthanda while Palani is known for its Panchamirtham.[206] Idlis, dosas, and sambar are quite common throughout the state. Coffee and tea are the staple drinks.[207]

    In terms of modern cine-music, Ilaiyaraaja was a prominent composer of film music in Tamil cinema during the late 1970s and 1980s. His work highlighted Tamil folk lyricism and introduced broader Western musical sensibilities to the south Indian musical mainstream. Tamil Nadu is also the home of the double Oscar winner A. R. Rahman[208][209][210] who has composed film music in Tamil, Telugu, Hindi, English and Chinese films. He was once referred to by Time magazine as “The Mozart of Madras”.

    Tamil Nadu is also home to the Tamil film industry nicknamed as “Kollywood”, which released the most films in India in 2013.[211] The term Kollywood is a blend of Kodambakkam and Hollywood.[212] Tamil cinema is one of the largest industries of film production in India.[213] In Tamil Nadu, cinema ticket prices are regulated by the government. Single screen theatres may charge a maximum of ₹50, while theatres with more than three screens may charge a maximum of ₹120 per ticket.[214] The first silent film in Tamil Keechaka Vadham, was made in 1916.[215] The first talkie was a multi-lingual film, Kalidas, which released on 31 October 1931, barely seven months after India’s first talking picture Alam Ara.[216] Swamikannu Vincent, who had built the first cinema of South India in Coimbatore, introduced the concept of “Tent Cinema” in which a tent was erected on a stretch of open land close to a town or village to screen the films. The first of its kind was established in Madras, called “Edison’s Grand Cinemamegaphone”. This was due to the fact that electric carbons were used for motion picture projectors.[217]

    There are more than 30 television channels of various genres in Tamil. DD Podhigai, Doordarshan’s Tamil language regional channel was launched on 14 April 1993.[218] The first private Tamil channel, Sun TV Network was founded in 1993. In Tamil Nadu, the television industry is influenced by politics and majority of the channels are owned by politicians or people with political links.[219] The government of Tamil Nadu distributed free televisions to families in 2006 at an estimated cost ₹3.6 billion (US$48 million) of which has led to high penetration of TV services.[220][221] Cable used to be the preferred mode of reaching homes controlled by government run operator Arasu Cable.[222] From the early 2010s, Direct to Home has become increasingly popular replacing cable television services.[223] Tamil television serials form a major prime time source of entertainment and are directed usually by one director unlike American television series, where often several directors and writers work together.[224]

    Kabbadi, also known as Sadugudu, is recognised as the state game in Tamil Nadu.[225] The traditional sports of Tamil Nadu include Silambam,[226] a Tamil martial arts played with a long bamboo staff, cockfight, Jallikattu,[227] a bull taming sport famous on festival occasions, ox-wagon racing known as Rekkala,[228][226] kite flying also known as Pattam viduthal,[227] Goli, the game with marbles,[227] Aadu Puli, the “goat and tiger” game[227] and Kabaddi also known as Sadugudu.[227] Most of these traditional sports are associated with festivals of land like Thai Pongal and mostly played in rural areas.[227] S. Ilavazhagi carrom world champion from 2002 to 2016

    The M. A. Chidambaram Stadium in Chennai is an international cricket ground with a capacity of 50,000 and houses the Tamil Nadu Cricket Association.[229] Srinivasaraghavan Venkataraghavan,[230] Krishnamachari Srikkanth,[231] Laxman Sivaramakrishnan, Sadagoppan Ramesh, Hemang Badani Laxmipathy Balaji,[232] Murali Vijay,[233] Ravichandran Ashwin,[234] Dinesh Karthik, Vijay Shankar, Murali Karthik, Washington Sundar, Subramaniam Badrinath, Abhinav Mukund, and T. Natarajan are some prominent cricketers from Tamil Nadu. The MRF Pace Foundation in Chennai is a popular fast bowling academy for pace bowlers all over the world. Cricket contests between local clubs, franchises and teams are popular in the state. Chennai Super Kings represent the city of Chennai in the Indian Premier League, a popular Twenty20 league. The Super Kings are the second most successful team in the league with four IPL and two CLT20 titles.[235]

    Ravichandran Ashwin – Cricket

    Dinesh Karthik – Cricket

    Adam Sinclair – Field hockey

    Viswanathan Anand – Chess

    P. V. Nandhidhaa – Chess Woman Grandmaster

    Ramkumar Ramanathan – Tennis

    Raj Bharath – Motorsport

    Mariyappan Thangavelu (left most) – High jump

    Mahesh Bhupathi – Tennis

    Ajay Jayaram – Badminton

    Sharath Kamal (left) – Table tennis

    Joshna Chinappa and Dipika Pallikal – Squash

    Tennis is also a popular sport in Tamil Nadu with notable international players including Ramesh Krishnan,[236] Ramanathan Krishnan,[236] Vijay Amritraj[237] and Mahesh Bhupathi. Nirupama Vaidyanathan, the first Indian women to play in a grand slam tournament also hails from the state. The ATP Chennai Open tournament is held in Chennai every January. The Sports Development Authority of Tamil Nadu (SDAT) owns Nungambakkam tennis stadium which hosts Chennai Open and Davis Cup play-off tournaments.

    The Tamil Nadu Hockey Association is the governing body of hockey in the state. Vasudevan Baskaran was the captain of the Indian team that won the gold medal in the 1980 Olympics in Moscow. The Mayor Radhakrishnan Stadium in Chennai hosts international hockey events and is regarded by the International Hockey Federation as one of the best in the world for its infrastructure.[238]

    Tamil Nadu also has golf ground in Coimbatore, The Coimbatore Golf Club is an 18-hole golf course located in Chettipalayam in Coimbatore, located within the city limits in the state of Tamil Nadu in India. The club is also a popular venue for major golf tournaments held in India.

    The Sports Development Authority of Tamil Nadu (SDAT), a government body, is vested with the responsibility of developing sports and related infrastructure in the state.[239] The SDAT owns and operates world-class stadiums and organises sporting events.[240] It also accommodates sporting events, both at the domestic and international level, organised by other sports associations at its venues. The YMCA College of Physical Education at Nandanam in Chennai was established in 1920 and was the first college for physical education in Asia. The Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium in Chennai is a multi-purpose stadium hosting football and track and field events. The Indian Triathlon Federation and the Volleyball Federation of India are headquartered in Chennai. Chennai hosted India’s first-ever International Beach Volleyball Championship in 2008. The SDAT – TNSRA Squash Academy in Chennai is one of the very few academics in South Asia hosting international squash events. Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium in Coimbatore is a multi-purpose stadium in Coimbatore constructed in 1971 which is used to host I-League football matches.[241]

    The tourism industry of Tamil Nadu is the largest in India, with an annual growth rate of 16 per cent. Tourism in Tamil Nadu is promoted by Tamil Nadu Tourism Development Corporation (TTDC), a government of Tamil Nadu undertaking. According to Ministry of Tourism statistics, 4.68 million foreign (20.1% share of the country) and 333.5 million domestic tourists (23.3% share of the country) visited the state in 2015 making it the most visited state in India both domestic and foreign tourists.[242] The state boasts some of the grand Hindu temples built-in Dravidian architecture. The Nilgiri Mountain Railway, Brihadishwara Temple in Thanjavur, Gangaikonda Cholapuram and the Airavatesvara Temple in Darasuram (Great Chola Temples) and the Shore Temple along with the collection of other monuments in Mamallapuram which have been declared as UNESCO World Heritage Sites.[243][244]

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    Telangana (/ˌtɛlənˈɡɑːnə/ (listen), Telugu: [ˈtelanɡaːɳa], Urdu: [ˈtɪlanɡaːna]) is a state in India situated on the south-central stretch of the Indian peninsula on the high Deccan Plateau.[11] It is the eleventh-largest state and the twelfth-most populated state in India with a geographical area of 112,077 km2 (43,273 sq mi) and 35,193,978 residents as per 2011 census.[12] On 2 June 2014, the area was separated from the northwestern part of Andhra Pradesh as the newly formed state with Hyderabad as its capital. Its other major cities include Warangal, Nizamabad, Khammam, Karimnagar and Ramagundam. Telangana is bordered by the states of Maharashtra to the north, Chhattisgarh to the northeast, Karnataka to the west, and Andhra Pradesh to the east and south.[13] The terrain of Telangana region consists mostly of hills, mountain ranges, and thick dense forests covering an area of 27,292 km2 (10,538 sq mi). As of 2019, the state of Telangana is divided into 33 districts.

    Throughout antiquity and the Middle Ages, the region now known as Telangana was ruled by multiple major Indian powers such as the Mauryans, Satavahanas, Vishnukundinas, Chalukyas, Cholas, Rashtrakutas, Kakatiyas, Delhi Sultanate, Bahmani Sultanate, Golconda Sultanate. During the 16th and 17th centuries, the region was ruled by the Mughals of India.[14] The region is known for its Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb culture.[15] During the 18th century and the British Raj, Telangana was ruled by the Nizam of Hyderabad.[16] In 1823, the Nizams lost control over Northern Circars (Coastal Andhra) and Ceded Districts (Rayalseema), which were handed over to the East India Company. The annexation by the British of the Northern Circars deprived Hyderabad State, the Nizam’s dominion, of the considerable coastline it formerly had, to that of a landlocked princely state with territories in the central Deccan, bounded on all sides by British India. Thereafter, the Northern Circars were governed as part of Madras Presidency until India’s independence in 1947, after which the presidency became India’s Madras state.[17]

    The Hyderabad state joined the Union of India in 1948 after an Indian military invasion. In 1956, the Hyderabad State was dissolved as part of the linguistic reorganisation of states and Telangana was merged with the Telugu-speaking Andhra State (part of the Madras Presidency during the British Raj) to form Andhra Pradesh. A peasant-driven movement began to advocate for separation from Andhra Pradesh starting in the early 1950s, and continued until Telangana was granted statehood on 2 June 2014 under the leadership of K. Chandrashekar Rao.[18]

    The economy of Telangana is the seventh-largest in India, with a gross state domestic product (GSDP) of ₹9.78 trillion (US$130 billion) and has the country’s 6th-highest GSDP per capita of ₹227,000 (US$3,000).[4] Telangana ranks 22nd among Indian states in human development index.[7] The state has emerged as a major focus for robust IT software, industry and services sector. The state is also the main administrative centre of many Indian defence aerospace and research labs like Bharat Dynamics Limited, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Defence Research and Development Organisation and Defence Research and Development Laboratory.[19]

    tirunagari caste

    Hyderabadi cuisine and Kakatiya architecture both from Telangana, are on the list of UNESCO creative city of gastronomy and UNESCO World Heritage Site. The cultural centers of Telangana, Hyderabad and Warangal, are noted for their wealth and renowned historical structures – Ramappa Temple (UNESCO World Heritage Site), Charminar, Qutb Shahi Tombs, Falaknuma Palace, Chowmahalla Palace, Warangal Fort, Kakatiya Kala Thoranam, Thousand Pillar Temple and the Bhongir Fort in Yadadri Bhuvanagiri district. The historic city Golconda in Hyderabad established itself as a diamond trading centre and, until the end of the 19th century, the Golconda market was the primary source of the finest and largest diamonds in the world. Thus, the legendary name Golconda Diamonds became synonymous with Golconda itself. Religious edifices like the Lakshmi Narasimha Temple in Yadadri Bhuvanagiri district, Makkah Masjid in Hyderabad, the ancient Bhadrakali Temple and Govinda Rajula Gutta in Warangal, Alampur Jogulamba Temple in Jogulamba Gadwal district and Medak Cathedral, Lord Shiva temple in Vemulawada of Rajanna-Siricilla district are several of its most famous places of worship.

    A popular etymology derives the word “Telangana” from Trilinga desa (“land of three lingas”), a region so-called because three important Shaivite shrines were located here: Kaleshwaram, Srisailam and Draksharama.[20] According to Jayadhir Thirumala Rao, a former director of Andhra Pradesh Oriental Manuscripts Library and Research Centre, the name Telangana is of Gondi origin. Rao asserts that it is derived from “Telangadh”, which according to him, means “south” in Gondi and has been referred to in “Gond script dating back to about 2000 years”.[21]

    One of the earliest uses of a word similar to Telangana can also be seen in a name of Malik Maqbul (14th century CE), who was called the Tilangani, which implies that he was from Telangana. He was the commander of the Warangal Fort (Kataka Pāludu).[22]

    A 16th-century travel writer, Firishta, recorded in his book:

    During the just reign of Ibrahim Kootb Shah, Tulingana, like Egypt, became the mart of the whole world. Merchants from Toorkistan, Arabia, and Persia resorted to it; and they met with such encouragement that they found in it inducements to return frequently. The greatest luxuries from foreign parts daily abounded at the king’s hospitable board.[23]

    The word “Telinga” changed over time to “Telangana” and the name “Telangana” was designated to distinguish the predominantly Telugu-speaking region of the erstwhile Hyderabad State from its predominantly Marathi-speaking one, Marathwada. After Asaf Jahis ceded the Seemandhra region to the British, the rest of the Telugu region retained the name Telangana and the other parts were called Madras Presidency’s Circars and Ceded.[24]

  • 50 cm in inches
  • Telangana was governed by many rulers, including the Maurya Empire (320 BCE–180 BCE), Satavahana dynasty (180 BCE–220 CE), Vakataka dynasty (250 CE–500 CE), Vishnukundina dynasty (420 CE–624 CE), Chalukya dynasty (543 CE–753 CE), Rashtrakuta dynasty (753 CE–982 CE), the Kakatiya dynasty (1083 CE–1323 CE), the Delhi Sultanate (1323 CE–1326 CE) , the Musunuri Nayaks (1326 CE–1356 CE), the Recherla Nayaks (1356 CE–1424 CE), the Bahmani Sultanate (1347 CE–1512 CE), Vijayanagara Empire (1336 CE–1646 CE), Qutb Shahi dynasty (1512 CE–1687 CE), Mughal Empire (1687 CE–1724 CE) and Asaf Jahi Dynasty (1724 CE–1948 CE).

    The Satavahana dynasty (230 BCE–220 CE) became the dominant power in this region. It originated from the lands between the Godavari and Krishna rivers and was based at Amaravathi and Dharanikota.[25] After the decline of the Satavahanas, various dynasties, such as the Vakataka, Vishnukundina, Chalukya, Rashtrakuta and Western Chalukya, ruled the area.[26]

    The Telangana area experienced its golden age during the reign of the Kakatiya dynasty, which ruled most parts of the present-day Andhra Pradesh and Telangana from 1083 to 1323 CE.[26] Rudrama Devi and Prataparudra II were prominent rulers from the Kakatiya dynasty. The dynasty weakened with the attack of Malik Kafur in 1309 and was dissolved after the defeat of Prataparudra by the forces of Muhammad bin Tughluq in 1323.[27][28]

    The area came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate in the 14th century, followed by the Bahmani Sultanate. Quli Qutb Mulk, a governor of Golconda, revolted against the Bahmani Sultanate and established the Qutb Shahi dynasty in 1518. On 21 September 1687, the Golconda Sultanate came under the rule of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb after a year-long siege of the Golconda fort.[29]

    During the early seventeenth century a strong cotton-weaving industry existed in Telangana. Large quantities of cotton were produced for domestic and exports consumption. High quality plain and patterned cloth made of muslin and calico was produced.[30]

    In 1712, Qamar-ud-din Khan was appointed by emperor Farrukhsiyar as the viceroy of Deccan with the title Nizam-ul-Mulk (meaning “Administrator of the Realm”). He was later recalled to Delhi, with Mubariz Khan appointed as the viceroy. In 1724, Qamar-ud-din Khan defeated Mubariz Khan to reclaim the Deccan suba, establishing it as an autonomous province of the Mughal empire. He took the name Asif Jah, starting what came to be known as the Asaf Jahi dynasty.[26] He named the area Hyderabad Deccan. Subsequent rulers retained the title Nizam ul-Mulk and were called Asif Jahi Nizams or nizams of Hyderabad. The Medak and Warangal divisions of Telangana were part of their realm.[31]

    When Asif Jah I died in 1748, there was political unrest due to contention for the throne among his sons, who were aided by opportunistic neighbouring states and colonial foreign forces. In 1769, Hyderabad city became the formal capital of the Nizams. The Nizam Nasir-ud-dawlah, Asaf Jah IV signed the subsidiary alliance with the British in 1799 and lost its control over the state’s defence and foreign affairs. Hyderabad State became a princely state among the presidencies and provinces of British India.[31]

    In 1787, heavy flooding killed over 20,000 causing a plague which killed about 10,656,000 Telugus again in Telangana.[32]

    When India became independent from the British Empire in 1947, the Nizam of Hyderabad did not want to merge with the Indian Union and wanted to remain independent. The Government of India annexed Hyderabad State on 17 September 1948 after a military operation called Operation Polo.[26] It appointed a civil servant, M. K. Vellodi, as first chief minister of Hyderabad State on 26 January 1950.[33] He administered the state with the help of English-educated bureaucrats from the Madras and Bombay states, who were familiar with British systems of administration unlike the bureaucrats of Hyderabad State who used a completely different administrative system. The official language of the state was switched from Urdu to English.

    In 1952, Dr. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao was elected chief minister of the Hyderabad State in its first democratic election. During this time, there were violent agitations by some Telanganites to send the Madras state bureaucrats back and implement a rule by the natives (mulkis) of Hyderabad (Syed Alam Sharjil) was elected chief minister of Hyderabad after (Dr. Burgula Ramakrishana Rao) for one year after he resigned from the post.[34]

    The Telangana Rebellion was a peasant revolt supported by the communists. It originated in the Telangana regions of the Hyderabad State between 1946 and 1951, led by the Communist Party of India (CPI).[35]

    The revolt began in the Nalgonda district against the feudal lords of Reddy and Velama castes. It quickly spread to the Warangal and Bidar districts. Peasant farmers and labourers revolted against the local feudal landlords (jagirdars and deshmukhs) and later against the Nizam Osman Ali Khan. The violent phase of the movement ended after the government of India’s Operation Polo.[36] Starting in 1951, the CPI shifted to a more moderate strategy of seeking to bring communism to India within the framework of Indian democracy.[37]

    In December 1953, the States Reorganisation Commission (SRC) was appointed to form states on a linguistic basis.[38] An agreement was reached between Telangana leaders and Andhra leaders on 20 February 1956 to merge Telangana and Andhra with promises to safeguard Telangana’s interests.[39] After reorganisation in 1956, the region of Telangana was merged with Andhra State to form Andhra Pradesh.

    Following this Gentlemen’s agreement, the central government established the unified state of Andhra Pradesh on 1 November 1956.[40][41][42] G.O 553 of 1959 from the united Andhra Pradesh state moved two revenue divisions of Bhadrachalam from East Godavari and Aswaraopeta from West Godavari to Khammam for administrative convenience.

    There have been several movements to revoke the merger of Telangana and Andhra, major ones occurring in 1969, 1972, and 2009. The movement for a new state of Telangana gained momentum in the 21st century by an initiative of Telangana Political Joint Action Committee, TJAC including political leadership representing the Telangana area.[43] On 9 December 2009 the government of India announced the process of formation of the Telangana state. Violent protests led by people in the Coastal Andhra and Rayalseema regions occurred immediately after the announcement, and the decision was put on hold on 23 December 2009.

    The movement continued in Hyderabad and other districts of Telangana.[44] There have been hundreds of claimed suicides,[45] strikes, protests and disturbances to public life demanding separate statehood.

    On 30 July 2013, the Congress Working Committee unanimously passed a resolution to recommend the formation of a separate Telangana state. After various stages the bill was placed in the Parliament of India in February 2014.[46] In February 2014, Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 bill was passed by the Parliament of India for the formation of Telangana state comprising ten districts from north-western Andhra Pradesh.[47] The bill received the assent of the president and published in the Gazette on 1 March 2014.[48]

    The state of Telangana was officially formed on 2 June 2014. Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao was elected as the first chief minister of Telangana, following elections in which the Telangana Rashtra Samithi party secured majority.[49] Hyderabad will remain as the joint capital of both Telangana and Andhra Pradesh for a period, not more than ten years after that period Hyderabad shall be the capital of the state of Telangana and there shall be a new capital for the state of Andhra Pradesh.[50] Andhra Pradesh picked Amaravati as its capital and moved its secretariat in 2016 and legislature in March 2017 to its new capital.[51][52]

    Telangana is situated on the Deccan Plateau, in the central stretch of the eastern seaboard of the Indian Peninsula. It covers 112,077 square kilometres (43,273 sq mi).[3] The region is drained by two major rivers, with about 79% of the Godavari River catchment area and about 69% of the Krishna River catchment area, but most of the land is arid.[13] Telangana is also drained by several minor rivers such as the Bhima, the Maner, the Manjira and the Musi.

    The annual rainfall is between 900 and 1500 mm in northern Telangana and 700 to 900 mm in southern Telangana, from the southwest monsoons. Telangana contains various soil types, some of which are red sandy loams (Chalaka), Red loamy sands (Dubba), lateritic soils, salt-affected soils, alluvial soils, shallow to medium black soils and very deep black cotton soils. These soil types allow the planting of a variety of fruits and vegetable crops such as mangoes, oranges, coconut, sugarcane, paddy, banana and flower crops.[53][54][55]

    Telangana is a semi-arid area and has a predominantly hot and dry climate. Summers start in March, and peak in May with average high temperatures in the 42 °C (108 °F) range. The monsoon arrives in June and lasts until September with about 755 mm (29.7 inches) of precipitation. A dry, mild winter starts in late November and lasts until early February with little humidity and average temperatures[56] in the 22–23 °C (72–73 °F) range.

    The Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests ecoregion covers much of the state, including Hyderabad. The characteristic vegetation is woodlands of Hardwickia binata and Albizia amara. Over 80% of the original forest cover has been cleared for agriculture, timber harvesting, or cattle grazing, but large blocks of forest can be found in Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve and elsewhere.[57] The more humid Eastern Highlands moist deciduous forests cover the Eastern Ghats in the eastern part of the state.

    Telangana has three National Parks: Kasu Brahmananda Reddy National Park in Hyderabad district, and Mahavir Harina Vanasthali National Park and Mrugavani National Park in Ranga Reddy district.

    Wildlife Sanctuaries in Telangana include Eturunagaram Wildlife Sanctuary and Pakhal Wildlife Sanctuary in Warangal District, Kawal Tiger Reserve and Pranahita Wildlife Sanctuary in Adilabad district, Kinnerasani Wildlife Sanctuary in Khammam district, Manjira Wildlife Sanctuary in Medak district, Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve in Nalgonda and Mahbubnagar districts, Pocharam Wildlife Sanctuary in Medak and Nizamabad districts, Shivaram Wildlife Sanctuary in Karimnagar district.

    Sacred groves are small areas of forest preserved by local people. Sacred groves provide sanctuary to the local flora and fauna. Some are included within other protected areas, like Kadalivanam in Nagarjunsagar–Srisailam Tiger Reserve, but most stand alone. There are 65 sacred groves in Telangana—two in Adilabad district, thirteen in Hyderabad district, four in Karimnagar district, four in Khammam district, nine in Mahbubnagar district, four in Medak district, nine in Nalgonda district, ten in Ranga Reddy district, and three in Warangal district.[58]

    Languages of Telangana (Based on mandal level data, excludes mandals transferred to Andhra Pradesh) (2011)[59]

    Telugu one of the classical languages of India is the official language of Telangana and Urdu is the second official language of the state.[60] About 77% of the population of Telangana speak Telugu and 12% speak Urdu.[61][62] Before 1948, Urdu was the official language of Hyderabad State, and due to a lack of Telugu-language educational institutions, Urdu was the language of the educated elite of Telangana.[63] After 1948, once Hyderabad State joined the new Republic of India, Telugu became the language of government, and as Telugu was introduced as the medium of instruction in schools and colleges, the use of Urdu among non Hyderabadi Muslims decreased.[64] Both Telugu and Urdu are used in services across the state, such as the Telangana Legislature website, with Telugu and Urdu versions of the website available,[65] as well as the Hyderabad metro, wherein both languages are used on station names and signs along with English and Hindi.[66] The Urdu spoken in Telangana is called Hyderabadi Urdu, which in itself is a dialect of the larger Dakhini Urdu dialects of South India. Although the language is orally spoken by most Hyderabadi Muslims, the language in a literary context has long been lost, and standard Urdu is used.[67] Lambadi is also widely used, and Marathi and Kannada predominate in border areas. Many tribal languages are also spoken, especially in Khammam, the largest being Koya and Gondi.[68]

    Religion in Telangana (2011)[69]

    According to the 2011 census, Hindus form 85.1% of the State’s population. Muslims form 12.7% and Christians form 1.3% and 0.9% others.[70][71]

    tirunagari caste

    According to the 2011 census, Telangana’s literacy rate is 66.46%. Male literacy and female literacy are 74.95% and 57.92%, respectively.[3] Hyderabad district leads with 80.96% and Mahabubnagar district at the bottom with 56.06%.[72]

    In a 2019 report, the Key Indicators of Household Social Consumption on Education in India, by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Telangana has a literacy rate of 72.8% which is the fourth lowest of large states. It also has the second lowest literacy rate among rural women at 53.7%. 37.1% of the population aged 3–35 years received free education at pre-primary and higher levels in Telangana.[8]

    The state is divided into 33 districts. The latest two new districts, Mulugu and Narayanpet, were formed on 17 February 2019.[73] The districts are divided into 70 revenue divisions which are further divided into 584 mandals.[74][75]

    The districts in the state are:

    There are a total of 12 cities in the state. Hyderabad is the biggest city in the state and 4th largest city in India. There are 13 municipal corporations and 132 municipalities in the state.

    Telangana is governed by a parliamentary system of representative democracy, a feature the state shares with other Indian states. Universal suffrage is granted to residents. There are three branches of government.

    Auxiliary authorities known as panchayats, for which local body elections are regularly held, govern local affairs. The state contributes seats to Lok Sabha.

    The main players in the regional politics are the Telangana Rashtra Samithi, All India Forward Bloc, All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen, Bharatiya Janata Party and Indian National Congress. Following the Telangana Legislative Assembly Election in 2014, the Telangana Rashtra Samithi under Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao was elected to power.

    The economy of Telangana is mainly driven by agriculture. Two important rivers of
    India, the Godavari and Krishna, flow through the state,
    providing irrigation. Farmers in Telangana mainly depend on rain-fed water sources for irrigation. Rice is the major food crop. Other important crops are cotton, sugar cane, mango, and tobacco. Recently, crops used for vegetable oil production such as sunflower and peanuts have gained favour. There are many multi-state irrigation projects in development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects and Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, the world’s highest masonry dam.[76][77]

    The state has also started to focus on the fields of information technology and biotechnology. Telangana is one of top IT-exporting states of India. There are 68 Special Economic Zones in the state.[78]

    Telangana is a mineral-rich state, with coal reserves at Singareni Collieries Company.[79] The Golconda region has produced some of the world’s most famous diamonds, including the colourless Koh-i-Noor (United Kingdom), the blue Hope (United States), the pink Daria-i-Noor (Iran), the white Regent (France), the Dresden Green (Germany), and the colourless Orlov (Russia), Nizam and Jacob (India), as well as the now-lost diamonds Florentine Yellow, Akbar Shah and Great Mogul.

    Rice is the major food crop and staple food of the state. Other important crops are maize, tobacco, mango, cotton and sugar cane.[80] Agriculture has been the chief source of income for the state’s economy. The Godavari and Krishna rivers flow through the state, providing irrigation. Apart from major rivers, there are small rivers like Tunga Bhadra, Bima, Dindi, Kinnerasani, Manjeera, Manair, Penganga, Pranahitha, peddavagu and Taliperu. There are many multi-state irrigation projects in development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects and Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, the world’s highest masonry dam.[81]

    Agri Export Zones for the following produce have been proposed for the following locations:[82][citation needed]

    Several major manufacturing and services industries are in operation mainly around Hyderabad. Automobiles and auto components, spices, mines and minerals, textiles and apparels, pharmaceutical, horticulture, and poultry farming are the main industries in Telangana.[83]

    In terms of services, Hyderabad is nicknamed “Cyberabad” due to the location of major software industries in the city.[84][85] Prior to secession, it contributed 10% to India’s and 98% to Andhra Pradesh’s exports in the IT and ITES sectors in 2013[86] With Hyderabad in the front line of Telangana’s goal to promote information technology in India, the city boasts the HITEC City as its premier hub. IT companies have also been set up in Khammam[87] and Warangal.[88]

    The state government is in the process of developing industrial parks at different places, for specific groups of industries. The existing parks are Software Park at Hyderabad, HITEC City for software units, Apparel Park at Gundlapochampalli, Export Promotion Park at Pashamylaram, Biotechnology park at Turkapally.[citation needed]

    Hyderabad is also a major site for healthcare-related industries including hospitals and pharmaceutical organisations such as Nizam’s Institute of Medical Sciences, Yashoda Hospitals, LV Prasad Eye Care, Akruti Institute of cosmetic and plastic surgery, Fever Hospital, Durgabai Deshmukh, Continental Hospitals and Apollo Hospitals. Many pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical-related companies like Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories, Shantha Biotechnics and Aragen (Formerly GVK BIO) are based out of Hyderabad.

    In addition, Hyderabad-based healthcare non-profits include the Indian Heart Association, a cardiovascular disease NGO.[89]

    Telangana State Tourism Development Corporation (TSTDC) is a state government agency which promotes tourism in Telangana.[90] Telangana has a variety of tourist attractions including historical places, monuments, forts, waterfalls, forests and temples.

    Telangana state has won CNBC-TV18’s Promising State of the Year Award for the year of 2015. The Jury for the India Business Leader Awards (IBLA) has collectively chosen Telangana for the award.[93][94]

    Telangana state has English and Telugu News papers. Which are published from different cities. The print media mainly consists of Telugu and English newspapers. Nava Telangana, Sakshi, Andhra Jyothi, Eenadu and Namaste Telangana are all Telugu news papers. Mainly in English newspaper are Deccan Chronicle, The Times Of India, The Hindu, and The Hans India.[95] Notable Urdu newspapers include Etemaad Daily, The Munsif Daily, and The Siasat Daily.

    Hydel and thermal power projects in the state meet the power requirements of the state. A number of new power projects are coming up in the State which is expected to generate additional power capacity in the state.

    The state is well connected with other states by means of road, rail and airways. The Telangana State Road Transport Corporation (TSRTC) is the major public transport corporation that connects all the cities and villages.[96] Mahatma Gandhi Bus Station (M.G.B.S) in Hyderabad is one of the largest bus stand in Asia.[97][98] Jubilee Bus Station in Secunderabad serves inter city bus services.

    The state has a total of 16 national highways and accounts for a total length of 2,690.23 km (1,671.63 mi).[99]

    The history of railways in this region dates back to the time of Nizam of Hyderabad in 1874. The Nizam’s Guaranteed State Railway, which had its beginnings in a line built privately by the HEH the Nizam. Much to the dismay of the British authorities, The Nizam bore all the expenses for the construction of the line.[100]

    It operates under the auspices of the South Central Railway founded in 1966. The landmark building Rail Nilayam in Secunderabad is the Zonal Headquarter office of South Central Railway. Secunderabad and Hyderabad are the main divisions of the South Central Railway that fall in the state.[101]

    Rajiv Gandhi International Airport at Shamshabad is an international airport serving the city of Hyderabad. It is the largest airport in the state and one of the busiest airports in the country. The government has plans to upgrade Warangal Airport, Nizamabad Airport[102] and Ramagundam Airport. It also plans to construct airports in Ramagundam and Kothagudem.[103]

    Warangal has a domestic airport in Mamunooru which was established in the year 1930 during the Nizam period. All the exports and imports of Azam Jahi Mills, Warangal were done through the Warangal Airport.[citation needed]

    Telangana culture combines cultural customs from Persian traditions, embedded during the rule of the region by the Mughals, Qutub Shahis and Nizams, with prominent and predominantly south Indian traditions and customs. The State has a rich tradition in classical music, painting and folk arts such as Burra Katha, shadow puppet show, and Perini Shivatandavam, Gusadi Dance, Kolatam and Battukamma.

    Medieval forts such as the Bhongir Fort, Khammam Fort, and Rachakonda Fort are spread across the state. Among the notable ones is the Warangal Fort, which served as the capital of the Kakatiya dynasty.[104] The Kakatiya Kala Thoranam within the fort has become a symbol of Telangana, and features on the state emblem.[105] The fort complex, along with the Ramappa Temple and Thousand Pillar Temple are on the tentative list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites.[104]

    The Qutb Shahi dynasty established the city of Hyderabad as their capital. The Charminar, Golconda Fort, and Qutb Shahi tombs in Hyderabad were built by the Qutb Shahi dynasty.[106]

    The Nizam era saw the construction of palaces such as the Chowmahalla Palace and Falaknuma Palace, as well as elaborate public buildings such as the Osmania General Hospital, all in Hyderabad.

    There are religious worship centres of different religions in the state.

    Hindu worship destinations include Bhadrachalam Temple, Gnana Saraswati Temple, Yadagirigutta Temple, Ramappa Temple, Vemulawada Raja Rajeswara temple, the Thousand Pillar Temple.

    The Muslim worship destinations such as Makkah Masjid near Charminar, Khairtabad Mosque, Koh-e-qaim, Mian Mishk Masjid, Toli Masjid and Spanish Mosque.

    Christian worship centres include the Diocese of Dornakal of the Church of South India, Bahe Church of South India, and Medak Cathedral. There are also some Buddhist destinations, such as Nelakondapalli, Dhulikatta, Phanigiri and Kolanpaka.[107]

    Telugu cinema, also known by its sobriquet as Tollywood, is a part of Indian cinema producing films in the Telugu language, and is centred in the Hyderabad, Telangana neighbourhood of Film Nagar.[108] In the early 1990s, the Telugu film industry had largely shifted from Chennai to Hyderabad. The Telugu film industry is the second-largest film industry in India next to Bollywood.[109] In the years 2005, 2006 and 2008 the Telugu film industry produced the largest number of films in India, exceeding the number of films produced in Bollywood.[110][111] The industry holds the Guinness World Record for the largest film production facility in the world.[112]

    Indigenous art forms of Telangana include the Cheriyal scroll painting,[113] Nirmal paintings, and Karimnagar Silver Filigree.[114] A distinctive Persianate style of painting, called Deccan painting developed in the region during the medieval period.[115]

    Notable museums in the state include the Salar Jung Museum in Hyderabad, which is one of the largest in India.[116] Other museums include the Telangana State Archeology Museum, City Museum, and Nizam Museum in Hyderabad, Warangal Museum in Warangal, and Alampur Museum in Alampur.

    Telangana has multiple institutes of higher education universities along with numerous primary and secondary schools. The Department of Higher Education deals with matters relating to education at various levels in the state of Telangana.

    According to a 2019 report, the state has a literacy rate of 72.8%, which is one of the lowest in India.[8] Schools in Telangana are run by the state government or private organisations, which include religious institutions. Some specialized schools such as the Kendriya Vidyalayas and Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas are run by agencies of the central government.[117] As of 2017[update], there are 41,337 schools in the state, with about 70% of them being government schools.[118]

    Telangana is home to 27 universities, which include 3 central universities, 17 state universities, 2 deemed universities, and 5 private universities. The Osmania University in Hyderabad, established in 1918, is the oldest modern university in the state, and one of the largest university systems in the world. The University of Hyderabad consistently ranks among the top universities in the country.[119] Apart from these, specialised institutes of national importance in the state include AIIMS Bibinagar, IIT Hyderabad, and NIT Warangal.[120]

    Other notable institutions include Indian School of Business, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad, Kakatiya University, International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad, NALSAR University of Law, Kaloji Narayana Rao University of Health Sciences, National Institute of Fashion Technology Hyderabad, Footwear Design and Development Institute, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Hyderabad, and Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies, Basar, among others.[121]

    The Hyderabad FC is a professional football club based in Hyderabad and plays in top tier league of India, the Indian Super League. The home ground of the club is G.M.C Balayogi Athletic Stadium, in Gachibowli.[122]

    The Hyderabad cricket team is represented in the Ranji Trophy and has won twice. The Sunrisers Hyderabad, an Indian Premier League franchise, is based in Hyderabad and has won the trophy once. Deccan Chargers, a currently defunct franchise from Hyderabad, also won the Indian Premier League once. The Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium is the home ground of both Hyderabad cricket team and Sunrisers Hyderabad. It hosts international as well as domestic matches. The Hyderabad Hunters, a Premier Badminton League franchise; the Telugu Titans, a Pro Kabaddi League franchise; the Hyderabad Sky, a UBA Pro Basketball League franchise and the Telugu Tigers, a Premier Futsal franchise are also based in Hyderabad. Hyderabad Hunters are previous winners of the Premier Badminton League title.

    Notable sports persons from the state are Mohammad Azharuddin, V. V. S. Laxman, Mithali Raj, Pragyan Ojha, Ambati Rayudu, Saina Nehwal, P.V. Sindhu, Jwala Gutta, Parupalli Kashyap, Gagan Narang, Mukesh Kumar and Pullela Gopichand (Andhra Pradesh), as well as Sania Mirza who has been appointed as the “brand ambassador” of Telangana.[123]

    Other stadiums include G. M. C. Balayogi Athletic Stadium, Lal Bahadur Shastri Stadium and Gachibowli Indoor Stadium.


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    tirunagari caste

    Prof. Jyothsna.Tirunagari is the President of Samskara Foundation, a Non Profit Organization based at Hyderabad, Telangana that seeks to train, motivate and assist people to improve the quality of life through Holistic Education and Healthcare. She is a Phd in Management,Post graduate in Finance ,Graduate in Computer Applications and a Diploma in Pharmacy. She is a dynamic and passionate born leader who has been working relentlessly for the upliftment of the downtrodden. She is an Experienced Educationalist, Administrator, a social scientist, with interdisciplinary research experience, team and institution builder for providing value based education with global perspective and above all a dedicated honest worker with strong leadership traits. She has started her Political Career as contestant corporator Kachiguda,Hyderabad,Telangana,India.She was former Spokesperson & State Leader for Telangana Jana Samithi. She is presently working as Telangana TELUGU DESAM PARTY TELUGU MAHILA President/National Spokes Person

    Prof.Jyothsna Tirunagari is Born and Brought up in a Brahmin family from the city of Warangal,Telangana State,India. She is married to Dr.Sreedhar Tirunagari in Hyderabad and has 2 children Miss Kritika and Master Kartik ,who are the school toppers and bagged prices in Olympiads.Her father is a Educationalist ,Prof in English,retired as Principal Govt Degree College in Warangal. She has a brother and Sister both are Postgraduates.

    Prof Jyothsna Tirunagari has experience in various corporate organizations and has worked for Ernst & Young,Deloitte.She then worked has Faculty for Sreenidhi Engineering College, VBIT, ICBM School of Business Management and Stanley Engineering College ,Telangana state,India.She has a startup CARAKA CLINICAL AND TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCES PVT LTD ,Contact Research Organization Employing 20 Employees.

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  • Prof Jyothsna Tirunagari is founder president of SAMSKARA a NGO based at Hyderabad,Telangana,India.Since its inception SAMSKARA has been striving hard to create stronger and healthier impact on the society especially the state of Telangana which was under atrocities for years together, trying to make the people of Telangana more vigilant about their rights and duties. After the formation of the separate State of Telangana. SAMSKARA has been striving towards Bangaaru Telangana by working towards a holistic society which is full of Health, Wealth and Well being of the people of Telangana. 

    She has Organized Free Medical Camps, in area of high density of low income people, in hope to spread the wellness idea and reaching the needy patients. Until today She has successfully conducted more than 150 Medical Camps. All these camps have been well supported by the medical faculty, the hospitals, pharma companies, nursing staff , local political individuals and local authorities. Apart from medical camps She has Organized various MOTIVATIONAL TRAININGS, PRE RECRUITMENT TRAININGS, MEMORY WORKSHOPS, COUNSELLINGS, LEGAL SUPPORT SESSIONS and many more such activities. Her aim is to bridge the gaps in the society which become hurdles in the development of the society. She has participated in several Debates in the Media Channels on Various Issues on Telangana and Andhra Pradesh as Political Analyst & Social Activist. 

    Now as TELUGU MAHILA TELANGANA TELUGU DESAM PARTY  President  her slogans and voice.

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