when was idaho founded

when was idaho founded

when was idaho founded
when was idaho founded

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When Congress created Idaho Territory in 1863, the new territory sprawled across an area one-quarter larger than Texas. Today’s state is smaller, but Idaho is still as large as all six New England states combined with New Jersey, Maryland, and Delaware. Consequently, to travel from Bonner’s Ferry in the north to Montpelier in the southeast encompasses a trip of nearly 800 miles, only slightly less than traveling from New York City to Chicago.

when was idaho founded

Idaho State Historical Society offers several ways to explore Idaho history, including the Idaho State Historical Society Reference Series.

More Idaho History

Sawtooth Mountains, Stanley, Idaho – Photo courtesy of Jeff Walker.

The history of Idaho is an examination of the human history and social activity within the state of Idaho, one of the United States of America located in the Pacific Northwest area near the west coast of the United States and Canada. Other associated areas include southern Alaska, all of British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, western Montana and northern California and Nevada.

Humans may have been present in Idaho for 16,600 years. Recent findings in Cooper’s Ferry along the Salmon River in western Idaho near the town of Cottonwood have unearthed stone tools and animal bone fragments in what may be the oldest evidence of humans in North America.[1][2][3][4][5] Earlier excavations in 1959 at Wilson Butte Cave near Twin Falls revealed evidence of human activity, including arrowheads, that rank among the oldest dated artifacts in North America.[6] Native American tribes predominant in the area in historic times included the Nez Perce and the Coeur d’Alene in the north; and the Northern and Western Shoshone and Bannock peoples in the south.

Idaho was one of the last areas in the lower 48 states of the US to be explored by people of European descent.[citation needed] The Lewis and Clark expedition entered present-day Idaho on August 12, 1805, at Lemhi Pass. It is believed that the first “European descent” expedition to enter southern Idaho was by a group led in 1811 and 1812 by Wilson Price Hunt, which navigated the Snake River while attempting to blaze an all-water trail westward from St. Louis, Missouri, to Astoria, Oregon.[citation needed] At that time, approximately 8,000 Native Americans lived in the region.

Fur trading led to the first significant incursion of Europeans in the region.[9] Andrew Henry of the Missouri Fur Company first entered the Snake River plateau in 1810. He built Fort Henry on Henry’s Fork on the upper Snake River, near modern St. Anthony, Idaho. However, this first American fur post west of the Rocky Mountains was abandoned the following spring.

The British-owned Hudson’s Bay Company next entered Idaho and controlled the trade in the Snake River area by the 1820s. The North West Company’s interior department of the Columbia was created in June 1816, and Donald Mackenzie was assigned as its head. Mackenzie had previously been employed by Hudson’s Bay and had been a partner in the Pacific Fur Company, financed principally by John Jacob Astor. During these early years, he traveled west with a Pacific Fur Company’s party and was involved in the initial exploration of the Salmon River and Clearwater River. The company proceeded down the lower Snake River and Columbia River by canoe, and were the first of the Overland Astorians to reach Fort Astoria, on January 18, 1812.

when was idaho founded

Under Mackenzie, the North West Company was a dominant force in the fur trade in the Snake River country. Out of Fort George in Astoria, Mackenzie led fur brigades up the Snake River in 1816-1817 and up the lower Snake in 1817-1818. Fort Nez Perce, established in July, 1818, became the staging point for Mackenzies’ Snake brigades. The expedition of 1818-1819 explored the Blue Mountains, and traveled down the Snake River to the Bear River and approached the headwaters of the Snake. Mackenzie sought to establish a navigable route up the Snake River from Fort Nez Perce to the Boise area in 1819. While he did succeed in traveling by boat from the Columbia River through the Grand Canyon of the Snake past Hells Canyon, he concluded that water transport was generally impractical. Mackenzie held the first rendezvous in the region on the Boise River in 1819.

Despite their best efforts, early American fur companies in this region had difficulty maintaining the long-distance supply lines from the Missouri River system into the Intermountain West. However, Americans William H. Ashley and Jedediah Smith expanded the Saint Louis fur trade into Idaho in 1824. The 1832 trapper’s rendezvous at Pierre’s Hole, held at the foot of the Three Tetons in modern Teton County, was followed by an intense battle between the Gros Ventre and a large party of American trappers aided by their Nez Perce and Flathead allies.

The prospect of missionary work among the Native Americans also attracted early settlers to the region. In 1809, Kullyspell House, the first white-owned establishment and first trading post in Idaho, was constructed. In 1836, the Reverend Henry H. Spalding established a Protestant mission near Lapwai, where he printed the Northwest’s first book, established Idaho’s first school, developed its first irrigation system, and grew the state’s first potatoes. Narcissa Whitman and Eliza Hart Spalding were the first non-native women to enter present-day Idaho.

Cataldo Mission, the oldest standing building in Idaho, was constructed at Cataldo by the Coeur d’Alene and Catholic missionaries. In 1842, Father Pierre-Jean De Smet, with Fr. Nicholas Point and Br. Charles Duet, selected a mission location along the St. Joe River. The mission was moved a short distance away in 1846, as the original location was subject to flooding. In 1850, Antonio Ravalli designed a new mission building and Indians affiliated with the church effort built the mission, without nails, using the wattle and daub method. In time, the Cataldo mission became an important stop for traders, settlers, and miners. It served as a place for rest from the trail, offered needed supplies, and was a working port for boats heading up the Coeur d’Alene River.

During this time, the region which became Idaho was part of an unorganized territory known as Oregon Country, claimed by both the United States and Great Britain. The United States gained undisputed jurisdiction over the region in the Oregon Treaty of 1846, although the area was under the de facto jurisdiction of the Provisional Government of Oregon from 1843 to 1849. The original boundaries of Oregon Territory in 1848 included all three of the present-day Pacific Northwest states and extended eastward to the Continental Divide. In 1853, areas north of the 46th Parallel became Washington Territory, splitting what is now Idaho in two. The future state was reunited in 1859 after Oregon became a state and the boundaries of Washington Territory were redrawn.

While thousands passed through Idaho on the Oregon Trail or during the California gold rush of 1849, few people settled there. In 1860, the first of several gold rushes in Idaho began at Pierce in present-day Clearwater County. By 1862, settlements in both the north and south had formed around the mining boom.

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  • The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints missionaries founded Fort Lemhi in 1855, but the settlement did not last. The first organized town in Idaho was Franklin, settled in April 1860 by Mormon pioneers who believed they were in Utah Territory; although a later survey determined they had crossed the border.[10] Mormon pioneers reached areas near the current-day Grand Teton National Park in Wyoming and established most of the historic and modern communities in Southeastern Idaho. These settlements include Ammon, Blackfoot, Chubbuck, Firth, Idaho Falls, Iona, Pocatello, Rexburg, Rigby, Shelley, and Ucon

    Large numbers of English immigrants settled in what is now the state of Idaho in the late 19th and early 20th century, many before statehood. The English found they had more property rights and paid less taxes than they did back in England. They were considered some of the most desirable immigrants at the time.[11] Many came from humble beginnings and would rise to prominence in Idaho. Frank R. Gooding was raised in a rural working-class background in England, but was eventually elected as the seventh governor of the state. Today people of English descent make up one fifth of the entire state of Idaho and form a plurality in the southern portion of the state.[12][13][14][15]

    Many German farmers also settled in what is now Idaho. German settlers were primarily Lutheran across all of the midwest and west, including Idaho, however there were small numbers of Catholics amongst them as well. In parts of Northern Idaho, German remained the dominant language until World War I, when German-Americans were pressured to convert entirely to English. Today, Idahoans of German ancestry make up nearly one fifth of all Idahoans and make up the second largest ethnic group after Idahoans of English descent with people of German ancestry being 18.1% of the state and people of English ancestry being 20.1% of the state.[16][17][18][19][20]

    Irish Catholics worked in railroad centers such as Boise. Today, 10% of Idahoans self-identify as having Irish ancestry.[21]

    York, a slave owned by William Clark but considered a full member of Corps of Discovery during expedition to the Pacific, was the first recorded African American in Idaho. There is a significant African American population made up of those who came west after the abolition of slavery. Many settled near Pocatello and were ranchers, entertainers, and farmers. Although free, many blacks suffered discrimination in the early-to-mid-late 20th century. The black population of the state continues to grow as many come to the state because of educational opportunities, to serve in the military, and for other employment opportunities. There is a Black History Museum in Boise, Idaho, with an exhibit known as the “Invisible Idahoan”, which chronicles the first African-Americans in the state. Blacks are the fourth largest ethnic group in Idaho according to the 2000 census. Mountain Home, Boise, and Garden City have significant African-American populations.

    The Basque people from the Iberian peninsula in Spain and southern France were traditionally shepherds in Europe. They came to Idaho, offering hard work and perseverance in exchange for opportunity.[22] One of the largest Basque communities in the US is in Boise,[23] with a Basque museum [24] and festival held annually in the city.

    Chinese in the mid-19th century came to America through San Francisco to work on the railroad and open businesses. By 1870, there were over 4000 Chinese and they comprised almost 30% of the population.[25] They suffered discrimination due to the Anti-Chinese League in the 19th century which sought to limit the rights and opportunities of Chinese emigrants.[26] Today Asians are third in population demographically after Whites and Hispanics at less than 2%.

    On March 4, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln signed an act creating Idaho Territory[27] from portions of Washington Territory and Dakota Territory with its capital at Lewiston. The original Idaho Territory included most of the areas that later became the states of Idaho, Montana and Wyoming, and had a population of under 17,000. Idaho Territory assumed the boundaries of the modern state in 1868 and was admitted as a state in 1890.

    After Idaho became a territory, legislation was held in Lewiston, the capital of Idaho Territory at the time. There were many territories acts put into place, and then taken away during these early sessions, one act being the move of the capital city from Lewiston to Boise City.[28] Boise was becoming a growing area after gold was found,[29] so on December 24, 1864, Boise City was made the final destination of the capital for the Territory of Idaho.[30]

    However, moving the capital to Boise City created a lot of issues between the territory. This was especially true between the north and south areas in the territory, due to how far south Boise City was.[30] Problems with communicating between the north and south contributed to some land in Idaho Territory being transferred to other territories and areas at the time. Idaho’s early boundary changes helped create the current boundaries of Washington, Wyoming, and Montana States as currently exist.[28]

    When President Benjamin Harrison signed the law admitting Idaho as a U.S. state on July 3, 1890, the population was 88,548. George L. Shoup became the state’s first governor, but resigned after only a few weeks in office to take a seat in the United States Senate. Willis Sweet, A Republican, was the first congressman, 1890 to 1895, representing the state at-large. He vigorously demanded “Free Silver” or the unrestricted coinage of silver into legal tender, in order to pour money into the large silver mining industry in the Mountain West, but he was defeated by supporters of the gold standard. In 1896 he, like many Republicans from silver mining districts, supported the Silver Republican Party instead of the regular Republican nominee William McKinley.[31]

    During its first years of statehood, Idaho was plagued by labor unrest in the mining district of Coeur d’Alene. In 1892, miners called a strike which developed into a shooting war between union miners and company guards. Each side accused the other of starting the fight. The first shots were exchanged at the Frisco mine in Frisco, in the Burke-Canyon north and east of Wallace. The Frisco mine was blown up, and company guards were taken prisoner. The violence soon spilled over into the nearby community of Gem, where union miners attempted to locate a Pinkerton spy who had infiltrated their union and was passing information to the mine operators. But agent Charlie Siringo escaped by cutting a hole in the floor of his room. Strikers forced the Gem mine to close, then traveled west to the Bunker Hill mining complex near Wardner, and closed down that facility as well. Several had been killed in the Burke-Canyon fighting. The Idaho National Guard and federal troops were dispatched to the area, and union miners and sympathizers were thrown into bullpens.

    Hostilities would again erupt at the Bunker Hill facility in 1899, when seventeen union miners were fired for having joined the union. Other union miners were likewise ordered to draw their pay and leave. Angry members of the union converged on the area and blew up the Bunker Hill Mill, killing two company men.

    In both disputes, the union’s complaints included pay, hours of work, the right of miners to belong to the union, and the mine owners’ use of informants and undercover agents. The violence committed by union miners was answered with a brutal response in 1892 and in 1899.

    Through the Western Federation of Miners (WFM) union, the battles in the mining district became closely tied to a major miners’ strike in Colorado. The struggle culminated in the December 1905 assassination of former Governor Frank Steunenberg by Harry Orchard (also known as Albert Horsley), a member of the WFM. Orchard was allegedly incensed by Steunenberg’s efforts as governor to put down the 1899 miner uprising after being elected on a pro-labor platform.

    Pinkerton detective James McParland conducted the investigation into the assassination. In 1907, WFM Secretary Treasurer “Big Bill” Haywood and two other WFM leaders were tried on a charge of conspiracy to murder Steunenberg, with Orchard testifying against them as part of a deal made with McParland. The nationally publicized trial featured Senator William E. Borah as prosecuting attorney and Clarence Darrow representing the defendants. The defense team presented evidence that Orchard had been a Pinkerton agent and had acted as a paid informant for the Cripple Creek Mine Owners’ Association. Darrow argued that Orchard’s real motive in the assassination had been revenge for a declaration of martial law by Steunenberg, which prompted Orchard to gamble away a share in the Hercules silver mine that would otherwise have made him wealthy.

    Two of the WFM leaders were acquitted in two separate trials, and the third was released. Orchard was convicted and sentenced to death. His sentence was commuted, and he spent the rest of his life in an Idaho prison.

    Mining in Idaho[32] was a major commercial venture, bringing a great deal of attention to the state. From 1860-1866 Idaho produced 19% of all gold in the United States, or 2.5 million ounces.

    Most of Idaho’s mining production, 1860–1969, has come from metals equating to $2.88 billion out of $3.42 billion, according to the best estimates. Of the metallic mining areas of Idaho, the Coeur d’Alene region has produced the most by far, and accounts for about 80% of the total Idaho yield.

    Several others—Boise Basin, Wood River Valley, Stibnite, Blackbirg, and Owyhee—range considerably above the other big producers. Atlanta, Bear Valley, Bay Horse, Florence, Gilmore, Mackay, Patterson, and Yankee Fork all ran on the order of ten to twenty million dollars, and Elk City, Leesburg, Pierce, Rocky Bar, and Warren’s make up the rest of the major Idaho mining areas that stand out in the sixty or so regions of production worthy of mention.

    A number of small operations do not appear in this list of Idaho metallic mining areas: a small amount of gold was recovered from Goose Creek on Salmon Meadows; a mine near Cleveland was prospected in 1922 and produced a little manganese in 1926; a few tons of copper came from Fort Hall, and a few more tons of copper came from a mine near Montpelier. Similarly, a few tons of lead came from a property near Bear Lake, and lead-silver is known on Cassia Creek near Elba. Some gold quartz and lead-silver workings are on Ruby Creek west of Elk River, and there is a slightly developed copper operation on Deer Creek near Winchester. Molybdenum is known on Roaring River and on the east fork of the Salmon. Some scattered mining enterprises have been undertaken around Soldier Mountain and on Squaw Creek north of Montour.

    Idaho proved to be one of the more receptive states to the progressive agenda of the late 19th century and early 20th century. The state embraced progressive policies such as women’s suffrage (1896) and prohibition (1916) before they became federal law. Idahoans were also strongly supportive of Free Silver. The pro-bimetallism Populist and Silver Republican parties of the late 1890s were particularly successful in the state.

    Eugenics was also a major part of the Progressive movement.[33] In 1919, the Idaho legislature passed an Act legalizing the forced sterilization of some persons institutionalized in the state. The act was vetoed by governor D.W. Davis, who doubted its scientific merits and believed it likely violated the Equal Protection clause of the US Constitution.[34] In 1925, the Idaho legislature passed a revised eugenics act, now tailored to avoid Davis’s earlier objections. The new law created a state board of eugenics, charged with:

    The Eugenics board was eventually folded into the state’s health commission; between 1932 and 1964, a total of 30 women and eight men in Idaho were sterilized under this law.[36] The sterilization law was formally repealed in 1972.[37]

    After statehood, Idaho’s economy began a gradual shift away from mining toward agriculture, particularly in the south. Older mining communities such as Silver City and Rocky Bar gave way to agricultural communities incorporated after statehood, such as Nampa and Twin Falls. Milner Dam on the Snake River, completed in 1905, allowed for the formation of many agricultural communities in the Magic Valley region which had previously been nearly unpopulated.

    Meanwhile, some of the mining towns were able to reinvent themselves as resort communities, most notably in Blaine County, where the Sun Valley ski resort opened in 1936. Others, such as Silver City and Rocky Bar, became ghost towns.

    In the north, mining continued to be an important industry for several more decades. The closure of the Bunker Hill Mine complex in Shoshone County in the early 1980s sent the region’s economy into a tailspin. Since that time, a substantial increase in tourism in north Idaho has helped the region to recover. Coeur d’Alene, a lake-side resort town, is a destination for visitors in the area.

    Beginning in the 1980s, there was a rise in North Idaho of a few right-wing extremist and “survivalist” political groups, most notably one holding Neo-Nazi views, the Aryan Nations. These groups were most heavily concentrated in the Panhandle region of the state, particularly in the vicinity of Coeur d’Alene.

    In 1992 a stand-off occurred between U.S. Marshals, the F.B.I., and white separatist Randy Weaver and his family at their compound at Ruby Ridge, located near the small, northern Idaho town of Naples. The ensuing fire-fight and deaths of a U.S. Marshal, and Weaver’s son and wife gained national attention, and raised a considerable amount of controversy regarding the nature of acceptable force by the federal government in such situations.

    when was idaho founded

    In 2001, the Aryan Nations compound, which had been located in Hayden Lake, Idaho, was confiscated as a result of a court case, and the organization moved out of state. About the same time Boise installed an impressive stone Human Rights Memorial featuring a bronze statue of Anne Frank and quotations from her and many other writers extolling human freedom and equality.

    The demographics of the state have changed. Due to this growth in different groups, especially in Boise, the economic expansion surged wrong-economic growth followed the high standard of living and resulted in the “growth of different groups”.[citation needed] The population of Idaho in the 21st Century has been described as sharply divided along geographic and cultural lines due to the center of the state being dominated by sparsely-populated national forests, mountain ranges and recreation sites: “unless you’re willing to navigate a treacherous mountain pass, you can’t even drive from the north to the south without leaving the state.” The northern population gravitates towards Spokane, Washington, the heavily Mormon south-east population towards Utah, with an isolated Boise “[being] the closest thing to a city-state that you’ll find in America.”[38]

    Idaho was one of several states that received the brunt of nuclear fallout from tests at the Nevada Test Site during the 1950s and 1960s. Reports published by the U.S. government indicate that many Idaho citizens perished and continue to suffer as a result of these tests.[citation needed] As of September 2007, there were continuing efforts in the U.S. congress to compensate victims.[citation needed]


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    The history of Idaho is an examination of the human history and social activity within the state of Idaho, one of the United States of America located in the Pacific Northwest area near the west coast of the United States and Canada. Other associated areas include southern Alaska, all of British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, western Montana and northern California and Nevada.

    Humans may have been present in Idaho for 16,600 years. Recent findings in Cooper’s Ferry along the Salmon River in western Idaho near the town of Cottonwood have unearthed stone tools and animal bone fragments in what may be the oldest evidence of humans in North America.[1][2][3][4][5] Earlier excavations in 1959 at Wilson Butte Cave near Twin Falls revealed evidence of human activity, including arrowheads, that rank among the oldest dated artifacts in North America.[6] Native American tribes predominant in the area in historic times included the Nez Perce and the Coeur d’Alene in the north; and the Northern and Western Shoshone and Bannock peoples in the south.

    Idaho was one of the last areas in the lower 48 states of the US to be explored by people of European descent.[citation needed] The Lewis and Clark expedition entered present-day Idaho on August 12, 1805, at Lemhi Pass. It is believed that the first “European descent” expedition to enter southern Idaho was by a group led in 1811 and 1812 by Wilson Price Hunt, which navigated the Snake River while attempting to blaze an all-water trail westward from St. Louis, Missouri, to Astoria, Oregon.[citation needed] At that time, approximately 8,000 Native Americans lived in the region.

    Fur trading led to the first significant incursion of Europeans in the region.[9] Andrew Henry of the Missouri Fur Company first entered the Snake River plateau in 1810. He built Fort Henry on Henry’s Fork on the upper Snake River, near modern St. Anthony, Idaho. However, this first American fur post west of the Rocky Mountains was abandoned the following spring.

    The British-owned Hudson’s Bay Company next entered Idaho and controlled the trade in the Snake River area by the 1820s. The North West Company’s interior department of the Columbia was created in June 1816, and Donald Mackenzie was assigned as its head. Mackenzie had previously been employed by Hudson’s Bay and had been a partner in the Pacific Fur Company, financed principally by John Jacob Astor. During these early years, he traveled west with a Pacific Fur Company’s party and was involved in the initial exploration of the Salmon River and Clearwater River. The company proceeded down the lower Snake River and Columbia River by canoe, and were the first of the Overland Astorians to reach Fort Astoria, on January 18, 1812.

    when was idaho founded

    Under Mackenzie, the North West Company was a dominant force in the fur trade in the Snake River country. Out of Fort George in Astoria, Mackenzie led fur brigades up the Snake River in 1816-1817 and up the lower Snake in 1817-1818. Fort Nez Perce, established in July, 1818, became the staging point for Mackenzies’ Snake brigades. The expedition of 1818-1819 explored the Blue Mountains, and traveled down the Snake River to the Bear River and approached the headwaters of the Snake. Mackenzie sought to establish a navigable route up the Snake River from Fort Nez Perce to the Boise area in 1819. While he did succeed in traveling by boat from the Columbia River through the Grand Canyon of the Snake past Hells Canyon, he concluded that water transport was generally impractical. Mackenzie held the first rendezvous in the region on the Boise River in 1819.

    Despite their best efforts, early American fur companies in this region had difficulty maintaining the long-distance supply lines from the Missouri River system into the Intermountain West. However, Americans William H. Ashley and Jedediah Smith expanded the Saint Louis fur trade into Idaho in 1824. The 1832 trapper’s rendezvous at Pierre’s Hole, held at the foot of the Three Tetons in modern Teton County, was followed by an intense battle between the Gros Ventre and a large party of American trappers aided by their Nez Perce and Flathead allies.

    The prospect of missionary work among the Native Americans also attracted early settlers to the region. In 1809, Kullyspell House, the first white-owned establishment and first trading post in Idaho, was constructed. In 1836, the Reverend Henry H. Spalding established a Protestant mission near Lapwai, where he printed the Northwest’s first book, established Idaho’s first school, developed its first irrigation system, and grew the state’s first potatoes. Narcissa Whitman and Eliza Hart Spalding were the first non-native women to enter present-day Idaho.

    Cataldo Mission, the oldest standing building in Idaho, was constructed at Cataldo by the Coeur d’Alene and Catholic missionaries. In 1842, Father Pierre-Jean De Smet, with Fr. Nicholas Point and Br. Charles Duet, selected a mission location along the St. Joe River. The mission was moved a short distance away in 1846, as the original location was subject to flooding. In 1850, Antonio Ravalli designed a new mission building and Indians affiliated with the church effort built the mission, without nails, using the wattle and daub method. In time, the Cataldo mission became an important stop for traders, settlers, and miners. It served as a place for rest from the trail, offered needed supplies, and was a working port for boats heading up the Coeur d’Alene River.

    During this time, the region which became Idaho was part of an unorganized territory known as Oregon Country, claimed by both the United States and Great Britain. The United States gained undisputed jurisdiction over the region in the Oregon Treaty of 1846, although the area was under the de facto jurisdiction of the Provisional Government of Oregon from 1843 to 1849. The original boundaries of Oregon Territory in 1848 included all three of the present-day Pacific Northwest states and extended eastward to the Continental Divide. In 1853, areas north of the 46th Parallel became Washington Territory, splitting what is now Idaho in two. The future state was reunited in 1859 after Oregon became a state and the boundaries of Washington Territory were redrawn.

    While thousands passed through Idaho on the Oregon Trail or during the California gold rush of 1849, few people settled there. In 1860, the first of several gold rushes in Idaho began at Pierce in present-day Clearwater County. By 1862, settlements in both the north and south had formed around the mining boom.

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  • The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints missionaries founded Fort Lemhi in 1855, but the settlement did not last. The first organized town in Idaho was Franklin, settled in April 1860 by Mormon pioneers who believed they were in Utah Territory; although a later survey determined they had crossed the border.[10] Mormon pioneers reached areas near the current-day Grand Teton National Park in Wyoming and established most of the historic and modern communities in Southeastern Idaho. These settlements include Ammon, Blackfoot, Chubbuck, Firth, Idaho Falls, Iona, Pocatello, Rexburg, Rigby, Shelley, and Ucon

    Large numbers of English immigrants settled in what is now the state of Idaho in the late 19th and early 20th century, many before statehood. The English found they had more property rights and paid less taxes than they did back in England. They were considered some of the most desirable immigrants at the time.[11] Many came from humble beginnings and would rise to prominence in Idaho. Frank R. Gooding was raised in a rural working-class background in England, but was eventually elected as the seventh governor of the state. Today people of English descent make up one fifth of the entire state of Idaho and form a plurality in the southern portion of the state.[12][13][14][15]

    Many German farmers also settled in what is now Idaho. German settlers were primarily Lutheran across all of the midwest and west, including Idaho, however there were small numbers of Catholics amongst them as well. In parts of Northern Idaho, German remained the dominant language until World War I, when German-Americans were pressured to convert entirely to English. Today, Idahoans of German ancestry make up nearly one fifth of all Idahoans and make up the second largest ethnic group after Idahoans of English descent with people of German ancestry being 18.1% of the state and people of English ancestry being 20.1% of the state.[16][17][18][19][20]

    Irish Catholics worked in railroad centers such as Boise. Today, 10% of Idahoans self-identify as having Irish ancestry.[21]

    York, a slave owned by William Clark but considered a full member of Corps of Discovery during expedition to the Pacific, was the first recorded African American in Idaho. There is a significant African American population made up of those who came west after the abolition of slavery. Many settled near Pocatello and were ranchers, entertainers, and farmers. Although free, many blacks suffered discrimination in the early-to-mid-late 20th century. The black population of the state continues to grow as many come to the state because of educational opportunities, to serve in the military, and for other employment opportunities. There is a Black History Museum in Boise, Idaho, with an exhibit known as the “Invisible Idahoan”, which chronicles the first African-Americans in the state. Blacks are the fourth largest ethnic group in Idaho according to the 2000 census. Mountain Home, Boise, and Garden City have significant African-American populations.

    The Basque people from the Iberian peninsula in Spain and southern France were traditionally shepherds in Europe. They came to Idaho, offering hard work and perseverance in exchange for opportunity.[22] One of the largest Basque communities in the US is in Boise,[23] with a Basque museum [24] and festival held annually in the city.

    Chinese in the mid-19th century came to America through San Francisco to work on the railroad and open businesses. By 1870, there were over 4000 Chinese and they comprised almost 30% of the population.[25] They suffered discrimination due to the Anti-Chinese League in the 19th century which sought to limit the rights and opportunities of Chinese emigrants.[26] Today Asians are third in population demographically after Whites and Hispanics at less than 2%.

    On March 4, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln signed an act creating Idaho Territory[27] from portions of Washington Territory and Dakota Territory with its capital at Lewiston. The original Idaho Territory included most of the areas that later became the states of Idaho, Montana and Wyoming, and had a population of under 17,000. Idaho Territory assumed the boundaries of the modern state in 1868 and was admitted as a state in 1890.

    After Idaho became a territory, legislation was held in Lewiston, the capital of Idaho Territory at the time. There were many territories acts put into place, and then taken away during these early sessions, one act being the move of the capital city from Lewiston to Boise City.[28] Boise was becoming a growing area after gold was found,[29] so on December 24, 1864, Boise City was made the final destination of the capital for the Territory of Idaho.[30]

    However, moving the capital to Boise City created a lot of issues between the territory. This was especially true between the north and south areas in the territory, due to how far south Boise City was.[30] Problems with communicating between the north and south contributed to some land in Idaho Territory being transferred to other territories and areas at the time. Idaho’s early boundary changes helped create the current boundaries of Washington, Wyoming, and Montana States as currently exist.[28]

    When President Benjamin Harrison signed the law admitting Idaho as a U.S. state on July 3, 1890, the population was 88,548. George L. Shoup became the state’s first governor, but resigned after only a few weeks in office to take a seat in the United States Senate. Willis Sweet, A Republican, was the first congressman, 1890 to 1895, representing the state at-large. He vigorously demanded “Free Silver” or the unrestricted coinage of silver into legal tender, in order to pour money into the large silver mining industry in the Mountain West, but he was defeated by supporters of the gold standard. In 1896 he, like many Republicans from silver mining districts, supported the Silver Republican Party instead of the regular Republican nominee William McKinley.[31]

    During its first years of statehood, Idaho was plagued by labor unrest in the mining district of Coeur d’Alene. In 1892, miners called a strike which developed into a shooting war between union miners and company guards. Each side accused the other of starting the fight. The first shots were exchanged at the Frisco mine in Frisco, in the Burke-Canyon north and east of Wallace. The Frisco mine was blown up, and company guards were taken prisoner. The violence soon spilled over into the nearby community of Gem, where union miners attempted to locate a Pinkerton spy who had infiltrated their union and was passing information to the mine operators. But agent Charlie Siringo escaped by cutting a hole in the floor of his room. Strikers forced the Gem mine to close, then traveled west to the Bunker Hill mining complex near Wardner, and closed down that facility as well. Several had been killed in the Burke-Canyon fighting. The Idaho National Guard and federal troops were dispatched to the area, and union miners and sympathizers were thrown into bullpens.

    Hostilities would again erupt at the Bunker Hill facility in 1899, when seventeen union miners were fired for having joined the union. Other union miners were likewise ordered to draw their pay and leave. Angry members of the union converged on the area and blew up the Bunker Hill Mill, killing two company men.

    In both disputes, the union’s complaints included pay, hours of work, the right of miners to belong to the union, and the mine owners’ use of informants and undercover agents. The violence committed by union miners was answered with a brutal response in 1892 and in 1899.

    Through the Western Federation of Miners (WFM) union, the battles in the mining district became closely tied to a major miners’ strike in Colorado. The struggle culminated in the December 1905 assassination of former Governor Frank Steunenberg by Harry Orchard (also known as Albert Horsley), a member of the WFM. Orchard was allegedly incensed by Steunenberg’s efforts as governor to put down the 1899 miner uprising after being elected on a pro-labor platform.

    Pinkerton detective James McParland conducted the investigation into the assassination. In 1907, WFM Secretary Treasurer “Big Bill” Haywood and two other WFM leaders were tried on a charge of conspiracy to murder Steunenberg, with Orchard testifying against them as part of a deal made with McParland. The nationally publicized trial featured Senator William E. Borah as prosecuting attorney and Clarence Darrow representing the defendants. The defense team presented evidence that Orchard had been a Pinkerton agent and had acted as a paid informant for the Cripple Creek Mine Owners’ Association. Darrow argued that Orchard’s real motive in the assassination had been revenge for a declaration of martial law by Steunenberg, which prompted Orchard to gamble away a share in the Hercules silver mine that would otherwise have made him wealthy.

    Two of the WFM leaders were acquitted in two separate trials, and the third was released. Orchard was convicted and sentenced to death. His sentence was commuted, and he spent the rest of his life in an Idaho prison.

    Mining in Idaho[32] was a major commercial venture, bringing a great deal of attention to the state. From 1860-1866 Idaho produced 19% of all gold in the United States, or 2.5 million ounces.

    Most of Idaho’s mining production, 1860–1969, has come from metals equating to $2.88 billion out of $3.42 billion, according to the best estimates. Of the metallic mining areas of Idaho, the Coeur d’Alene region has produced the most by far, and accounts for about 80% of the total Idaho yield.

    Several others—Boise Basin, Wood River Valley, Stibnite, Blackbirg, and Owyhee—range considerably above the other big producers. Atlanta, Bear Valley, Bay Horse, Florence, Gilmore, Mackay, Patterson, and Yankee Fork all ran on the order of ten to twenty million dollars, and Elk City, Leesburg, Pierce, Rocky Bar, and Warren’s make up the rest of the major Idaho mining areas that stand out in the sixty or so regions of production worthy of mention.

    A number of small operations do not appear in this list of Idaho metallic mining areas: a small amount of gold was recovered from Goose Creek on Salmon Meadows; a mine near Cleveland was prospected in 1922 and produced a little manganese in 1926; a few tons of copper came from Fort Hall, and a few more tons of copper came from a mine near Montpelier. Similarly, a few tons of lead came from a property near Bear Lake, and lead-silver is known on Cassia Creek near Elba. Some gold quartz and lead-silver workings are on Ruby Creek west of Elk River, and there is a slightly developed copper operation on Deer Creek near Winchester. Molybdenum is known on Roaring River and on the east fork of the Salmon. Some scattered mining enterprises have been undertaken around Soldier Mountain and on Squaw Creek north of Montour.

    Idaho proved to be one of the more receptive states to the progressive agenda of the late 19th century and early 20th century. The state embraced progressive policies such as women’s suffrage (1896) and prohibition (1916) before they became federal law. Idahoans were also strongly supportive of Free Silver. The pro-bimetallism Populist and Silver Republican parties of the late 1890s were particularly successful in the state.

    Eugenics was also a major part of the Progressive movement.[33] In 1919, the Idaho legislature passed an Act legalizing the forced sterilization of some persons institutionalized in the state. The act was vetoed by governor D.W. Davis, who doubted its scientific merits and believed it likely violated the Equal Protection clause of the US Constitution.[34] In 1925, the Idaho legislature passed a revised eugenics act, now tailored to avoid Davis’s earlier objections. The new law created a state board of eugenics, charged with:

    The Eugenics board was eventually folded into the state’s health commission; between 1932 and 1964, a total of 30 women and eight men in Idaho were sterilized under this law.[36] The sterilization law was formally repealed in 1972.[37]

    After statehood, Idaho’s economy began a gradual shift away from mining toward agriculture, particularly in the south. Older mining communities such as Silver City and Rocky Bar gave way to agricultural communities incorporated after statehood, such as Nampa and Twin Falls. Milner Dam on the Snake River, completed in 1905, allowed for the formation of many agricultural communities in the Magic Valley region which had previously been nearly unpopulated.

    Meanwhile, some of the mining towns were able to reinvent themselves as resort communities, most notably in Blaine County, where the Sun Valley ski resort opened in 1936. Others, such as Silver City and Rocky Bar, became ghost towns.

    In the north, mining continued to be an important industry for several more decades. The closure of the Bunker Hill Mine complex in Shoshone County in the early 1980s sent the region’s economy into a tailspin. Since that time, a substantial increase in tourism in north Idaho has helped the region to recover. Coeur d’Alene, a lake-side resort town, is a destination for visitors in the area.

    Beginning in the 1980s, there was a rise in North Idaho of a few right-wing extremist and “survivalist” political groups, most notably one holding Neo-Nazi views, the Aryan Nations. These groups were most heavily concentrated in the Panhandle region of the state, particularly in the vicinity of Coeur d’Alene.

    In 1992 a stand-off occurred between U.S. Marshals, the F.B.I., and white separatist Randy Weaver and his family at their compound at Ruby Ridge, located near the small, northern Idaho town of Naples. The ensuing fire-fight and deaths of a U.S. Marshal, and Weaver’s son and wife gained national attention, and raised a considerable amount of controversy regarding the nature of acceptable force by the federal government in such situations.

    when was idaho founded

    In 2001, the Aryan Nations compound, which had been located in Hayden Lake, Idaho, was confiscated as a result of a court case, and the organization moved out of state. About the same time Boise installed an impressive stone Human Rights Memorial featuring a bronze statue of Anne Frank and quotations from her and many other writers extolling human freedom and equality.

    The demographics of the state have changed. Due to this growth in different groups, especially in Boise, the economic expansion surged wrong-economic growth followed the high standard of living and resulted in the “growth of different groups”.[citation needed] The population of Idaho in the 21st Century has been described as sharply divided along geographic and cultural lines due to the center of the state being dominated by sparsely-populated national forests, mountain ranges and recreation sites: “unless you’re willing to navigate a treacherous mountain pass, you can’t even drive from the north to the south without leaving the state.” The northern population gravitates towards Spokane, Washington, the heavily Mormon south-east population towards Utah, with an isolated Boise “[being] the closest thing to a city-state that you’ll find in America.”[38]

    Idaho was one of several states that received the brunt of nuclear fallout from tests at the Nevada Test Site during the 1950s and 1960s. Reports published by the U.S. government indicate that many Idaho citizens perished and continue to suffer as a result of these tests.[citation needed] As of September 2007, there were continuing efforts in the U.S. congress to compensate victims.[citation needed]


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    The history of Idaho is an examination of the human history and social activity within the state of Idaho, one of the United States of America located in the Pacific Northwest area near the west coast of the United States and Canada. Other associated areas include southern Alaska, all of British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, western Montana and northern California and Nevada.

    Humans may have been present in Idaho for 16,600 years. Recent findings in Cooper’s Ferry along the Salmon River in western Idaho near the town of Cottonwood have unearthed stone tools and animal bone fragments in what may be the oldest evidence of humans in North America.[1][2][3][4][5] Earlier excavations in 1959 at Wilson Butte Cave near Twin Falls revealed evidence of human activity, including arrowheads, that rank among the oldest dated artifacts in North America.[6] Native American tribes predominant in the area in historic times included the Nez Perce and the Coeur d’Alene in the north; and the Northern and Western Shoshone and Bannock peoples in the south.

    Idaho was one of the last areas in the lower 48 states of the US to be explored by people of European descent.[citation needed] The Lewis and Clark expedition entered present-day Idaho on August 12, 1805, at Lemhi Pass. It is believed that the first “European descent” expedition to enter southern Idaho was by a group led in 1811 and 1812 by Wilson Price Hunt, which navigated the Snake River while attempting to blaze an all-water trail westward from St. Louis, Missouri, to Astoria, Oregon.[citation needed] At that time, approximately 8,000 Native Americans lived in the region.

    Fur trading led to the first significant incursion of Europeans in the region.[9] Andrew Henry of the Missouri Fur Company first entered the Snake River plateau in 1810. He built Fort Henry on Henry’s Fork on the upper Snake River, near modern St. Anthony, Idaho. However, this first American fur post west of the Rocky Mountains was abandoned the following spring.

    The British-owned Hudson’s Bay Company next entered Idaho and controlled the trade in the Snake River area by the 1820s. The North West Company’s interior department of the Columbia was created in June 1816, and Donald Mackenzie was assigned as its head. Mackenzie had previously been employed by Hudson’s Bay and had been a partner in the Pacific Fur Company, financed principally by John Jacob Astor. During these early years, he traveled west with a Pacific Fur Company’s party and was involved in the initial exploration of the Salmon River and Clearwater River. The company proceeded down the lower Snake River and Columbia River by canoe, and were the first of the Overland Astorians to reach Fort Astoria, on January 18, 1812.

    when was idaho founded

    Under Mackenzie, the North West Company was a dominant force in the fur trade in the Snake River country. Out of Fort George in Astoria, Mackenzie led fur brigades up the Snake River in 1816-1817 and up the lower Snake in 1817-1818. Fort Nez Perce, established in July, 1818, became the staging point for Mackenzies’ Snake brigades. The expedition of 1818-1819 explored the Blue Mountains, and traveled down the Snake River to the Bear River and approached the headwaters of the Snake. Mackenzie sought to establish a navigable route up the Snake River from Fort Nez Perce to the Boise area in 1819. While he did succeed in traveling by boat from the Columbia River through the Grand Canyon of the Snake past Hells Canyon, he concluded that water transport was generally impractical. Mackenzie held the first rendezvous in the region on the Boise River in 1819.

    Despite their best efforts, early American fur companies in this region had difficulty maintaining the long-distance supply lines from the Missouri River system into the Intermountain West. However, Americans William H. Ashley and Jedediah Smith expanded the Saint Louis fur trade into Idaho in 1824. The 1832 trapper’s rendezvous at Pierre’s Hole, held at the foot of the Three Tetons in modern Teton County, was followed by an intense battle between the Gros Ventre and a large party of American trappers aided by their Nez Perce and Flathead allies.

    The prospect of missionary work among the Native Americans also attracted early settlers to the region. In 1809, Kullyspell House, the first white-owned establishment and first trading post in Idaho, was constructed. In 1836, the Reverend Henry H. Spalding established a Protestant mission near Lapwai, where he printed the Northwest’s first book, established Idaho’s first school, developed its first irrigation system, and grew the state’s first potatoes. Narcissa Whitman and Eliza Hart Spalding were the first non-native women to enter present-day Idaho.

    Cataldo Mission, the oldest standing building in Idaho, was constructed at Cataldo by the Coeur d’Alene and Catholic missionaries. In 1842, Father Pierre-Jean De Smet, with Fr. Nicholas Point and Br. Charles Duet, selected a mission location along the St. Joe River. The mission was moved a short distance away in 1846, as the original location was subject to flooding. In 1850, Antonio Ravalli designed a new mission building and Indians affiliated with the church effort built the mission, without nails, using the wattle and daub method. In time, the Cataldo mission became an important stop for traders, settlers, and miners. It served as a place for rest from the trail, offered needed supplies, and was a working port for boats heading up the Coeur d’Alene River.

    During this time, the region which became Idaho was part of an unorganized territory known as Oregon Country, claimed by both the United States and Great Britain. The United States gained undisputed jurisdiction over the region in the Oregon Treaty of 1846, although the area was under the de facto jurisdiction of the Provisional Government of Oregon from 1843 to 1849. The original boundaries of Oregon Territory in 1848 included all three of the present-day Pacific Northwest states and extended eastward to the Continental Divide. In 1853, areas north of the 46th Parallel became Washington Territory, splitting what is now Idaho in two. The future state was reunited in 1859 after Oregon became a state and the boundaries of Washington Territory were redrawn.

    While thousands passed through Idaho on the Oregon Trail or during the California gold rush of 1849, few people settled there. In 1860, the first of several gold rushes in Idaho began at Pierce in present-day Clearwater County. By 1862, settlements in both the north and south had formed around the mining boom.

  • bomboloni
  • The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints missionaries founded Fort Lemhi in 1855, but the settlement did not last. The first organized town in Idaho was Franklin, settled in April 1860 by Mormon pioneers who believed they were in Utah Territory; although a later survey determined they had crossed the border.[10] Mormon pioneers reached areas near the current-day Grand Teton National Park in Wyoming and established most of the historic and modern communities in Southeastern Idaho. These settlements include Ammon, Blackfoot, Chubbuck, Firth, Idaho Falls, Iona, Pocatello, Rexburg, Rigby, Shelley, and Ucon

    Large numbers of English immigrants settled in what is now the state of Idaho in the late 19th and early 20th century, many before statehood. The English found they had more property rights and paid less taxes than they did back in England. They were considered some of the most desirable immigrants at the time.[11] Many came from humble beginnings and would rise to prominence in Idaho. Frank R. Gooding was raised in a rural working-class background in England, but was eventually elected as the seventh governor of the state. Today people of English descent make up one fifth of the entire state of Idaho and form a plurality in the southern portion of the state.[12][13][14][15]

    Many German farmers also settled in what is now Idaho. German settlers were primarily Lutheran across all of the midwest and west, including Idaho, however there were small numbers of Catholics amongst them as well. In parts of Northern Idaho, German remained the dominant language until World War I, when German-Americans were pressured to convert entirely to English. Today, Idahoans of German ancestry make up nearly one fifth of all Idahoans and make up the second largest ethnic group after Idahoans of English descent with people of German ancestry being 18.1% of the state and people of English ancestry being 20.1% of the state.[16][17][18][19][20]

    Irish Catholics worked in railroad centers such as Boise. Today, 10% of Idahoans self-identify as having Irish ancestry.[21]

    York, a slave owned by William Clark but considered a full member of Corps of Discovery during expedition to the Pacific, was the first recorded African American in Idaho. There is a significant African American population made up of those who came west after the abolition of slavery. Many settled near Pocatello and were ranchers, entertainers, and farmers. Although free, many blacks suffered discrimination in the early-to-mid-late 20th century. The black population of the state continues to grow as many come to the state because of educational opportunities, to serve in the military, and for other employment opportunities. There is a Black History Museum in Boise, Idaho, with an exhibit known as the “Invisible Idahoan”, which chronicles the first African-Americans in the state. Blacks are the fourth largest ethnic group in Idaho according to the 2000 census. Mountain Home, Boise, and Garden City have significant African-American populations.

    The Basque people from the Iberian peninsula in Spain and southern France were traditionally shepherds in Europe. They came to Idaho, offering hard work and perseverance in exchange for opportunity.[22] One of the largest Basque communities in the US is in Boise,[23] with a Basque museum [24] and festival held annually in the city.

    Chinese in the mid-19th century came to America through San Francisco to work on the railroad and open businesses. By 1870, there were over 4000 Chinese and they comprised almost 30% of the population.[25] They suffered discrimination due to the Anti-Chinese League in the 19th century which sought to limit the rights and opportunities of Chinese emigrants.[26] Today Asians are third in population demographically after Whites and Hispanics at less than 2%.

    On March 4, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln signed an act creating Idaho Territory[27] from portions of Washington Territory and Dakota Territory with its capital at Lewiston. The original Idaho Territory included most of the areas that later became the states of Idaho, Montana and Wyoming, and had a population of under 17,000. Idaho Territory assumed the boundaries of the modern state in 1868 and was admitted as a state in 1890.

    After Idaho became a territory, legislation was held in Lewiston, the capital of Idaho Territory at the time. There were many territories acts put into place, and then taken away during these early sessions, one act being the move of the capital city from Lewiston to Boise City.[28] Boise was becoming a growing area after gold was found,[29] so on December 24, 1864, Boise City was made the final destination of the capital for the Territory of Idaho.[30]

    However, moving the capital to Boise City created a lot of issues between the territory. This was especially true between the north and south areas in the territory, due to how far south Boise City was.[30] Problems with communicating between the north and south contributed to some land in Idaho Territory being transferred to other territories and areas at the time. Idaho’s early boundary changes helped create the current boundaries of Washington, Wyoming, and Montana States as currently exist.[28]

    When President Benjamin Harrison signed the law admitting Idaho as a U.S. state on July 3, 1890, the population was 88,548. George L. Shoup became the state’s first governor, but resigned after only a few weeks in office to take a seat in the United States Senate. Willis Sweet, A Republican, was the first congressman, 1890 to 1895, representing the state at-large. He vigorously demanded “Free Silver” or the unrestricted coinage of silver into legal tender, in order to pour money into the large silver mining industry in the Mountain West, but he was defeated by supporters of the gold standard. In 1896 he, like many Republicans from silver mining districts, supported the Silver Republican Party instead of the regular Republican nominee William McKinley.[31]

    During its first years of statehood, Idaho was plagued by labor unrest in the mining district of Coeur d’Alene. In 1892, miners called a strike which developed into a shooting war between union miners and company guards. Each side accused the other of starting the fight. The first shots were exchanged at the Frisco mine in Frisco, in the Burke-Canyon north and east of Wallace. The Frisco mine was blown up, and company guards were taken prisoner. The violence soon spilled over into the nearby community of Gem, where union miners attempted to locate a Pinkerton spy who had infiltrated their union and was passing information to the mine operators. But agent Charlie Siringo escaped by cutting a hole in the floor of his room. Strikers forced the Gem mine to close, then traveled west to the Bunker Hill mining complex near Wardner, and closed down that facility as well. Several had been killed in the Burke-Canyon fighting. The Idaho National Guard and federal troops were dispatched to the area, and union miners and sympathizers were thrown into bullpens.

    Hostilities would again erupt at the Bunker Hill facility in 1899, when seventeen union miners were fired for having joined the union. Other union miners were likewise ordered to draw their pay and leave. Angry members of the union converged on the area and blew up the Bunker Hill Mill, killing two company men.

    In both disputes, the union’s complaints included pay, hours of work, the right of miners to belong to the union, and the mine owners’ use of informants and undercover agents. The violence committed by union miners was answered with a brutal response in 1892 and in 1899.

    Through the Western Federation of Miners (WFM) union, the battles in the mining district became closely tied to a major miners’ strike in Colorado. The struggle culminated in the December 1905 assassination of former Governor Frank Steunenberg by Harry Orchard (also known as Albert Horsley), a member of the WFM. Orchard was allegedly incensed by Steunenberg’s efforts as governor to put down the 1899 miner uprising after being elected on a pro-labor platform.

    Pinkerton detective James McParland conducted the investigation into the assassination. In 1907, WFM Secretary Treasurer “Big Bill” Haywood and two other WFM leaders were tried on a charge of conspiracy to murder Steunenberg, with Orchard testifying against them as part of a deal made with McParland. The nationally publicized trial featured Senator William E. Borah as prosecuting attorney and Clarence Darrow representing the defendants. The defense team presented evidence that Orchard had been a Pinkerton agent and had acted as a paid informant for the Cripple Creek Mine Owners’ Association. Darrow argued that Orchard’s real motive in the assassination had been revenge for a declaration of martial law by Steunenberg, which prompted Orchard to gamble away a share in the Hercules silver mine that would otherwise have made him wealthy.

    Two of the WFM leaders were acquitted in two separate trials, and the third was released. Orchard was convicted and sentenced to death. His sentence was commuted, and he spent the rest of his life in an Idaho prison.

    Mining in Idaho[32] was a major commercial venture, bringing a great deal of attention to the state. From 1860-1866 Idaho produced 19% of all gold in the United States, or 2.5 million ounces.

    Most of Idaho’s mining production, 1860–1969, has come from metals equating to $2.88 billion out of $3.42 billion, according to the best estimates. Of the metallic mining areas of Idaho, the Coeur d’Alene region has produced the most by far, and accounts for about 80% of the total Idaho yield.

    Several others—Boise Basin, Wood River Valley, Stibnite, Blackbirg, and Owyhee—range considerably above the other big producers. Atlanta, Bear Valley, Bay Horse, Florence, Gilmore, Mackay, Patterson, and Yankee Fork all ran on the order of ten to twenty million dollars, and Elk City, Leesburg, Pierce, Rocky Bar, and Warren’s make up the rest of the major Idaho mining areas that stand out in the sixty or so regions of production worthy of mention.

    A number of small operations do not appear in this list of Idaho metallic mining areas: a small amount of gold was recovered from Goose Creek on Salmon Meadows; a mine near Cleveland was prospected in 1922 and produced a little manganese in 1926; a few tons of copper came from Fort Hall, and a few more tons of copper came from a mine near Montpelier. Similarly, a few tons of lead came from a property near Bear Lake, and lead-silver is known on Cassia Creek near Elba. Some gold quartz and lead-silver workings are on Ruby Creek west of Elk River, and there is a slightly developed copper operation on Deer Creek near Winchester. Molybdenum is known on Roaring River and on the east fork of the Salmon. Some scattered mining enterprises have been undertaken around Soldier Mountain and on Squaw Creek north of Montour.

    Idaho proved to be one of the more receptive states to the progressive agenda of the late 19th century and early 20th century. The state embraced progressive policies such as women’s suffrage (1896) and prohibition (1916) before they became federal law. Idahoans were also strongly supportive of Free Silver. The pro-bimetallism Populist and Silver Republican parties of the late 1890s were particularly successful in the state.

    Eugenics was also a major part of the Progressive movement.[33] In 1919, the Idaho legislature passed an Act legalizing the forced sterilization of some persons institutionalized in the state. The act was vetoed by governor D.W. Davis, who doubted its scientific merits and believed it likely violated the Equal Protection clause of the US Constitution.[34] In 1925, the Idaho legislature passed a revised eugenics act, now tailored to avoid Davis’s earlier objections. The new law created a state board of eugenics, charged with:

    The Eugenics board was eventually folded into the state’s health commission; between 1932 and 1964, a total of 30 women and eight men in Idaho were sterilized under this law.[36] The sterilization law was formally repealed in 1972.[37]

    After statehood, Idaho’s economy began a gradual shift away from mining toward agriculture, particularly in the south. Older mining communities such as Silver City and Rocky Bar gave way to agricultural communities incorporated after statehood, such as Nampa and Twin Falls. Milner Dam on the Snake River, completed in 1905, allowed for the formation of many agricultural communities in the Magic Valley region which had previously been nearly unpopulated.

    Meanwhile, some of the mining towns were able to reinvent themselves as resort communities, most notably in Blaine County, where the Sun Valley ski resort opened in 1936. Others, such as Silver City and Rocky Bar, became ghost towns.

    In the north, mining continued to be an important industry for several more decades. The closure of the Bunker Hill Mine complex in Shoshone County in the early 1980s sent the region’s economy into a tailspin. Since that time, a substantial increase in tourism in north Idaho has helped the region to recover. Coeur d’Alene, a lake-side resort town, is a destination for visitors in the area.

    Beginning in the 1980s, there was a rise in North Idaho of a few right-wing extremist and “survivalist” political groups, most notably one holding Neo-Nazi views, the Aryan Nations. These groups were most heavily concentrated in the Panhandle region of the state, particularly in the vicinity of Coeur d’Alene.

    In 1992 a stand-off occurred between U.S. Marshals, the F.B.I., and white separatist Randy Weaver and his family at their compound at Ruby Ridge, located near the small, northern Idaho town of Naples. The ensuing fire-fight and deaths of a U.S. Marshal, and Weaver’s son and wife gained national attention, and raised a considerable amount of controversy regarding the nature of acceptable force by the federal government in such situations.

    when was idaho founded

    In 2001, the Aryan Nations compound, which had been located in Hayden Lake, Idaho, was confiscated as a result of a court case, and the organization moved out of state. About the same time Boise installed an impressive stone Human Rights Memorial featuring a bronze statue of Anne Frank and quotations from her and many other writers extolling human freedom and equality.

    The demographics of the state have changed. Due to this growth in different groups, especially in Boise, the economic expansion surged wrong-economic growth followed the high standard of living and resulted in the “growth of different groups”.[citation needed] The population of Idaho in the 21st Century has been described as sharply divided along geographic and cultural lines due to the center of the state being dominated by sparsely-populated national forests, mountain ranges and recreation sites: “unless you’re willing to navigate a treacherous mountain pass, you can’t even drive from the north to the south without leaving the state.” The northern population gravitates towards Spokane, Washington, the heavily Mormon south-east population towards Utah, with an isolated Boise “[being] the closest thing to a city-state that you’ll find in America.”[38]

    Idaho was one of several states that received the brunt of nuclear fallout from tests at the Nevada Test Site during the 1950s and 1960s. Reports published by the U.S. government indicate that many Idaho citizens perished and continue to suffer as a result of these tests.[citation needed] As of September 2007, there were continuing efforts in the U.S. congress to compensate victims.[citation needed]


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    The history of Idaho is an examination of the human history and social activity within the state of Idaho, one of the United States of America located in the Pacific Northwest area near the west coast of the United States and Canada. Other associated areas include southern Alaska, all of British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, western Montana and northern California and Nevada.

    Humans may have been present in Idaho for 16,600 years. Recent findings in Cooper’s Ferry along the Salmon River in western Idaho near the town of Cottonwood have unearthed stone tools and animal bone fragments in what may be the oldest evidence of humans in North America.[1][2][3][4][5] Earlier excavations in 1959 at Wilson Butte Cave near Twin Falls revealed evidence of human activity, including arrowheads, that rank among the oldest dated artifacts in North America.[6] Native American tribes predominant in the area in historic times included the Nez Perce and the Coeur d’Alene in the north; and the Northern and Western Shoshone and Bannock peoples in the south.

    Idaho was one of the last areas in the lower 48 states of the US to be explored by people of European descent.[citation needed] The Lewis and Clark expedition entered present-day Idaho on August 12, 1805, at Lemhi Pass. It is believed that the first “European descent” expedition to enter southern Idaho was by a group led in 1811 and 1812 by Wilson Price Hunt, which navigated the Snake River while attempting to blaze an all-water trail westward from St. Louis, Missouri, to Astoria, Oregon.[citation needed] At that time, approximately 8,000 Native Americans lived in the region.

    Fur trading led to the first significant incursion of Europeans in the region.[9] Andrew Henry of the Missouri Fur Company first entered the Snake River plateau in 1810. He built Fort Henry on Henry’s Fork on the upper Snake River, near modern St. Anthony, Idaho. However, this first American fur post west of the Rocky Mountains was abandoned the following spring.

    The British-owned Hudson’s Bay Company next entered Idaho and controlled the trade in the Snake River area by the 1820s. The North West Company’s interior department of the Columbia was created in June 1816, and Donald Mackenzie was assigned as its head. Mackenzie had previously been employed by Hudson’s Bay and had been a partner in the Pacific Fur Company, financed principally by John Jacob Astor. During these early years, he traveled west with a Pacific Fur Company’s party and was involved in the initial exploration of the Salmon River and Clearwater River. The company proceeded down the lower Snake River and Columbia River by canoe, and were the first of the Overland Astorians to reach Fort Astoria, on January 18, 1812.

    when was idaho founded

    Under Mackenzie, the North West Company was a dominant force in the fur trade in the Snake River country. Out of Fort George in Astoria, Mackenzie led fur brigades up the Snake River in 1816-1817 and up the lower Snake in 1817-1818. Fort Nez Perce, established in July, 1818, became the staging point for Mackenzies’ Snake brigades. The expedition of 1818-1819 explored the Blue Mountains, and traveled down the Snake River to the Bear River and approached the headwaters of the Snake. Mackenzie sought to establish a navigable route up the Snake River from Fort Nez Perce to the Boise area in 1819. While he did succeed in traveling by boat from the Columbia River through the Grand Canyon of the Snake past Hells Canyon, he concluded that water transport was generally impractical. Mackenzie held the first rendezvous in the region on the Boise River in 1819.

    Despite their best efforts, early American fur companies in this region had difficulty maintaining the long-distance supply lines from the Missouri River system into the Intermountain West. However, Americans William H. Ashley and Jedediah Smith expanded the Saint Louis fur trade into Idaho in 1824. The 1832 trapper’s rendezvous at Pierre’s Hole, held at the foot of the Three Tetons in modern Teton County, was followed by an intense battle between the Gros Ventre and a large party of American trappers aided by their Nez Perce and Flathead allies.

    The prospect of missionary work among the Native Americans also attracted early settlers to the region. In 1809, Kullyspell House, the first white-owned establishment and first trading post in Idaho, was constructed. In 1836, the Reverend Henry H. Spalding established a Protestant mission near Lapwai, where he printed the Northwest’s first book, established Idaho’s first school, developed its first irrigation system, and grew the state’s first potatoes. Narcissa Whitman and Eliza Hart Spalding were the first non-native women to enter present-day Idaho.

    Cataldo Mission, the oldest standing building in Idaho, was constructed at Cataldo by the Coeur d’Alene and Catholic missionaries. In 1842, Father Pierre-Jean De Smet, with Fr. Nicholas Point and Br. Charles Duet, selected a mission location along the St. Joe River. The mission was moved a short distance away in 1846, as the original location was subject to flooding. In 1850, Antonio Ravalli designed a new mission building and Indians affiliated with the church effort built the mission, without nails, using the wattle and daub method. In time, the Cataldo mission became an important stop for traders, settlers, and miners. It served as a place for rest from the trail, offered needed supplies, and was a working port for boats heading up the Coeur d’Alene River.

    During this time, the region which became Idaho was part of an unorganized territory known as Oregon Country, claimed by both the United States and Great Britain. The United States gained undisputed jurisdiction over the region in the Oregon Treaty of 1846, although the area was under the de facto jurisdiction of the Provisional Government of Oregon from 1843 to 1849. The original boundaries of Oregon Territory in 1848 included all three of the present-day Pacific Northwest states and extended eastward to the Continental Divide. In 1853, areas north of the 46th Parallel became Washington Territory, splitting what is now Idaho in two. The future state was reunited in 1859 after Oregon became a state and the boundaries of Washington Territory were redrawn.

    While thousands passed through Idaho on the Oregon Trail or during the California gold rush of 1849, few people settled there. In 1860, the first of several gold rushes in Idaho began at Pierce in present-day Clearwater County. By 1862, settlements in both the north and south had formed around the mining boom.

  • 10 kg
  • The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints missionaries founded Fort Lemhi in 1855, but the settlement did not last. The first organized town in Idaho was Franklin, settled in April 1860 by Mormon pioneers who believed they were in Utah Territory; although a later survey determined they had crossed the border.[10] Mormon pioneers reached areas near the current-day Grand Teton National Park in Wyoming and established most of the historic and modern communities in Southeastern Idaho. These settlements include Ammon, Blackfoot, Chubbuck, Firth, Idaho Falls, Iona, Pocatello, Rexburg, Rigby, Shelley, and Ucon

    Large numbers of English immigrants settled in what is now the state of Idaho in the late 19th and early 20th century, many before statehood. The English found they had more property rights and paid less taxes than they did back in England. They were considered some of the most desirable immigrants at the time.[11] Many came from humble beginnings and would rise to prominence in Idaho. Frank R. Gooding was raised in a rural working-class background in England, but was eventually elected as the seventh governor of the state. Today people of English descent make up one fifth of the entire state of Idaho and form a plurality in the southern portion of the state.[12][13][14][15]

    Many German farmers also settled in what is now Idaho. German settlers were primarily Lutheran across all of the midwest and west, including Idaho, however there were small numbers of Catholics amongst them as well. In parts of Northern Idaho, German remained the dominant language until World War I, when German-Americans were pressured to convert entirely to English. Today, Idahoans of German ancestry make up nearly one fifth of all Idahoans and make up the second largest ethnic group after Idahoans of English descent with people of German ancestry being 18.1% of the state and people of English ancestry being 20.1% of the state.[16][17][18][19][20]

    Irish Catholics worked in railroad centers such as Boise. Today, 10% of Idahoans self-identify as having Irish ancestry.[21]

    York, a slave owned by William Clark but considered a full member of Corps of Discovery during expedition to the Pacific, was the first recorded African American in Idaho. There is a significant African American population made up of those who came west after the abolition of slavery. Many settled near Pocatello and were ranchers, entertainers, and farmers. Although free, many blacks suffered discrimination in the early-to-mid-late 20th century. The black population of the state continues to grow as many come to the state because of educational opportunities, to serve in the military, and for other employment opportunities. There is a Black History Museum in Boise, Idaho, with an exhibit known as the “Invisible Idahoan”, which chronicles the first African-Americans in the state. Blacks are the fourth largest ethnic group in Idaho according to the 2000 census. Mountain Home, Boise, and Garden City have significant African-American populations.

    The Basque people from the Iberian peninsula in Spain and southern France were traditionally shepherds in Europe. They came to Idaho, offering hard work and perseverance in exchange for opportunity.[22] One of the largest Basque communities in the US is in Boise,[23] with a Basque museum [24] and festival held annually in the city.

    Chinese in the mid-19th century came to America through San Francisco to work on the railroad and open businesses. By 1870, there were over 4000 Chinese and they comprised almost 30% of the population.[25] They suffered discrimination due to the Anti-Chinese League in the 19th century which sought to limit the rights and opportunities of Chinese emigrants.[26] Today Asians are third in population demographically after Whites and Hispanics at less than 2%.

    On March 4, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln signed an act creating Idaho Territory[27] from portions of Washington Territory and Dakota Territory with its capital at Lewiston. The original Idaho Territory included most of the areas that later became the states of Idaho, Montana and Wyoming, and had a population of under 17,000. Idaho Territory assumed the boundaries of the modern state in 1868 and was admitted as a state in 1890.

    After Idaho became a territory, legislation was held in Lewiston, the capital of Idaho Territory at the time. There were many territories acts put into place, and then taken away during these early sessions, one act being the move of the capital city from Lewiston to Boise City.[28] Boise was becoming a growing area after gold was found,[29] so on December 24, 1864, Boise City was made the final destination of the capital for the Territory of Idaho.[30]

    However, moving the capital to Boise City created a lot of issues between the territory. This was especially true between the north and south areas in the territory, due to how far south Boise City was.[30] Problems with communicating between the north and south contributed to some land in Idaho Territory being transferred to other territories and areas at the time. Idaho’s early boundary changes helped create the current boundaries of Washington, Wyoming, and Montana States as currently exist.[28]

    When President Benjamin Harrison signed the law admitting Idaho as a U.S. state on July 3, 1890, the population was 88,548. George L. Shoup became the state’s first governor, but resigned after only a few weeks in office to take a seat in the United States Senate. Willis Sweet, A Republican, was the first congressman, 1890 to 1895, representing the state at-large. He vigorously demanded “Free Silver” or the unrestricted coinage of silver into legal tender, in order to pour money into the large silver mining industry in the Mountain West, but he was defeated by supporters of the gold standard. In 1896 he, like many Republicans from silver mining districts, supported the Silver Republican Party instead of the regular Republican nominee William McKinley.[31]

    During its first years of statehood, Idaho was plagued by labor unrest in the mining district of Coeur d’Alene. In 1892, miners called a strike which developed into a shooting war between union miners and company guards. Each side accused the other of starting the fight. The first shots were exchanged at the Frisco mine in Frisco, in the Burke-Canyon north and east of Wallace. The Frisco mine was blown up, and company guards were taken prisoner. The violence soon spilled over into the nearby community of Gem, where union miners attempted to locate a Pinkerton spy who had infiltrated their union and was passing information to the mine operators. But agent Charlie Siringo escaped by cutting a hole in the floor of his room. Strikers forced the Gem mine to close, then traveled west to the Bunker Hill mining complex near Wardner, and closed down that facility as well. Several had been killed in the Burke-Canyon fighting. The Idaho National Guard and federal troops were dispatched to the area, and union miners and sympathizers were thrown into bullpens.

    Hostilities would again erupt at the Bunker Hill facility in 1899, when seventeen union miners were fired for having joined the union. Other union miners were likewise ordered to draw their pay and leave. Angry members of the union converged on the area and blew up the Bunker Hill Mill, killing two company men.

    In both disputes, the union’s complaints included pay, hours of work, the right of miners to belong to the union, and the mine owners’ use of informants and undercover agents. The violence committed by union miners was answered with a brutal response in 1892 and in 1899.

    Through the Western Federation of Miners (WFM) union, the battles in the mining district became closely tied to a major miners’ strike in Colorado. The struggle culminated in the December 1905 assassination of former Governor Frank Steunenberg by Harry Orchard (also known as Albert Horsley), a member of the WFM. Orchard was allegedly incensed by Steunenberg’s efforts as governor to put down the 1899 miner uprising after being elected on a pro-labor platform.

    Pinkerton detective James McParland conducted the investigation into the assassination. In 1907, WFM Secretary Treasurer “Big Bill” Haywood and two other WFM leaders were tried on a charge of conspiracy to murder Steunenberg, with Orchard testifying against them as part of a deal made with McParland. The nationally publicized trial featured Senator William E. Borah as prosecuting attorney and Clarence Darrow representing the defendants. The defense team presented evidence that Orchard had been a Pinkerton agent and had acted as a paid informant for the Cripple Creek Mine Owners’ Association. Darrow argued that Orchard’s real motive in the assassination had been revenge for a declaration of martial law by Steunenberg, which prompted Orchard to gamble away a share in the Hercules silver mine that would otherwise have made him wealthy.

    Two of the WFM leaders were acquitted in two separate trials, and the third was released. Orchard was convicted and sentenced to death. His sentence was commuted, and he spent the rest of his life in an Idaho prison.

    Mining in Idaho[32] was a major commercial venture, bringing a great deal of attention to the state. From 1860-1866 Idaho produced 19% of all gold in the United States, or 2.5 million ounces.

    Most of Idaho’s mining production, 1860–1969, has come from metals equating to $2.88 billion out of $3.42 billion, according to the best estimates. Of the metallic mining areas of Idaho, the Coeur d’Alene region has produced the most by far, and accounts for about 80% of the total Idaho yield.

    Several others—Boise Basin, Wood River Valley, Stibnite, Blackbirg, and Owyhee—range considerably above the other big producers. Atlanta, Bear Valley, Bay Horse, Florence, Gilmore, Mackay, Patterson, and Yankee Fork all ran on the order of ten to twenty million dollars, and Elk City, Leesburg, Pierce, Rocky Bar, and Warren’s make up the rest of the major Idaho mining areas that stand out in the sixty or so regions of production worthy of mention.

    A number of small operations do not appear in this list of Idaho metallic mining areas: a small amount of gold was recovered from Goose Creek on Salmon Meadows; a mine near Cleveland was prospected in 1922 and produced a little manganese in 1926; a few tons of copper came from Fort Hall, and a few more tons of copper came from a mine near Montpelier. Similarly, a few tons of lead came from a property near Bear Lake, and lead-silver is known on Cassia Creek near Elba. Some gold quartz and lead-silver workings are on Ruby Creek west of Elk River, and there is a slightly developed copper operation on Deer Creek near Winchester. Molybdenum is known on Roaring River and on the east fork of the Salmon. Some scattered mining enterprises have been undertaken around Soldier Mountain and on Squaw Creek north of Montour.

    Idaho proved to be one of the more receptive states to the progressive agenda of the late 19th century and early 20th century. The state embraced progressive policies such as women’s suffrage (1896) and prohibition (1916) before they became federal law. Idahoans were also strongly supportive of Free Silver. The pro-bimetallism Populist and Silver Republican parties of the late 1890s were particularly successful in the state.

    Eugenics was also a major part of the Progressive movement.[33] In 1919, the Idaho legislature passed an Act legalizing the forced sterilization of some persons institutionalized in the state. The act was vetoed by governor D.W. Davis, who doubted its scientific merits and believed it likely violated the Equal Protection clause of the US Constitution.[34] In 1925, the Idaho legislature passed a revised eugenics act, now tailored to avoid Davis’s earlier objections. The new law created a state board of eugenics, charged with:

    The Eugenics board was eventually folded into the state’s health commission; between 1932 and 1964, a total of 30 women and eight men in Idaho were sterilized under this law.[36] The sterilization law was formally repealed in 1972.[37]

    After statehood, Idaho’s economy began a gradual shift away from mining toward agriculture, particularly in the south. Older mining communities such as Silver City and Rocky Bar gave way to agricultural communities incorporated after statehood, such as Nampa and Twin Falls. Milner Dam on the Snake River, completed in 1905, allowed for the formation of many agricultural communities in the Magic Valley region which had previously been nearly unpopulated.

    Meanwhile, some of the mining towns were able to reinvent themselves as resort communities, most notably in Blaine County, where the Sun Valley ski resort opened in 1936. Others, such as Silver City and Rocky Bar, became ghost towns.

    In the north, mining continued to be an important industry for several more decades. The closure of the Bunker Hill Mine complex in Shoshone County in the early 1980s sent the region’s economy into a tailspin. Since that time, a substantial increase in tourism in north Idaho has helped the region to recover. Coeur d’Alene, a lake-side resort town, is a destination for visitors in the area.

    Beginning in the 1980s, there was a rise in North Idaho of a few right-wing extremist and “survivalist” political groups, most notably one holding Neo-Nazi views, the Aryan Nations. These groups were most heavily concentrated in the Panhandle region of the state, particularly in the vicinity of Coeur d’Alene.

    In 1992 a stand-off occurred between U.S. Marshals, the F.B.I., and white separatist Randy Weaver and his family at their compound at Ruby Ridge, located near the small, northern Idaho town of Naples. The ensuing fire-fight and deaths of a U.S. Marshal, and Weaver’s son and wife gained national attention, and raised a considerable amount of controversy regarding the nature of acceptable force by the federal government in such situations.

    when was idaho founded

    In 2001, the Aryan Nations compound, which had been located in Hayden Lake, Idaho, was confiscated as a result of a court case, and the organization moved out of state. About the same time Boise installed an impressive stone Human Rights Memorial featuring a bronze statue of Anne Frank and quotations from her and many other writers extolling human freedom and equality.

    The demographics of the state have changed. Due to this growth in different groups, especially in Boise, the economic expansion surged wrong-economic growth followed the high standard of living and resulted in the “growth of different groups”.[citation needed] The population of Idaho in the 21st Century has been described as sharply divided along geographic and cultural lines due to the center of the state being dominated by sparsely-populated national forests, mountain ranges and recreation sites: “unless you’re willing to navigate a treacherous mountain pass, you can’t even drive from the north to the south without leaving the state.” The northern population gravitates towards Spokane, Washington, the heavily Mormon south-east population towards Utah, with an isolated Boise “[being] the closest thing to a city-state that you’ll find in America.”[38]

    Idaho was one of several states that received the brunt of nuclear fallout from tests at the Nevada Test Site during the 1950s and 1960s. Reports published by the U.S. government indicate that many Idaho citizens perished and continue to suffer as a result of these tests.[citation needed] As of September 2007, there were continuing efforts in the U.S. congress to compensate victims.[citation needed]


    “idahohistory.net”Downloads-icon


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    The history of Idaho is an examination of the human history and social activity within the state of Idaho, one of the United States of America located in the Pacific Northwest area near the west coast of the United States and Canada. Other associated areas include southern Alaska, all of British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, western Montana and northern California and Nevada.

    Humans may have been present in Idaho for 16,600 years. Recent findings in Cooper’s Ferry along the Salmon River in western Idaho near the town of Cottonwood have unearthed stone tools and animal bone fragments in what may be the oldest evidence of humans in North America.[1][2][3][4][5] Earlier excavations in 1959 at Wilson Butte Cave near Twin Falls revealed evidence of human activity, including arrowheads, that rank among the oldest dated artifacts in North America.[6] Native American tribes predominant in the area in historic times included the Nez Perce and the Coeur d’Alene in the north; and the Northern and Western Shoshone and Bannock peoples in the south.

    Idaho was one of the last areas in the lower 48 states of the US to be explored by people of European descent.[citation needed] The Lewis and Clark expedition entered present-day Idaho on August 12, 1805, at Lemhi Pass. It is believed that the first “European descent” expedition to enter southern Idaho was by a group led in 1811 and 1812 by Wilson Price Hunt, which navigated the Snake River while attempting to blaze an all-water trail westward from St. Louis, Missouri, to Astoria, Oregon.[citation needed] At that time, approximately 8,000 Native Americans lived in the region.

    Fur trading led to the first significant incursion of Europeans in the region.[9] Andrew Henry of the Missouri Fur Company first entered the Snake River plateau in 1810. He built Fort Henry on Henry’s Fork on the upper Snake River, near modern St. Anthony, Idaho. However, this first American fur post west of the Rocky Mountains was abandoned the following spring.

    The British-owned Hudson’s Bay Company next entered Idaho and controlled the trade in the Snake River area by the 1820s. The North West Company’s interior department of the Columbia was created in June 1816, and Donald Mackenzie was assigned as its head. Mackenzie had previously been employed by Hudson’s Bay and had been a partner in the Pacific Fur Company, financed principally by John Jacob Astor. During these early years, he traveled west with a Pacific Fur Company’s party and was involved in the initial exploration of the Salmon River and Clearwater River. The company proceeded down the lower Snake River and Columbia River by canoe, and were the first of the Overland Astorians to reach Fort Astoria, on January 18, 1812.

    when was idaho founded

    Under Mackenzie, the North West Company was a dominant force in the fur trade in the Snake River country. Out of Fort George in Astoria, Mackenzie led fur brigades up the Snake River in 1816-1817 and up the lower Snake in 1817-1818. Fort Nez Perce, established in July, 1818, became the staging point for Mackenzies’ Snake brigades. The expedition of 1818-1819 explored the Blue Mountains, and traveled down the Snake River to the Bear River and approached the headwaters of the Snake. Mackenzie sought to establish a navigable route up the Snake River from Fort Nez Perce to the Boise area in 1819. While he did succeed in traveling by boat from the Columbia River through the Grand Canyon of the Snake past Hells Canyon, he concluded that water transport was generally impractical. Mackenzie held the first rendezvous in the region on the Boise River in 1819.

    Despite their best efforts, early American fur companies in this region had difficulty maintaining the long-distance supply lines from the Missouri River system into the Intermountain West. However, Americans William H. Ashley and Jedediah Smith expanded the Saint Louis fur trade into Idaho in 1824. The 1832 trapper’s rendezvous at Pierre’s Hole, held at the foot of the Three Tetons in modern Teton County, was followed by an intense battle between the Gros Ventre and a large party of American trappers aided by their Nez Perce and Flathead allies.

    The prospect of missionary work among the Native Americans also attracted early settlers to the region. In 1809, Kullyspell House, the first white-owned establishment and first trading post in Idaho, was constructed. In 1836, the Reverend Henry H. Spalding established a Protestant mission near Lapwai, where he printed the Northwest’s first book, established Idaho’s first school, developed its first irrigation system, and grew the state’s first potatoes. Narcissa Whitman and Eliza Hart Spalding were the first non-native women to enter present-day Idaho.

    Cataldo Mission, the oldest standing building in Idaho, was constructed at Cataldo by the Coeur d’Alene and Catholic missionaries. In 1842, Father Pierre-Jean De Smet, with Fr. Nicholas Point and Br. Charles Duet, selected a mission location along the St. Joe River. The mission was moved a short distance away in 1846, as the original location was subject to flooding. In 1850, Antonio Ravalli designed a new mission building and Indians affiliated with the church effort built the mission, without nails, using the wattle and daub method. In time, the Cataldo mission became an important stop for traders, settlers, and miners. It served as a place for rest from the trail, offered needed supplies, and was a working port for boats heading up the Coeur d’Alene River.

    During this time, the region which became Idaho was part of an unorganized territory known as Oregon Country, claimed by both the United States and Great Britain. The United States gained undisputed jurisdiction over the region in the Oregon Treaty of 1846, although the area was under the de facto jurisdiction of the Provisional Government of Oregon from 1843 to 1849. The original boundaries of Oregon Territory in 1848 included all three of the present-day Pacific Northwest states and extended eastward to the Continental Divide. In 1853, areas north of the 46th Parallel became Washington Territory, splitting what is now Idaho in two. The future state was reunited in 1859 after Oregon became a state and the boundaries of Washington Territory were redrawn.

    While thousands passed through Idaho on the Oregon Trail or during the California gold rush of 1849, few people settled there. In 1860, the first of several gold rushes in Idaho began at Pierce in present-day Clearwater County. By 1862, settlements in both the north and south had formed around the mining boom.

  • 1600 in roman numerals
  • The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints missionaries founded Fort Lemhi in 1855, but the settlement did not last. The first organized town in Idaho was Franklin, settled in April 1860 by Mormon pioneers who believed they were in Utah Territory; although a later survey determined they had crossed the border.[10] Mormon pioneers reached areas near the current-day Grand Teton National Park in Wyoming and established most of the historic and modern communities in Southeastern Idaho. These settlements include Ammon, Blackfoot, Chubbuck, Firth, Idaho Falls, Iona, Pocatello, Rexburg, Rigby, Shelley, and Ucon

    Large numbers of English immigrants settled in what is now the state of Idaho in the late 19th and early 20th century, many before statehood. The English found they had more property rights and paid less taxes than they did back in England. They were considered some of the most desirable immigrants at the time.[11] Many came from humble beginnings and would rise to prominence in Idaho. Frank R. Gooding was raised in a rural working-class background in England, but was eventually elected as the seventh governor of the state. Today people of English descent make up one fifth of the entire state of Idaho and form a plurality in the southern portion of the state.[12][13][14][15]

    Many German farmers also settled in what is now Idaho. German settlers were primarily Lutheran across all of the midwest and west, including Idaho, however there were small numbers of Catholics amongst them as well. In parts of Northern Idaho, German remained the dominant language until World War I, when German-Americans were pressured to convert entirely to English. Today, Idahoans of German ancestry make up nearly one fifth of all Idahoans and make up the second largest ethnic group after Idahoans of English descent with people of German ancestry being 18.1% of the state and people of English ancestry being 20.1% of the state.[16][17][18][19][20]

    Irish Catholics worked in railroad centers such as Boise. Today, 10% of Idahoans self-identify as having Irish ancestry.[21]

    York, a slave owned by William Clark but considered a full member of Corps of Discovery during expedition to the Pacific, was the first recorded African American in Idaho. There is a significant African American population made up of those who came west after the abolition of slavery. Many settled near Pocatello and were ranchers, entertainers, and farmers. Although free, many blacks suffered discrimination in the early-to-mid-late 20th century. The black population of the state continues to grow as many come to the state because of educational opportunities, to serve in the military, and for other employment opportunities. There is a Black History Museum in Boise, Idaho, with an exhibit known as the “Invisible Idahoan”, which chronicles the first African-Americans in the state. Blacks are the fourth largest ethnic group in Idaho according to the 2000 census. Mountain Home, Boise, and Garden City have significant African-American populations.

    The Basque people from the Iberian peninsula in Spain and southern France were traditionally shepherds in Europe. They came to Idaho, offering hard work and perseverance in exchange for opportunity.[22] One of the largest Basque communities in the US is in Boise,[23] with a Basque museum [24] and festival held annually in the city.

    Chinese in the mid-19th century came to America through San Francisco to work on the railroad and open businesses. By 1870, there were over 4000 Chinese and they comprised almost 30% of the population.[25] They suffered discrimination due to the Anti-Chinese League in the 19th century which sought to limit the rights and opportunities of Chinese emigrants.[26] Today Asians are third in population demographically after Whites and Hispanics at less than 2%.

    On March 4, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln signed an act creating Idaho Territory[27] from portions of Washington Territory and Dakota Territory with its capital at Lewiston. The original Idaho Territory included most of the areas that later became the states of Idaho, Montana and Wyoming, and had a population of under 17,000. Idaho Territory assumed the boundaries of the modern state in 1868 and was admitted as a state in 1890.

    After Idaho became a territory, legislation was held in Lewiston, the capital of Idaho Territory at the time. There were many territories acts put into place, and then taken away during these early sessions, one act being the move of the capital city from Lewiston to Boise City.[28] Boise was becoming a growing area after gold was found,[29] so on December 24, 1864, Boise City was made the final destination of the capital for the Territory of Idaho.[30]

    However, moving the capital to Boise City created a lot of issues between the territory. This was especially true between the north and south areas in the territory, due to how far south Boise City was.[30] Problems with communicating between the north and south contributed to some land in Idaho Territory being transferred to other territories and areas at the time. Idaho’s early boundary changes helped create the current boundaries of Washington, Wyoming, and Montana States as currently exist.[28]

    When President Benjamin Harrison signed the law admitting Idaho as a U.S. state on July 3, 1890, the population was 88,548. George L. Shoup became the state’s first governor, but resigned after only a few weeks in office to take a seat in the United States Senate. Willis Sweet, A Republican, was the first congressman, 1890 to 1895, representing the state at-large. He vigorously demanded “Free Silver” or the unrestricted coinage of silver into legal tender, in order to pour money into the large silver mining industry in the Mountain West, but he was defeated by supporters of the gold standard. In 1896 he, like many Republicans from silver mining districts, supported the Silver Republican Party instead of the regular Republican nominee William McKinley.[31]

    During its first years of statehood, Idaho was plagued by labor unrest in the mining district of Coeur d’Alene. In 1892, miners called a strike which developed into a shooting war between union miners and company guards. Each side accused the other of starting the fight. The first shots were exchanged at the Frisco mine in Frisco, in the Burke-Canyon north and east of Wallace. The Frisco mine was blown up, and company guards were taken prisoner. The violence soon spilled over into the nearby community of Gem, where union miners attempted to locate a Pinkerton spy who had infiltrated their union and was passing information to the mine operators. But agent Charlie Siringo escaped by cutting a hole in the floor of his room. Strikers forced the Gem mine to close, then traveled west to the Bunker Hill mining complex near Wardner, and closed down that facility as well. Several had been killed in the Burke-Canyon fighting. The Idaho National Guard and federal troops were dispatched to the area, and union miners and sympathizers were thrown into bullpens.

    Hostilities would again erupt at the Bunker Hill facility in 1899, when seventeen union miners were fired for having joined the union. Other union miners were likewise ordered to draw their pay and leave. Angry members of the union converged on the area and blew up the Bunker Hill Mill, killing two company men.

    In both disputes, the union’s complaints included pay, hours of work, the right of miners to belong to the union, and the mine owners’ use of informants and undercover agents. The violence committed by union miners was answered with a brutal response in 1892 and in 1899.

    Through the Western Federation of Miners (WFM) union, the battles in the mining district became closely tied to a major miners’ strike in Colorado. The struggle culminated in the December 1905 assassination of former Governor Frank Steunenberg by Harry Orchard (also known as Albert Horsley), a member of the WFM. Orchard was allegedly incensed by Steunenberg’s efforts as governor to put down the 1899 miner uprising after being elected on a pro-labor platform.

    Pinkerton detective James McParland conducted the investigation into the assassination. In 1907, WFM Secretary Treasurer “Big Bill” Haywood and two other WFM leaders were tried on a charge of conspiracy to murder Steunenberg, with Orchard testifying against them as part of a deal made with McParland. The nationally publicized trial featured Senator William E. Borah as prosecuting attorney and Clarence Darrow representing the defendants. The defense team presented evidence that Orchard had been a Pinkerton agent and had acted as a paid informant for the Cripple Creek Mine Owners’ Association. Darrow argued that Orchard’s real motive in the assassination had been revenge for a declaration of martial law by Steunenberg, which prompted Orchard to gamble away a share in the Hercules silver mine that would otherwise have made him wealthy.

    Two of the WFM leaders were acquitted in two separate trials, and the third was released. Orchard was convicted and sentenced to death. His sentence was commuted, and he spent the rest of his life in an Idaho prison.

    Mining in Idaho[32] was a major commercial venture, bringing a great deal of attention to the state. From 1860-1866 Idaho produced 19% of all gold in the United States, or 2.5 million ounces.

    Most of Idaho’s mining production, 1860–1969, has come from metals equating to $2.88 billion out of $3.42 billion, according to the best estimates. Of the metallic mining areas of Idaho, the Coeur d’Alene region has produced the most by far, and accounts for about 80% of the total Idaho yield.

    Several others—Boise Basin, Wood River Valley, Stibnite, Blackbirg, and Owyhee—range considerably above the other big producers. Atlanta, Bear Valley, Bay Horse, Florence, Gilmore, Mackay, Patterson, and Yankee Fork all ran on the order of ten to twenty million dollars, and Elk City, Leesburg, Pierce, Rocky Bar, and Warren’s make up the rest of the major Idaho mining areas that stand out in the sixty or so regions of production worthy of mention.

    A number of small operations do not appear in this list of Idaho metallic mining areas: a small amount of gold was recovered from Goose Creek on Salmon Meadows; a mine near Cleveland was prospected in 1922 and produced a little manganese in 1926; a few tons of copper came from Fort Hall, and a few more tons of copper came from a mine near Montpelier. Similarly, a few tons of lead came from a property near Bear Lake, and lead-silver is known on Cassia Creek near Elba. Some gold quartz and lead-silver workings are on Ruby Creek west of Elk River, and there is a slightly developed copper operation on Deer Creek near Winchester. Molybdenum is known on Roaring River and on the east fork of the Salmon. Some scattered mining enterprises have been undertaken around Soldier Mountain and on Squaw Creek north of Montour.

    Idaho proved to be one of the more receptive states to the progressive agenda of the late 19th century and early 20th century. The state embraced progressive policies such as women’s suffrage (1896) and prohibition (1916) before they became federal law. Idahoans were also strongly supportive of Free Silver. The pro-bimetallism Populist and Silver Republican parties of the late 1890s were particularly successful in the state.

    Eugenics was also a major part of the Progressive movement.[33] In 1919, the Idaho legislature passed an Act legalizing the forced sterilization of some persons institutionalized in the state. The act was vetoed by governor D.W. Davis, who doubted its scientific merits and believed it likely violated the Equal Protection clause of the US Constitution.[34] In 1925, the Idaho legislature passed a revised eugenics act, now tailored to avoid Davis’s earlier objections. The new law created a state board of eugenics, charged with:

    The Eugenics board was eventually folded into the state’s health commission; between 1932 and 1964, a total of 30 women and eight men in Idaho were sterilized under this law.[36] The sterilization law was formally repealed in 1972.[37]

    After statehood, Idaho’s economy began a gradual shift away from mining toward agriculture, particularly in the south. Older mining communities such as Silver City and Rocky Bar gave way to agricultural communities incorporated after statehood, such as Nampa and Twin Falls. Milner Dam on the Snake River, completed in 1905, allowed for the formation of many agricultural communities in the Magic Valley region which had previously been nearly unpopulated.

    Meanwhile, some of the mining towns were able to reinvent themselves as resort communities, most notably in Blaine County, where the Sun Valley ski resort opened in 1936. Others, such as Silver City and Rocky Bar, became ghost towns.

    In the north, mining continued to be an important industry for several more decades. The closure of the Bunker Hill Mine complex in Shoshone County in the early 1980s sent the region’s economy into a tailspin. Since that time, a substantial increase in tourism in north Idaho has helped the region to recover. Coeur d’Alene, a lake-side resort town, is a destination for visitors in the area.

    Beginning in the 1980s, there was a rise in North Idaho of a few right-wing extremist and “survivalist” political groups, most notably one holding Neo-Nazi views, the Aryan Nations. These groups were most heavily concentrated in the Panhandle region of the state, particularly in the vicinity of Coeur d’Alene.

    In 1992 a stand-off occurred between U.S. Marshals, the F.B.I., and white separatist Randy Weaver and his family at their compound at Ruby Ridge, located near the small, northern Idaho town of Naples. The ensuing fire-fight and deaths of a U.S. Marshal, and Weaver’s son and wife gained national attention, and raised a considerable amount of controversy regarding the nature of acceptable force by the federal government in such situations.

    when was idaho founded

    In 2001, the Aryan Nations compound, which had been located in Hayden Lake, Idaho, was confiscated as a result of a court case, and the organization moved out of state. About the same time Boise installed an impressive stone Human Rights Memorial featuring a bronze statue of Anne Frank and quotations from her and many other writers extolling human freedom and equality.

    The demographics of the state have changed. Due to this growth in different groups, especially in Boise, the economic expansion surged wrong-economic growth followed the high standard of living and resulted in the “growth of different groups”.[citation needed] The population of Idaho in the 21st Century has been described as sharply divided along geographic and cultural lines due to the center of the state being dominated by sparsely-populated national forests, mountain ranges and recreation sites: “unless you’re willing to navigate a treacherous mountain pass, you can’t even drive from the north to the south without leaving the state.” The northern population gravitates towards Spokane, Washington, the heavily Mormon south-east population towards Utah, with an isolated Boise “[being] the closest thing to a city-state that you’ll find in America.”[38]

    Idaho was one of several states that received the brunt of nuclear fallout from tests at the Nevada Test Site during the 1950s and 1960s. Reports published by the U.S. government indicate that many Idaho citizens perished and continue to suffer as a result of these tests.[citation needed] As of September 2007, there were continuing efforts in the U.S. congress to compensate victims.[citation needed]


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    Cataldo is an unincorporated community in Kootenai and Shoshone counties in northern Idaho. It is located at an altitude of 2,139 feet (652 m).[1] Cataldo lies on the southeast banks of the Coeur d’Alene River and Interstate 90 passes the south side of the community. The community of Kingston lies along I-90 to the east.[2]

    The Cataldo Mission lies west of the river in Kootenai County.[2] It is the first mission in the Northwest and is a National Historic Landmark.[3]

    Cataldo’s population was estimated at 100 in 1909,[4] and was also 100 in 1960.[5]

    Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}47°32′56″N 116°19′47″W / 47.54889°N 116.32972°W / 47.54889; -116.32972


    when was idaho founded

    This Kootenai County, Idaho state location article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

    This Shoshone County, Idaho state location article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

    Idaho (/ˈaɪdəhoʊ/ (listen)) is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. It borders the state of Montana to the east and northeast, Wyoming to the east, Nevada and Utah to the south, and Washington and Oregon to the west. To the north, it shares a small portion of the Canadian border with the province of British Columbia. With a population of approximately 1.8 million and an area of 83,570 square miles (216,400 km2), Idaho is the 14th largest, the 13th least populous and the 7th least densely populated of the 50 U.S. states. The state’s capital and largest city is Boise.

    For thousands of years Idaho has been inhabited by Native American peoples. In the early 19th century, Idaho was considered part of the Oregon Country, an area disputed between the United States and the British Empire. It officially became U.S. territory with the signing of the Oregon Treaty of 1846, but a separate Idaho Territory was not organized until 1863, instead being included for periods in Oregon Territory and Washington Territory. Idaho was eventually admitted to the Union on July 3, 1890, becoming the 43rd state.

    Forming part of the Pacific Northwest (and the associated Cascadia bioregion), Idaho is divided into several distinct geographic and climatic regions. The state’s north, the relatively isolated Idaho Panhandle, is closely linked with Eastern Washington with which it shares the Pacific Time Zone—the rest of the state uses the Mountain Time Zone. The state’s south includes the Snake River Plain (which has most of the population and agricultural land). The state’s southeast incorporates part of the Great Basin. Idaho is quite mountainous, and contains several stretches of the Rocky Mountains. The United States Forest Service holds about 38% of Idaho’s land, the highest proportion of any state.[7]

    Industries significant for the state economy include manufacturing, agriculture, mining, forestry, and tourism. A number of science and technology firms are either headquartered in Idaho or have factories there, and the state also contains the Idaho National Laboratory, which is the country’s largest Department of Energy facility. Idaho’s agricultural sector supplies many products, but the state is best known for its potato crop, which comprises around one-third of the nationwide yield. The official state nickname is the “Gem State”, which references Idaho’s natural beauty.[8]

    when was idaho founded

    The name’s origin remains a mystery.[9] In the early 1860s, when the U.S. Congress was considering organizing a new territory in the Rocky Mountains, the name “Idaho” was suggested by George M. Willing, a politician posing as an unrecognized delegate from the unofficial Jefferson Territory.[10] Willing claimed that the name was derived from a Shoshone term meaning “the sun comes from the mountains” or “gem of the mountains”,[11] but it was revealed later that there was no such term and Willing claimed that he had been inspired to coin the name when he met a little girl named “Ida”.[12] Since the name appeared to be fabricated, the U.S. Congress ultimately decided to name the area Colorado Territory instead when it was created in February 1861, but by the time this decision was made, the town of Idaho Springs, Colorado had already been named after Willing’s proposal.

    The same year Congress created Colorado Territory, a county called Idaho County was created in eastern Washington Territory. The county was named after a steamship named Idaho, which was launched on the Columbia River in 1860. It is unclear whether the steamship was named before or after Willing’s claim was revealed. Regardless, part of Washington Territory, including Idaho County, was used to create Idaho Territory in 1863.[13] Eventually, the name was given to the Idaho Territory, which would later become the U.S. state.

    Despite this lack of evidence for the origin of the name, many textbooks well into the 20th century repeated as fact Willing’s account the name “Idaho” derived from the Shoshone term “ee-da-how”. A 1956 Idaho history textbook says:

    “Idaho” is a Shoshoni Indian exclamation. The word consists of three parts. The first is “Ee”, which in English conveys the idea of “coming down”. The second is “dah” which is the Shoshoni stem or root for both “sun” and “mountain”. The third syllable, “how”, denotes the exclamation and stands for the same thing in Shoshoni that the exclamation mark (!) does in English. The Shoshoni word is “Ee-dah-how”, and the Indian thought thus conveyed when translated into English means, “Behold! the sun coming down the mountain.[14]

    An alternative etymology attributes the name to the Plains Apache word “ídaahę́” IPA: [í.taː.hɛ̃́] (enemy) that was used in reference to the Comanche.[15]

    Humans may have been present in the Idaho area as long as 14,500 years ago. Excavations at Wilson Butte Cave near Twin Falls in 1959 revealed evidence of human activity, including arrowheads, that rank among the oldest dated artifacts in North America. American Indian peoples predominant in the area included the Nez Percé in the north and the Northern and Western Shoshone in the south.

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  • A Late Upper Paleolithic site was identified at Cooper’s Ferry in western Idaho near the town of Cottonwood by archaeologists in 2019. Based on evidence found at the site, first people lived in this area 15,300 to 16,600 years ago, predating the Beringia land bridge by about a thousand years. The discoverers, anthropology professor Loren Davis and colleagues, emphasized that they possess similarities with tools and artifacts discovered in Japan that date from 16,000 to 13,000 years ago.[16][17][18][19][20] The discovery also showed that the first people might not have come to North America by land, as previously theorized. On the contrary, they probably came through the water, using a Pacific coastal road.[19]

    The most parsimonious explanation we think is that people came down the Pacific Coast, and as they encountered the mouth of the Columbia River, they essentially found an off-ramp from this coastal migration and also found their first viable interior route to the areas that are south of the ice sheet.

    An early presence of French-Canadian trappers is visible in names and toponyms: Nez Percé, Cœur d’Alène, Boisé, Payette, some preexisting the Lewis and Clark and Astorian expeditions which themselves included significant numbers of French and Métis guides recruited for their familiarity with the terrain.

    Idaho, as part of the Oregon Country, was claimed by both the United States and Great Britain until the United States gained undisputed jurisdiction in 1846. From 1843 to 1849, present-day Idaho was under the de facto jurisdiction of the Provisional Government of Oregon. When Oregon became a state, what is now Idaho was in what remained of the original Oregon Territory not part of the new state, and designated as the Washington Territory.

    Between then and the creation of the Idaho Territory on March 4, 1863, at Lewiston, parts of the present-day state were included in the Oregon, Washington, and Dakota Territories. The new territory included present-day Idaho, Montana, and most of Wyoming. The Lewis and Clark expedition crossed Idaho in 1805 on the way to the Pacific and in 1806 on the return, largely following the Clearwater River both directions. The first non-indigenous settlement was Kullyspell House, established on the shore of Lake Pend Oreille for fur trading in 1809 by David Thompson of the North West Company.[21][22] In 1812 Donald Mackenzie, working for the Pacific Fur Company at the time, established a post on the lower Clearwater River near present-day Lewiston. This post, known as “MacKenzie’s Post” or “Clearwater”, operated until the Pacific Fur Company was bought out by the North West Company in 1813, after which it was abandoned.[23][24] The first attempts at organized communities, within the present borders of Idaho, were established in 1860.[25][26] The first permanent, substantial incorporated community was Lewiston in 1861.

    After some tribulation as a territory, including the chaotic transfer of the territorial capital from Lewiston to Boise,[27] disenfranchisement of Mormon polygamists upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1877,[28] and a federal attempt to split the territory between Washington Territory which gained statehood in 1889, a year before Idaho, and the state of Nevada which had been a state since 1864, Idaho achieved statehood in 1890.[29]

    Idaho was one of the hardest hit of the Pacific Northwest states during the Great Depression.[30] Prices plummeted for Idaho’s major crops: in 1932 a bushel of potatoes brought only ten cents compared to $1.51 in 1919, while Idaho farmers saw their annual income of $686 in 1929 drop to $250 by 1932.[31]

    In recent years, Idaho has expanded its commercial base as a tourism and agricultural state to include science and technology industries. Science and technology have become the largest single economic center (over 25% of the state’s total revenue) within the state and are greater than agriculture, forestry and mining combined.[32]

    During the COVID-19 pandemic, Idaho enacted statewide crisis standards of care as COVID-19 patients overwhelmed hospitals.[33] The state had one of the lowest vaccination rates in the country as of mid-October 2021.[34]

    Idaho borders six U.S. states and one Canadian province. The states of Washington and Oregon are to the west, Nevada and Utah are to the south, and Montana and Wyoming are to the east. Idaho also shares a short border with the Canadian province of British Columbia to the north.

    The landscape is rugged with some of the largest unspoiled natural areas in the United States. For example, at 2.3 million acres (930,000 ha), the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness Area is the largest contiguous area of protected wilderness in the continental United States. Idaho is a Rocky Mountain state with abundant natural resources and scenic areas. The state has snow-capped mountain ranges, rapids, vast lakes and steep canyons. The waters of the Snake River run through Hells Canyon, the deepest gorge in the United States. Shoshone Falls falls down cliffs from a height greater than Niagara Falls.

    By far, the most important river in Idaho is the Snake River, a major tributary of the Columbia River. The Snake River flows out from Yellowstone in northwestern Wyoming through the Snake River Plain in southern Idaho before turning north, leaving the state at Lewiston before joining the Columbia in Kennewick. Other major rivers are the Clark Fork/Pend Oreille River, the Spokane River, and major tributaries of the Snake river, including the Clearwater River, the Salmon River, the Boise River, and the Payette River. The Salmon River empties into the Snake in Hells Canyon and forms the southern boundary of Nez Perce County on its north shore, of which Lewiston is the county seat. The Port of Lewiston, at the confluence of the Clearwater and the Snake Rivers is the farthest inland seaport on the West Coast at 465 river miles from the Pacific at Astoria, Oregon.[35]

    The vast majority of Idaho’s population lives in the Snake River Plain, a valley running from across the entirety of southern Idaho from east to west. The valley contains the major cities of Boise, Meridian, Nampa, Caldwell, Twin Falls, Idaho Falls, and Pocatello. The plain served as an easy pass through the Rocky Mountains for westward-bound settlers on the Oregon Trail, and many settlers chose to settle the area rather than risking the treacherous route through the Blue Mountains and the Cascade Range to the west. The western region of the plain is known as the Treasure Valley, bound between the Owyhee Mountains to the southwest and the Boise Mountains to the northeast. The central region of the Snake River Plain is known as the Magic Valley.

    Idaho’s highest point is Borah Peak, 12,662 ft (3,859 m), in the Lost River Range north of Mackay. Idaho’s lowest point, 710 ft (216 m), is in Lewiston, where the Clearwater River joins the Snake River and continues into Washington. The Sawtooth Range is often considered Idaho’s most famous mountain range.[36] Other mountain ranges in Idaho include the Bitterroot Range, the White Cloud Mountains, the Lost River Range, the Clearwater Mountains, and the Salmon River Mountains.

    Idaho has two time zones, with the dividing line approximately midway between Canada and Nevada. Southern Idaho, including the Boise metropolitan area, Idaho Falls, Pocatello, and Twin Falls, are in the Mountain Time Zone. A legislative error (15 U.S.C. ch. 6 §264) theoretically placed this region in the Central Time Zone, but this was corrected with a 2007 amendment.[37] Areas north of the Salmon River, including Coeur d’Alene, Moscow, Lewiston, and Sandpoint, are in the Pacific Time Zone, which contains less than a quarter of the state’s population and land area.

    Idaho’s climate varies widely. Although the state’s western border is about 330 miles (530 km) from the Pacific Ocean, the maritime influence is still felt in Idaho, especially in the winter when cloud cover, humidity, and precipitation are at their maximum extent. This influence has a moderating effect in the winter where temperatures are not as low as would otherwise be expected for a northern state with predominantly high elevations.[38] In the panhandle, moist air masses from the coast are released as precipitation over the North Central Rockies forests, creating the North American inland temperate rainforest.[39] The maritime influence is least prominent in the state’s eastern part where the precipitation patterns are often reversed, with wetter summers and drier winters, and seasonal temperature differences are more extreme, showing a more semi-arid continental climate.[40]

    Idaho can be hot, although extended periods over 98 °F (37 °C) are rare, except for the lowest point in elevation, Lewiston, which correspondingly sees little snow. Hot summer days are tempered by the low relative humidity and cooler evenings during summer months since, for most of the state, the highest diurnal difference in temperature is often in the summer.[41] Winters can be cold, although extended periods of bitter cold weather below zero are unusual. Idaho’s all-time highest temperature of 118 °F (48 °C) was recorded at Orofino on July 28, 1934; the all-time lowest temperature of −60 °F (−51 °C) was recorded at Island Park Dam on January 18, 1943.

    As of 2018:[43]

    The United States Census Bureau determined Idaho’s population was 1,839,106 on July 1, 2020, a 17% increase since the 2010 U.S. census.[45]

    Idaho had an estimated population of 1,754,208 in 2018, which was an increase of 37,265, from the prior year and an increase of 186,626, or 11.91%, since 2010. This included a natural increase since the last census of 58,884 (111,131 births minus 52,247 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 75,795 people into the state. There are large numbers of Americans of English and German ancestry in Idaho. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 14,522 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 61,273 people.

    This made Idaho the ninth fastest-growing state after Utah (+14.37%), Texas (+14.14%), Florida (+13.29%), Colorado (+13.25%), North Dakota (+13.01%), Nevada (+12.36%), Arizona (+12.20%) and Washington. From 2017 to 2018, Idaho grew the second-fastest, surpassed only by Nevada.

    Nampa, about 20 miles (30 km) west of downtown Boise, became the state’s second largest city in the late 1990s, passing Pocatello and Idaho Falls. Nampa’s population was under 29,000 in 1990 and grew to over 81,000 by 2010. Located between Nampa and Boise, Meridian also experienced high growth, from fewer than 10,000 residents in 1990 to more than 75,000 in 2010 and is now Idaho’s third largest city. Growth of 5% or more over the same period has also been observed in Caldwell, Coeur d’Alene, Post Falls, and Twin Falls.[46]

    From 1990 to 2010, Idaho’s population increased by over 560,000 (55%). The Boise metropolitan area (officially known as the Boise City-Nampa, ID Metropolitan Statistical Area) is Idaho’s largest metropolitan area. Other metropolitan areas in order of size are Coeur d’Alene, Idaho Falls, Pocatello and Lewiston.

    The table below shows the ethnic composition of Idaho’s population as of 2016.

    According to the 2017 American Community Survey, 12.2% of Idaho’s population were of Hispanic or Latino origin (of any race): Mexican (10.6%), Puerto Rican (0.2%), Cuban (0.1%), and other Hispanic or Latino origin (1.3%).[47] The five largest ancestry groups were: German (17.5%), English (16.4%), Irish (9.3%), American (8.1%), and Scottish (3.2%).[51]

    Note: Births in table don’t add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

    According to the Pew Research Center on Religion & Public Life, the self-identified religious affiliations of Idahoans over the age of 18 in 2008 and 2014 were:

    According to the Association of Religion Data Archives, the largest denominations by number of members in 2010 were The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 409,265; the Catholic Church with 123,400; the non-denominational Evangelical Protestant with 62,637; and the Assemblies of God with 22,183.[63]

    English is the state’s predominant language. Minority languages include Spanish[64] and various Native American languages.

    when was idaho founded

    As of 2016, the state’s total employment was 562,282, and the total employer establishments were 45,826.[65]

    Gross state product for 2015 was $64.9 billion,[66] and the per capita income based on 2015 GDP and 2015 population estimates was $39,100.[66][67]

    Idaho is an important agricultural state, producing nearly one-third of the potatoes grown in the United States. All three varieties of wheat—dark northern spring, hard red, and soft white—are grown in the state. Nez Perce County is considered a premier soft white growing locale.

    Important industries in Idaho are food processing, lumber and wood products, machinery, chemical products, paper products, electronics manufacturing, silver and other mining, and tourism. The world’s largest factory for barrel cheese, the raw product for processed cheese is in Gooding, Idaho. It has a capacity of 120,000 metric tons per year of barrel cheese and belongs to the Glanbia group.[68] The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is the largest Department of Energy facility in the country by area. INL is an important part of the eastern Idaho economy. Idaho also is home to three facilities of Anheuser-Busch which provide a large part of the malt for breweries across the nation.

    A variety of industries are important. Outdoor recreation is a common example ranging from numerous snowmobile and downhill and cross-country ski areas in winter to the evolution of Lewiston as a retirement community based on mild winters, dry, year-round climate and one of the lowest median wind velocities anywhere, combined with the rivers for a wide variety of activities. Other examples are ATK Corporation, which operates three ammunition and ammunition components plants in Lewiston. Two are sporting and one is defense contract. The Lewis-Clark valley has an additional independent ammunition components manufacturer and the Chipmunk rifle factory until it was purchased in 2007 by Keystone Sporting Arms and production was moved to Milton, Pennsylvania. Four of the world’s six welded aluminum jet boat (for running river rapids) manufacturers are in the Lewiston-Clarkston, WA valley. Wine grapes were grown between Kendrick and Juliaetta in the Idaho Panhandle by the French Rothschilds until Prohibition. In keeping with this, while there are no large wineries or breweries in Idaho, there are numerous and growing numbers of award-winning boutique wineries and microbreweries in the northern part of the state.

    Today, Idaho’s largest industry is the science and technology sector. It accounts for over 25% of the state’s revenue and over 70% of the state’s exports. Idaho’s industrial economy is growing, with high-tech products leading the way. Since the late 1970s, Boise has emerged as a center for semiconductor manufacturing. Boise is the home of Micron Technology, the only U.S. manufacturer of dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) chips. Micron at one time manufactured desktop computers, but with very limited success. Hewlett-Packard has operated a large plant in Boise since the 1970s, which is devoted primarily to LaserJet printers production.[69] Boise-based Clearwater Analytics is another rapidly growing investment accounting and reporting software firm, reporting on over $1 trillion in assets.[70] ON Semiconductor, whose worldwide headquarters is in Pocatello, is a widely recognized innovator of modern integrated mixed-signal semiconductor products, mixed-signal foundry services, and structured digital products. Coldwater Creek, a women’s clothing retailer, is headquartered in Sandpoint. Sun Microsystems (now a part of Oracle Corporation) has two offices in Boise and a parts depot in Pocatello. Sun brings $4 million in annual salaries and over $300 million of revenue to the state each year.

    A number of Fortune 500 companies started in or trace their roots to Idaho, including Safeway in American Falls, Albertsons in Boise, JR Simplot across southern Idaho, and Potlatch Corp. in Lewiston. Zimmerly Air Transport in Lewiston-Clarkston was one of the five companies in the merger centered around Varney Air Lines of Pasco, Washington, which became United Airlines and subsequently Varney Air Group which became Continental Airlines.

    In 2014, Idaho emerged as the second most small business friendly state, ranking behind Utah, based on a study drawing upon data from more than 12,000 small business owners.[71]

    Idaho has a state gambling lottery which contributed $333.5 million in payments to all Idaho public schools and Idaho higher education from 1990 to 2006.[72]

    Idaho state quarter

    American Falls Dam

    Wheat harvest on the Palouse

    Tax is collected by the Idaho State Tax Commission.[73]

    The state personal income tax ranges from 1.6% to 7.8% in eight income brackets. Idahoans may apply for state tax credits for taxes paid to other states, as well as for donations to Idaho state educational entities and some nonprofit youth and rehabilitation facilities.

    The state sales tax is 6% with a very limited, selective local option up to 6.5%. Sales tax applies to the sale, rental or lease of tangible personal property and some services. Food is taxed, but prescription drugs are not. Hotel, motel, and campground accommodations are taxed at a higher rate (7% to 11%). Some jurisdictions impose local option sales tax.

    The sales tax was introduced at 3% in 1965, easily approved by voters,[74] where it remained at 3% until 1983.[75]

    As of 2017, the primary energy source in Idaho was hydropower, and the energy companies had a total retail sales of 23,793,790 megawatthours (MWh).[76] As of 2017, Idaho had a regulated electricity market, with the Idaho Public Utilities Commission regulating the three major utilities of Avista Utilities, Idaho Power, and Rocky Mountain Power.[77]

    Idaho’s energy landscape is favorable to the development of renewable energy systems. The state is rich in renewable energy resources but has limited fossil fuel resources. The Snake River Plain and smaller river basins provide Idaho with some of the nation’s best hydroelectric power resources and its geologically active mountain areas have significant geothermal power and wind power potential. These realities have shaped much of the state’s energy landscape.

    Idaho imports most of the energy it consumes. Imports account for more than 80% of energy consumption, including all of Idaho’s natural gas and petroleum supplies and more than half of its electricity. Of the electricity consumed in Idaho in 2005, 48% came from hydroelectricity, 42% was generated by burning coal and 9% was generated by burning natural gas. The remainder came from other renewable sources such as wind.[78]

    The state’s numerous river basins allow hydroelectric power plants to provide 556,000 MWh, which amounts to about three-fourths of Idaho’s electricity generated in the state. Washington State provides most of the natural gas used in Idaho through one of the two major pipeline systems supplying the state. Although the state relies on out-of-state sources for its entire natural gas supply, it uses natural gas-fired plants to generate 127,000 MWh, or about ten percent of its output. Coal-fired generation and the state’s small array of wind turbines supplies the remainder of the state’s electricity output. The state produces 739,000 MWh but still needs to import half of its electricity from out-of-state to meet demand.[79]

    While Idaho’s 515 trillion British thermal units (151 TWh) total energy consumption is low compared with other states and represents just 0.5% of United States consumption, the state also has the nation’s 11th smallest population, 1.5 million, so its per capita energy consumption of 352 million BTU (103 MWh) is just above the national average of 333 million BTU (98 MWh).[79] As the 13th‑largest state in terms of land area of 83,570 square miles (53,480,000 acres; 216,400 km2), distance creates the additional problem of “line loss”. When the length of an electrical transmission line is doubled, the resistance to an electric current passing through it is also doubled.

    In addition, Idaho also has the 6th fastest growing population in the United States with the population expected to increase by 31% from 2008 to 2030.[80] This projected increase in population will contribute to a 42% increase in demand by 2030, further straining Idaho’s finite hydroelectric resources.[81]

    Idaho has an upper-boundary estimate of development potential to generate 44,320 GWh/year from 18,076 MW of wind power, and 7,467,000 GWh/year from solar power using 2,061,000 MW of photovoltaics (PV), including 3,224 MW of rooftop photovoltaics, and 1,267,000 MW of concentrated solar power.[82] Idaho had 973 MW of installed wind power as of 2020.[83]

    The Idaho Transportation Department is the government agency responsible for Idaho’s transportation infrastructure, including operations and maintenance as well as planning for future needs. The agency is also responsible for overseeing the disbursement of federal, state, and grant funding for the transportation programs of the state.[84]

    Idaho is among the few states in the nation without a major freeway linking its two largest metropolitan areas, Boise in the south and Coeur d’Alene in the north. US-95 links the two ends of the state, but like many other highways in Idaho, it is badly in need of repair and upgrade. In 2007, the Idaho Transportation Department stated the state’s highway infrastructure faces a $200 million per year shortfall in maintenance and upgrades. I-84 is the main highway linking the southeast and southwest portions of the state, along with I-86 and I-15.

    Major federal aid highways in Idaho:

    Major airports include the Boise Airport which serves the southwest region of Idaho and the Spokane International Airport (in Spokane, Washington) which serves northern Idaho. Other airports with scheduled service are the Pullman-Moscow Regional Airport serving the Palouse; the Lewiston-Nez Perce County Airport, serving the Lewis-Clark Valley and north central and west central Idaho; The Magic Valley Regional Airport in Twin Falls; the Idaho Falls Regional Airport; and the Pocatello Regional Airport.[85]

    Idaho is served by three transcontinental railroads. The Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) connects the Idaho Panhandle with Seattle, Portland, and Spokane to the west, and Minneapolis and Chicago to the east. The BNSF travels through Kootenai, Bonner, and Boundary counties. The Union Pacific Railroad crosses North Idaho entering from Canada through Boundary and Bonner, and proceeding to Spokane. Canadian Pacific Railway uses Union Pacific Railroad tracks in North Idaho carrying products from Alberta to Spokane and Portland, Oregon. Amtrak’s Empire Builder crosses northern Idaho, with its only stop being in Sandpoint. Montana Rail Link also operates between Billings, Montana, and Sandpoint, Idaho.

    The Union Pacific Railroad also crosses southern Idaho traveling between Portland, Oregon, Green River, Wyoming, and Ogden, Utah, and serves Boise, Nampa, Twin Falls, and Pocatello.

    The Port of Lewiston is the farthest inland Pacific port on the west coast. A series of dams and locks on the Snake River and Columbia River facilitate barge travel from Lewiston to Portland, where goods are loaded on ocean-going vessels.

    The constitution of Idaho is roughly modeled on the national constitution with several additions. The constitution defines the form and functions of the state government, and may be amended through plebiscite. Notably, the state constitution presently requires the state government to maintain a balanced budget. As result, Idaho has limited debt (construction bonds, etc.).[86]

    All of Idaho’s state laws are contained in the Idaho Code and Statutes. The code is amended through the legislature with the approval of the governor. Idaho still operates under its original (1889) state constitution.[86]

    The constitution of Idaho provides for three branches of government: the executive, legislative and judicial branches. Idaho has a bicameral legislature, elected from 35 legislative districts, each represented by one senator and two representatives.

    Since 1946, statewide elected constitutional officers have been elected to four-year terms. They include: Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Secretary of State, Idaho state controller (Auditor before 1994), Treasurer, Attorney General, and Superintendent of Public Instruction.

    Last contested in 1966, Inspector of Mines was an originally elected constitutional office. Afterward it was an appointed position and ultimately done away with entirely in 1974.

    Idaho’s government has an alcohol monopoly; the Idaho State Liquor Division.

    The governor of Idaho serves a four-year term, and is elected during what is nationally referred to as midterm elections. As such, the governor is not elected in the same election year as the president of the United States. The current governor is Republican Brad Little, who was elected in 2018.

    Idaho’s legislature is part-time. However, the session may be extended if necessary, and often is. Because of this, Idaho’s legislators are considered “citizen legislators”, meaning their position as a legislator is not their main occupation.

    Terms for both the Senate and House of Representatives are two years. Legislative elections occur every even numbered year.

    The Idaho Legislature has been continuously controlled by the Republican Party since the late 1950s, although Democratic legislators are routinely elected from Boise, Pocatello, Blaine County and the northern Panhandle.

    The highest court in Idaho is the Idaho Supreme Court. There is also an intermediate appellate court, the Idaho Court of Appeals, which hears cases assigned to it from the Supreme Court. The state’s District Courts serve seven judicial districts.[87]

    After the Civil War, many Midwestern and Southern Democrats moved to the Idaho Territory. As a result, the early territorial legislatures were solidly Democrat-controlled. In contrast, most of the territorial governors were appointed by Republican presidents and were Republicans. This led to sometimes-bitter clashes between the two parties, including a range war with the Democrats backing the sheepherders and the Republicans the cattlemen, which ended in the “Diamondfield” Jack Davis murder trial. In the 1880s, Republicans became more prominent in local politics.

    In 1864, Clinton DeWitt Smith removed the territorial seal and the state constitution from a locked safe, and took them to Boise. This effectively moved the capital from where they were stored (Lewiston, Idaho) to the current capital Boise.[89]

    Since statehood, the Republican Party has usually been the dominant party in Idaho. At one time, Idaho had two Democratic parties, one being the mainstream and the other called the Anti-Mormon Democrats, lasting into the early 20th century. In the 1890s and early 1900s, the Populist Party enjoyed prominence while the Democratic Party maintained a brief dominance in the 1930s during the Great Depression. Since World War II most statewide-elected officials have been Republicans, though the Democrats did hold the majority in the House (by one seat) in 1958 and the governorship from 1971 to 1995.

    Idaho Congressional delegations have also been generally Republican since statehood. Several Idaho Democrats have had electoral success in the U.S. House of Representatives over the years, but the Senate delegation has been a Republican stronghold for decades. Several Idaho Republicans, including current Senators Mike Crapo and Jim Risch, have won reelection to the Senate, but only Frank Church has won reelection as a Democrat. Church’s 1974 victory was the last win for his party for either Senate seat, and Walt Minnick’s 2008 victory in the 1st congressional district was the last Democratic win in any congressional race.

    In modern times, Idaho has been a reliably Republican state in presidential politics. It has not supported a Democrat for president since 1964. Even in that election, Lyndon Johnson defeated Barry Goldwater in the state by fewer than two percentage points, compared to a landslide nationally. In 2004, Republican George W. Bush carried Idaho by a margin of 38 percentage points and with 68.4% of the vote, winning in 43 of 44 counties. Only Blaine County, which contains the Sun Valley ski resort, supported John Kerry, who owns a home in the area. In 2008 Barack Obama’s 36.1 percent[90] showing was the best for a Democratic presidential candidate in Idaho since 1976. However, Republican margins were narrower in 1992 and 1976.

    In the 2006 elections, Republicans, led by gubernatorial candidate CL “Butch” Otter, won all the state’s constitutional offices and retained both of the state’s seats in the House. However, Democrats picked up several seats in the Idaho Legislature, notably in the Boise area.[91]

    Republicans lost one of the House seats in 2008 to Minnick, but Republican Jim Risch retained Larry Craig’s Senate seat for the GOP by a comfortable margin.[92] Minnick lost his seat in the 2010 election to Republican State Rep. Raul Labrador.

    As of January 2020, the State of Idaho contains 105 school districts[93] and 62 charter schools.[94] The school districts range in enrollment from two to 39,507 students.[95]

    Idaho school districts are governed by elected school boards, which are elected in November of odd-numbered years,[96] except for the Boise School District, whose elections are held in September.[97]

    The Idaho State Board of Education oversees three comprehensive universities.[98] The University of Idaho in Moscow was the first university in the state (founded in 1889). It opened its doors in 1892 and is the land-grant institution and primary research university of the state. Idaho State University in Pocatello opened in 1901 as the Academy of Idaho, attained four-year status in 1947 and university status in 1963. Boise State University is the most recent school to attain university status in Idaho. The school opened in 1932 as Boise Junior College and became Boise State University in 1974. Lewis-Clark State College in Lewiston is the only public, non-university four-year college in Idaho. It opened as a normal school in 1893.

    Idaho has four regional community colleges: North Idaho College in Coeur d’Alene; College of Southern Idaho in Twin Falls; College of Western Idaho in Nampa, which opened in 2009, College of Eastern Idaho in Idaho Falls, which transitioned from a technical college in 2017.

    Private institutions in Idaho are Boise Bible College, affiliated with congregations of the Christian churches and churches of Christ; Brigham Young University-Idaho in Rexburg, which is affiliated with The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and a sister college to Brigham Young University; The College of Idaho in Caldwell, which still maintains a loose affiliation with the Presbyterian Church; Northwest Nazarene University in Nampa; and New Saint Andrews College in Moscow, of reformed Christian theological background. McCall College is a non-affiliated two-year private college in McCall, which was founded in 2011 and later opened in 2013.

    Central Idaho is home to one of North America’s oldest ski resorts, Sun Valley, where the world’s first chairlift was installed in 1936.[99] Other noted outdoor sites include Hells Canyon, the Salmon River, and its embarkation point of Riggins.

    The Boise Open professional golf tournament has been played at Hillcrest Country Club since 1990 as part of the Korn Ferry Tour. The Open has been part of the Korn Ferry Tour Finals since 2016.

    High school sports are overseen by the Idaho High School Activities Association (IHSAA).

    In 2016, Meridian’s Michael Slagowski ran 800 meters in 1:48.70. That is one of the 35 fastest 800-meter times ever run by a high school boy in the United States.[100] Weeks later, he would become only the ninth high school boy to complete a mile in under four minutes, running 3:59.53.

    Judy Garland performed the elaborate song-and-dance routine “Born in a Trunk in the Princess Theater in Pocatello, Idaho” in the 1954 version of the film A Star is Born.[101] The 1985 film Pale Rider was primarily filmed in the Boulder Mountains and the Sawtooth National Recreation Area in central Idaho, just north of Sun Valley.[102] River Phoenix and Keanu Reeves starred in the 1991 movie My Own Private Idaho, portions of which take place in Idaho.[103][104] The 2004 cult film Napoleon Dynamite takes place in Preston, Idaho; the film’s director, Jared Hess, attended Preston High School.[105]

    Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}44°21′03″N 114°36′47″W / 44.3509°N 114.6130°W / 44.3509; -114.6130 (State of Idaho)


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    UTC−08:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of −08:00. This time is used:

    Principal cities: Los Angeles, San Francisco Bay Area, San Diego, Sacramento, Las Vegas, Portland, Seattle, Vancouver, Victoria, Tijuana

    Principal cities: Anchorage


    The Pacific Time Zone (PT) is a time zone encompassing parts of western Canada, the western United States, and western Mexico. Places in this zone observe standard time by subtracting eight hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC−08:00). During daylight saving time, a time offset of UTC−07:00 is used.

    In the United States and Canada, this time zone is generically called the Pacific Time Zone. Specifically, time in this zone is referred to as Pacific Standard Time (PST) when standard time is being observed (early November to mid-March), and Pacific Daylight Time (PDT) when daylight saving time (mid-March to early November) is being observed. In Mexico, the corresponding time zone is known as the Zona Noroeste (Northwest Zone) and observes the same daylight saving schedule as the U.S. and Canada. The largest city in the Pacific Time Zone is Los Angeles, whose metropolitan area is also the largest in the time zone.

    The zone is two hours ahead of the Hawaii–Aleutian Time Zone, one hour ahead of the Alaska Time Zone, one hour behind the Mountain Time Zone,[a] two hours behind the Central Time Zone, three hours behind the Eastern Time Zone, and four hours behind the Atlantic Time Zone.

    One Canadian province is split between the Pacific Time Zone and the Mountain Time Zone:

    when was idaho founded

    As of September 24, 2020, Yukon officially switched from the Pacific Time Zone to a time zone “to be reckoned as seven hours behind Coordinated Universal Time (UTC−7)” after deciding to no longer observe daylight saving time.[1]

    In Mexico, the Zona Noroeste, which corresponds to Pacific Time in the United States and Canada, includes:

    Two states are fully contained in the Pacific Time Zone:

    Three states are split between the Pacific Time Zone and the Mountain Time Zone:

    One state is split between the Pacific Time Zone (unofficially), the Alaska Time Zone, and the Hawaii–Aleutian Time Zone:

    Through 2006, the local time (PST, UTC−08:00) changed to daylight time (PDT, UTC−07:00) at 02:00 LST (local standard time) to 03:00 LDT (local daylight time) on the first Sunday in April, and returned at 02:00 LDT to 01:00 LST on the last Sunday in October.

  • when and where was frankenstein written?
  • Effective in the U.S. in 2007 as a result of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, the local time changes from PST to PDT at 02:00 LST to 03:00 LDT on the second Sunday in March and the time returns at 02:00 LDT to 01:00 LST on the first Sunday in November. The Canadian provinces and territories that use daylight time each adopted these dates between October 2005 and February 2007. In Mexico, beginning in 2010, the portion of the country in this time zone uses the extended dates, as do some other parts. The vast majority of Mexico, however, still uses the old dates.

    These are tables of congressional delegations from Idaho to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives.

    The current dean of the Idaho delegation is Senator Mike Crapo, having served in the Senate since 1999 and in Congress since 1993.

    Michael Dean Crapo (/ˈkreɪpoʊ/ KRAY-poh; born May 20, 1951) is an American lawyer and politician serving as the senior United States senator from Idaho, a seat he has held since 1999. A Republican, he was the U.S. representative for Idaho’s 2nd congressional district from 1993 to 1999.

    Born in Idaho Falls, Crapo is a graduate of Brigham Young University and Harvard Law School. He practiced law in his home city throughout the 1980s, while also maintaining an active role in local Republican politics. His brother Terry Crapo was majority leader in the Idaho House of Representatives from 1968 to 1972 and an influential political figure until his death from leukemia in 1982. After his brother’s death, Crapo was elected to the Idaho Senate in 1984. He served as Senate president pro tempore from 1988 to 1992.

    Crapo was elected to an open seat in Congress in 1992, representing Idaho’s 2nd congressional district in the House of Representatives. After three terms in the House, he ran for the open seat in the U.S. Senate in 1998 when Dirk Kempthorne vacated it to run for Idaho governor. Crapo was elected with 70% of the vote, and became the first Mormon to represent Idaho in the Senate.[1] In 2004, he defeated his only opponent, write-in Democratic candidate Scott McClure, with 99% of the vote. He was reelected in 2010 with 71% of the vote, and in 2016 with 66% of the vote.

    Crapo was born in Idaho Falls, Idaho, the son of Melba (née Olsen) and George Lavelle Crapo. His brother Terry was 12 years older.[2] He is the first cousin four times removed of Henry Howland Crapo, who served as governor of Michigan from 1865 to 1869; second cousin three times removed of William W. Crapo, Henry’s son, who served as a congressman from Massachusetts; and third cousin twice removed of William Crapo Durant, Henry’s grandson, who founded General Motors. Their common ancestor is Peter Crapo (1743-1822), who served in the American Revolutionary War. Mike Crapo graduated from Idaho Falls High School in 1969. He earned a B.A. in political science from Brigham Young University in 1973 and a J.D. from Harvard Law School in 1977.

    After graduating from law school, Crapo served for one year as a law clerk to Judge James M. Carter of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. He then returned to Idaho to practice as a lawyer, joining his brother Terry Crapo’s law firm of Holden Kidwell Hahn & Crapo in Idaho Falls. In the 1980s, he became active in the Republican Party’s campaigns for seats in the state legislature. His brother served in Idaho House of Representatives for four years as majority leader (1968 to 1972) and was considered a rising star in Idaho politics.[3] After Terry’s death from leukemia in 1982, Mike ran for an open seat in the Idaho Senate. He was elected to the State Senate in 1984, where he served until 1992. In 1988, Senate President pro tempore Jim Risch unexpectedly lost reelection to the Idaho Senate, and Crapo was elected by his colleagues to the president’s position. He served as senate president pro tempore from 1988 to 1992.

    when was idaho founded

    On January 27, 1989, Crapo served as acting governor of Idaho for 12 hours while Governor Cecil D. Andrus was out of the state testifying before Congress and Lieutenant Governor Butch Otter was out of the state on business for his employer, Simplot. Andrus, a Democrat, left Crapo a note saying, “Don’t do anything I wouldn’t do. … P.S. The chair is comfortable, isn’t it?”[4]

    Crapo was elected to Congress in 1992, representing Idaho’s 2nd congressional district in the United States House of Representatives. He served three terms from 1993 to 1999. He was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1998.

    Crapo was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1998, gaining the seat of Republican Dirk Kempthorne, who stepped down to run for governor. In his Senate bid, as in his House campaigns, Crapo’s campaign made signs that had a macron placed over the “a” in his name (Crāpo) to indicate its correct pronunciation (“Cray-poe”).

    Crapo was reelected in 2004 with 99.2% of the vote, with the other .8% going to a write-in candidate, Democrat Scott McClure.[5]

    In 2010, Crapo was reelected to a third term with 71% of the vote, defeating Democratic nominee P. Tom Sullivan and Constitution Party nominee Randy Bergquist.

    In 2016, Crapo was reelected to a fourth term with 66% of the vote, defeating Democratic nominee Jerry Sturgill and Constitution Party nominee Ray Writz. In October 2016, after the Donald Trump and Billy Bush recording came to light, Crapo said he would not vote for Trump.[6] He later reversed that decision.[7]

  • which apple is the only one native to north a
  • On February 12, 1999, Crapo was one of 50 senators to vote to convict of impeachable offenses and to remove Bill Clinton from office.[8]

    In the 111th Congress, Crapo served on the following Senate committees: Banking, Housing and Urban Development; Budget; Environment and Public Works; Indian Affairs; and Finance. He co-chairs the Senate Nuclear Caucus, the Canada-U.S. Inter-parliamentary Group (IPG); the COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) Caucus, which he founded; and the Congressional Sportsmen’s Caucus.

    Crapo became the state’s senior senator when the 111th United States Congress convened on January 3, 2009, succeeding Larry Craig, who decided not to seek reelection. At the convening of the 112th United States Congress, Crapo ranked 39th in seniority in the Senate.

    He opposed President Barack Obama’s health reform legislation, voted against the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in December 2009,[9] and voted against the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010.[10]

    In April 2013, Crapo was one of 46 senators to vote against a bill that would have expanded background checks for all gun buyers. He voted with 40 Republicans and 5 Democrats to stop passage of the bill.[11]

    The New York Times noted that Crapo became “something of a hero among advocates of bipartisanship” for his involvement in the “Gang of Six”.[12]

    In 2017, Crapo was one of 22 senators to sign a letter[13] to President Donald Trump urging him to withdraw the United States from the Paris Agreement.

    Crapo’s view on senatorial responsibilities for Supreme Court nominees has evolved. Of President George W. Bush’s 2006 nomination of Samuel Alito, Crapo said in a press release, “All of the President’s nominees deserve up-and-down votes and not efforts to obstruct judicial nominees for political purposes. Judges are not politicians, and hopefully, Judge Alito’s nomination will put an end to the politics which have crept into the nomination process.”[14] By contrast, in 2016, his press release regarding President Obama’s nomination of Merrick Garland to replace the late Antonin Scalia said:

    The Constitution gives the President the right to make nominations to the Supreme Court, with the advice and consent of the Senate. As part of its role in this process, the Senate may, at its discretion, withhold consent. The next Supreme Court justice will make decisions that affect every American and shape our nation’s legal landscape for decades. Therefore, the current Supreme Court vacancy should be filled by an individual nominated by the next President of the United States.[15]

    In September 2020, with less than two months to the next presidential election, Crapo voiced support for an immediate Senate vote on Trump’s nominee to fill the Supreme Court vacancy caused by the death of justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, once a “well-qualified candidate” was put forth.[16]

    For his tenure as the chairman of the Senate Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Committee during the 116th Congress, Crapo was given an “F” grade from the non-partisan Lugar Center’s Congressional Oversight Hearing Index.[17]

    On January 6, 2021, Crapo was participating in the certification of the 2021 United States Electoral College vote count when Trump supporters stormed the United States Capitol. In response, he called for “perpetrators” to be “prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law.”[18] He opposed removing Trump from office, saying that the “country is too divided” and that invoking the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution “would only make matters worse”.[19]

    Crapo is considered politically conservative. The American Conservative Union’s Center for Legislative Accountability gives him a lifetime conservative rating of 91.30.[20] Americans for Democratic Action gave him a liberalism score of zero in 2019.[21]

    Crapo is anti-abortion. In 1998, he supported a bill that made it illegal for minors to cross state lines to get abortions in order to avoid parental consent laws.[22] In 2009, he voted to restrict UN funding for population control policies.[23]

    Crapo is a proponent of nuclear energy. He supports the nuclear energy projects at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL)[24] and helped work on the nuclear-related Senate bills known as the Nuclear Energy Innovation Capabilities Act (NEICA) and the Nuclear Energy Innovation and Modernization Act (NEIMA).[25] The former bill helped establish the National Reactor Innovation Center at the INL.[24]

    In 2012, Crapo said that more gun control regulations would not curb violence in the United States. He also said that he supported efforts to improve mental health access rather than more gun laws.[26]

    As of 2013, Crapo had an “A+” rating from the National Rifle Association (NRA) for his voting record on causes supported by the NRA. The same year, he joined 12 other senators vowing to filibuster any attempts by Democrats to introduce additional gun control regulations in the wake of the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting.[27] Crapo also supported legislation to make open carry legal in National Parks.[28]

    In January 2017, the NRA praised Crapo for introducing the Hearing Protection Act, which would make access to gun silencers easier.[29]

    In response to the 2017 Las Vegas shooting, Crapo called for “solidarity” and praised first responders. He also said, “May we unite in the fight against evil with an ever-vigilant drive toward peace.”[30] The Hearing Protection Act bill was tabled in wake of the shooting.[31]

    On May 28, 2021, Crapo voted against creating an independent commission to investigate the 2021 United States Capitol attack.[32]

    Crapo married Susan Diane Hasleton in June 1974, and they have five children. He is a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.[33]

    Crapo was diagnosed with prostate cancer in 1999 and underwent a radical prostatectomy in January 2000. He had a full recovery and was declared cancer-free. In 2005 he had a recurrence of prostate cancer, and underwent a series of radiation treatments. He has become active in advocating early detection tests for cancer and other treatable diseases. Crapo has also pushed to create a federal Office of Men’s Health.[34]

    Crapo is an Eagle Scout, awarded in 1966. He received the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award (DESA) in 2000.

    Crapo was arrested on December 23, 2012, for DUI after running a red light in Alexandria, Virginia, around 12:45 am EST. He failed field sobriety tests, registering a blood alcohol content of 0.11%.[35][36] Hours after his arrest, Crapo issued a public apology for his behavior.[37] Various Idaho media outlets were critical of his arrest, particularly in light of the temperance beliefs of his religion.[38][39]

    On January 4, 2013, Crapo pleaded guilty to DUI and received the standard punishment for a first-time offender in Virginia: $250 fine and court costs, one-year suspension of his driver’s license, and court-ordered alcohol education and awareness classes. He successfully completed all. After his court appearance, he held a news conference outside the Alexandria courthouse, again apologizing and providing a more complete explanation of his actions as well as his intention to regain Idahoans’ trust.[40]

    Media related to Mike Crapo at Wikimedia Commons


    James Elroy Risch (/ˈrɪʃ/ RISH; born May 3, 1943) is an American lawyer and politician who has served as the junior United States senator from Idaho since 2009.[1] A member of the Republican Party, he served as lieutenant governor of Idaho from 2003 to 2006 and from 2007 to 2009, and as governor of Idaho from 2006 to 2007.

    Prior to his career in politics, Risch was a prosecuting attorney and taught criminal law at Boise State University.

    Born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Risch is the son of Helen B. (née Levi) and Elroy A. Risch, a lineman for Wisconsin Bell. His father is of German descent and his mother is of Irish, Scottish, and English ancestry.[2] Risch attended the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee from 1961 to 1963 and then transferred to the University of Idaho in Moscow, where he was a member of the Phi Delta Theta fraternity.[3] He obtained a B.S. degree in forestry in 1965,[4] and continued his education at the university’s College of Law. He served on the Law Review and the College of Law Advisory Committee[5] before receiving a J.D. degree in 1968.[6]

    Risch entered politics in 1970 in Boise at age 27, winning election as Ada County Prosecuting Attorney. While serving in this capacity, he taught undergraduate classes in criminal justice at Boise State College and served as the president of the state’s prosecuting attorneys’ association. Concurrent with his service in the Idaho Senate, Risch became a millionaire as one of Idaho’s most successful trial lawyers.[7]

    when was idaho founded

    Risch was first elected to the Idaho Senate from Ada County in 1974. He entered the state senate leadership in 1976, serving as majority leader and later as president pro tempore.

    In a dramatic upset, Risch was defeated for reelection in 1988 by Democratic political newcomer and Boise attorney Mike Burkett. As of mid-2006, it remains Idaho’s most expensive legislative contest.

    In the second political defeat of his career, Risch lost the 1994 primary election for a state Senate seat to Roger Madsen. Risch returned to the state senate in 1995, as an appointee of Governor Phil Batt, who had named Madsen as the state commerce department’s director.

    In January 2001, Risch had his eye on the lieutenant governor’s seat vacated by Butch Otter, who resigned after being elected to Congress, but Governor Dirk Kempthorne appointed state Senator Jack Riggs of Coeur d’Alene to the post instead. The next year, Risch defeated Riggs in the Republican primary and won the general election, spending $360,000 of his own money on the campaign.

    On May 26, 2006, Risch became governor of Idaho when Kempthorne resigned to become U.S. secretary of the interior. Risch appointed Mark Ricks to serve as his lieutenant governor.[8] Risch served out the remaining seven months of Kempthorne’s term, which ended in January 2007.

    In August 2006, Risch called a special session of the Idaho Legislature to consider his proposed property tax reform bill, the Property Tax Relief Act of 2006.

  • 1000 times .09
  • Risch was expected to enter the 2006 Republican gubernatorial primary to succeed Kempthorne, who was completing his second term at this time of his federal appointment. But Otter had already announced his candidacy for the position in December 2004 and gained a significant head start in campaigning and fundraising. In November 2005, Risch announced his intention to seek election again as lieutenant governor.

    Risch was unopposed for the 2006 Republican nomination for lieutenant governor and defeated former Democratic U.S. representative Larry LaRocco in the general election. Risch’s term as governor ended in January 2007 and he returned to the role of lieutenant governor. He resigned as lieutenant governor to take his seat in the Senate on January 3, 2009. Otter named state Senator Brad Little of Emmett as Risch’s successor.

    On August 31, 2007, the Associated Press reported that Governor Otter might appoint Risch to the United States Senate to succeed the embattled Larry Craig. On September 1, the Idaho Statesman reported that Otter’s spokesman denied Risch had been selected and that Otter had “made no decision and he is not leaning toward anybody.”[9] On October 9, Risch announced that he would run for the Senate seat.[10] In May 2008, Risch was nominated as the Republican candidate for U.S. Senate.[11] In the general election he defeated former Democratic Congressman Larry LaRocco with 58% of the vote.[12]

    Risch won the Republican primary with 79.9% of the vote[13] and defeated attorney Nels Mitchell in the general election with 65.3% of the vote.[14]

    Risch was unopposed in the 2020 Republican primary.[15] He defeated Democratic nominee Paulette Jordan in the general election with 62% of the vote.[16]

    Risch was one of four freshmen Republican senators in the 111th Congress of 2009, with Mike Johanns of Nebraska, George LeMieux of Florida and Scott Brown of Massachusetts. Republican Senator Mike Crapo of Idaho called Risch “results-oriented”.[17]

    In 2017, Risch was one of 22 senators to sign a letter[18] to President Donald Trump urging him to withdraw the United States from the Paris Agreement.

    On August 11, 2017, in an interview on PBS Newshour, Risch endorsed Trump’s threatening North Korea with military destruction in the event that country launched missiles at Guam.[19]

    On March 22, 2018, the day before a potential federal government shutdown, Risch threatened to block a government spending bill because it included changing the name of the White Clouds Wilderness protected area to honor a deceased political rival, former Idaho Governor Cecil Andrus.[20][21] Risch ultimately acquiesced.

    In January 2019, Risch joined Marco Rubio, Cory Gardner, and Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell in introducing legislation that would impose sanctions on the government of President of Syria Bashar al-Assad and bolster American cooperation with Israel and Jordan.[22]

    On January 21, 2020, during the first day of opening arguments in Trump’s Senate impeachment trial, Risch was the first senator to fall asleep. Courtroom sketch artist Art Lien memorialized his nap.[23]

    In 2020, while Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Risch decided not to press Secretary of State Mike Pompeo to testify at the annual budget hearing. Pompeo had just successfully sought to have State Department inspector general Steve Linick fired; at the time, Linick had been conducting a watchdog investigation into the Trump administration’s decision to sell arms to Saudi Arabia without congressional approval.[24] For his tenure as chair of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee during the 116th Congress, the nonpartisan Lugar Center’s Congressional Oversight Hearing Index gave Risch an “F” grade.[25]

    Risch was participating in the certification of the 2021 United States Electoral College vote count when Trump supporters stormed the United States Capitol. He called the attack “unpatriotic and un-American in the extreme” and suggested it was sparred by “deep distrust in the integrity and veracity of our elections.”[26][27]

    In 2021, Risch blocked the confirmation of Holocaust historian Deborah Lipstadt to the position of special envoy to monitor and combat antisemitism.[28]

    In 2019, Risch sought to quell dissent among Republican senators over what they perceived as the Trump administration’s weak response to the killing of Saudi journalist and U.S. permanent resident Jamal Khashoggi, and its refusal to send Congress a report on the administration’s determination of who killed Khashoggi. He told his fellow Republican senators and Politico that the Trump administration was in compliance with the Magnitsky Act, but the administration had said that it refused to comply with the Act.[29]

    In March 2018, Risch co-sponsored the Israel Anti-Boycott Act (s. 720), which would make it a federal crime for Americans to encourage or participate in boycotts against Israel and Israeli settlements in the West Bank if protesting actions by the Israeli government.[30][31]

    Risch is a co-sponsor of S.1241, the Promoting American National Security and Preventing the Resurgence of ISIS Act of 2019, which is intended to punish Turkey and protect allies like the Kurds who have suffered from recent Turkish military operations in Syria, including by resettling them in the United States.[32] The measure has broad support in Congress, which is concerned about the purchase of the Russian S-400 missile system Turkey is testing.[33]

    Risch is considered politically conservative. The American Conservative Union’s Center for Legislative Accountability gives him a lifetime conservative score of 91.54.[34] The liberal Americans for Democratic Action gave him an ideology score of zero in 2019.[35]

    Risch is anti-abortion.[36] In 2013, he co-sponsored the Child Interstate Abortion Notification Act, which would have made it illegal for a minor to cross state lines for an abortion.[37]

    The National Rifle Association (NRA) endorsed Risch and gave him an A+ grade for his voting record on gun issues.[38]

    In 2013, along with 12 other Republican Senators, Risch threatened to filibuster any bills Democrats introduced that Republicans perceived as a threat to gun rights, including expanded background checks. In an interview with National Public Radio, he said that Americans’ right to keep and bear arms includes “a right to purchase one [a gun], to sell one, to trade in one, and you really have to have a robust market if indeed you’re going to have a constitutional right.” He also said that additional background checks would mean that gun dealers would “have to deal with the federal bureaucracy, which is very, very difficult to deal with.”[39]

    In response to the Orlando nightclub shooting, Risch and Crapo said the shooting was not a reason to call for gun control legislation.[40]

    In 2016, Risch voted against the Feinstein Amendment, which would have blocked the sale of guns to people on the terrorist watch list, and Democrat Chris Murphy’s proposal to expand background checks for sales at gun shows and online. Risch voted for both Republican-backed bills, John Cornyn’s proposal to create a 72-hour delay for anyone on the terrorist watchlist buying a gun and Charles Grassley and Ted Cruz’s proposal to alert authorities if a someone on the list tries to buy a firearm.[41]

    Risch opposed the FIRST STEP Act, a bipartisan criminal justice reform bill. The bill passed 87–12 on December 18, 2018.[42]

    Risch supports repealing and replacing the Affordable Care Act (ACA), also known as Obamacare.[43] He voted against the ACA in 2010.[44]

    On May 21, 2020, Risch introduced S. 3829, the Global Health Security and Diplomacy Act, but it did not receive a vote. In opening the confirmation hearings for Secretary Antony Blinken, Risch emphasized it as a legislative and foreign policy priority, given the “catastrophic failure at every level” of global health security infrastructure. The bill’s supporters claim it would “improve coordination among the relevant Federal departments and agencies implementing United States foreign assistance for global health security, and more effectively enable partner countries to strengthen and sustain resilient health systems and supply chains with the resources, capacity, and personnel required to prevent, detect, mitigate, and respond to infectious disease threats before they become pandemics, and for other purposes.”[45]

    On May 28, 2021, Risch abstained from voting on the creation of an independent commission to investigate the 2021 United States Capitol attack.[46]

    This is a complete list of the U.S. states, its federal district and its major territories ordered by total area, land area and water area. The water area includes inland waters, coastal waters, the Great Lakes and territorial waters. Glaciers and intermittent bodies of water are counted as land area.[1]

    All divisions presented below are as configured by the United States Census Bureau.

    All regions presented below are as configured by the United States Census Bureau.

    U.S. states by total area

    U.S. states by land area

    when was idaho founded

    U.S. states by water area

    U.S. states by water percentage

    Alaska is the largest state by total area, land area, and water area. It is the seventh-largest country subdivision in the world.[4][failed verification]

    The area of Alaska is 18% of the area of the United States and 21% of the area of the contiguous United States.

    The second largest state, Texas, has only 40% of the total area of the largest state, Alaska.

    Rhode Island is the smallest state by total area and land area.

  • is social studies capitalized
  • San Bernardino County is the largest county in the contiguous U.S. and is larger than each of the nine smallest states; it is larger than the four smallest states combined.

    Michigan is second (after Alaska) in water area, and first in water percentage.

    Florida is mostly a peninsula, and has the third-largest water area and seventh-largest water area percentage.


    “Census 2000 Geographic Terms and Concepts”Downloads-icon


    “United States Summary: 2010, Population and Housing Unit Counts, 2010 Census of Population and Housing”Downloads-icon


    “United States Summary: 2010, Population and Housing Unit Counts, 2000 Census of Population and Housing”Downloads-icon

    Bordered by the Canadian province of British Columbia to the north and the U.S. states of Montana and Wyoming to the east, Utah and Nevada to the south, and Oregon and Washington to the west, Idaho is twice as large as the six New England states combined. With an abundance of scenic mountains, lakes, rivers and outdoor attractions, the state draws more than 20 million tourists eachyear. Idaho produces more potatoes and trout than any other state in the nation, and is known as the “Gem State” for the 72 types of precious and semi-precious stones it produces—some of which are exclusive to the state. Its state capital, Boise, is also its largest city with more than 200,000 residents.

    Date of Statehood: July 3, 1890

    Capital: Boise

    Population: 1,567,582 (2010)

    Size: 83,568 square miles

    when was idaho founded

    Nickname(s): Gem State

    Motto: Esto perpetua (“Let it be perpetual”)

    Tree: Western White Pine

    Flower: Syringa

    Bird: Mountain Bluebird

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  • Idaho

    History.com Editors

    HISTORY

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    Idaho is admitted to the union on July 3, 1890. 

    Exploration of the North American continent mostly proceeded inward from the Atlantic and Pacific coasts and northward from Spanish Mexico. Therefore, the rugged territory that would become Idaho long remained untouched by Spanish, French, British and American trappers and explorers. Even as late as 1805, Idaho Native Americans like the Shoshone had never encountered Europeans.

    That changed with the arrival of the American explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark in the summer of 1805. Searching for a route over the Rocky Mountains to the Columbia River, Lewis and Clark traveled through Idaho with the aid of the Shoshone and their horses. British fur traders and trappers followed a few years later, as did missionaries and a few hardy settlers. As with many remote western states, large-scale settlement began only after gold was discovered. Thousands of miners rushed into Idaho when word of a major gold strike came in September 1860, occupying Indigenous lands. Merchants and farmers followed, eager to make their fortunes “mining the miners.”

    By 1880, Idaho boasted a population of 32,610. In the southern section of the territory, many settlers were followers of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints who had been dispatched from Salt Lake City to found new colonies. Increasingly, Idaho territory became divided between an LDS-dominated south and an anti-LDS north. In the mid-1880s, anti-LDS Republicans used widespread public antipathy toward the practice of polygamy to pass legislation denying the predominantly Democratic Latter-Day Saints the vote.

    when was idaho founded

    With the Democratic vote disarmed, Idaho became a Republican-dominated territory. National Republicans eager to increase their influence in the U.S. Congress began to push for Idaho statehood in 1888. The following year, the Idaho territorial legislature approved a strongly anti-LDS constitution. The U.S. Congress approved the document on this day in 1890, and Idaho became the 43rd state in the Union.

    Idaho becomes 43rd state

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    Idaho är en amerikansk delstat i regionen Pacific Northwest i USA. Delstatens största stad och huvudstad är Boise. Invånarna kallas “Idahoans”. Idaho blev amerikanskt territorium genom Oregonfördraget och anslöt sig till unionen den 3 juli 1890 som den 43:e delstaten.

    Idaho är en mestadels bergig delstat med en yta knappt mindre än halva Sverige. Den är en inlandsstat omgiven av delstaterna Washington, Oregon, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, Montana och den kanadensiska provinsen British Columbia. Ett nätverk av dammar och slussar på Columbiafloden och Snake River gör att staden Lewiston har den hamn som ligger längst från västkusten i kontinentala USA.

    Enligt United States Census Bureau beräkning år 2010 hade Idaho ett invånarantal på 1 567 582.[2] Delstatens förkortning är ID. Delstatens motto är Esto Perpetua (latin för “Må du [eller hon, dvs. staten Idaho] förbli för evigt”). Idaho är till ytan den 14:e största delstaten. Idahos smeknamn är Gem State eftersom nästan alla kända ädelstenar har påträffats där.[3] Statens officiella ädelsten är stjärngranat[4] (granat med asterism), som förutom i Himalaya (Indien) nästan endast hittats i Idaho.[5] Små mängder av stjärngranat har även hittats i Ryssland, Brasilien och North Carolina.[5]

    Idaho är en viktig stat ur jordbrukssynpunkt. Nästan en tredjedel av all potatis i USA odlas där. McDonalds, en av världens största potatisuppköpare (varav 140–150 miljoner kilo per år från Idaho), använder sorterna: Russet Burbank, Shepody och Pentland Dell vilka till största delen odlas i Idaho.

    Andra viktiga branscher i Idaho är livsmedelsindustri, timmer, träprodukter, maskiner, kemiska produkter, pappersprodukter, elektroniktillverkning samt silver och andra gruvdrifter. Världens största fabrik för råvaran till smältost ligger i Gooding County, Idaho. Fabriken har en kapacitet på 120.000 ton per år och tillhör Glanbia-gruppen (irlandsägd internationell företagsgrupp). Idaho National Laboratory (INL), en statlig inrättning för kärnenergiforskning, är också en viktig del för östra Idahos ekonomi. I Idaho finns tre anläggningar som ägs av Anheuser-Busch InBev, världens största öltillverkare, vilka bidrar med en stor del av all den malt som används av bryggerier över hela USA.

    when was idaho founded

    De tio största städerna i Idaho (2010).

    Original Inhabitants

    Evidence of human activity in present-day Idaho dates to 12,000 years ago, when migratory big game hunters pursued bison and mammoth, leaving remains behind at campsites. By the time of the coming of the Europeans at the beginning of the 19th century, native groups occupied three areas in Idaho.

    The northern panhandle area was home to the Coeur d`Alene, Kootenai, and Pend d`Oreille. Western areas ranging into today`s eastern Oregon were inhabited by the Nez Percé. The Shoshone, Bannock, and Paiute were fairly recent inhabitants of the prairies of southern Idaho, having migrated northward from their previous homelands.

    The Shoshone and Nez Percé were the most numerous and the former were the first to adapt the horse into their lifestyle, which increased their mobility and hunting effectiveness. Early contact with the whites also introduced Smallpox, a disease against which the natives had no immunities.

    The Early Europeans

    Fur Traders President Thomas Jefferson in 1804 dispatched Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the newly obtained Louisiana Purchase. The explorers tried and failed to find an easy water route across the continent to the Pacific Ocean.

    In 1805, the party crossed over the Bitterroot Mountains into what became Idaho. Aided by natives, they constructed canoes and followed the Clearwater and Snake rivers to the Columbia and then on to the Pacific.

    In 1809, Canadian David Thompson, hired by the North West Company, established a trading post beside Lake Pend Oreille, the first such venture in the Northwest. He was followed the next year by an ambitious American, Andrew Henry, who built a post for the Missouri Fur Company near present-day Rexburg.

    In 1811, Donald Mackenzie and Wilson Price Hunt entered the Idaho area and made an unsuccessful attempt to float down the Snake River on canoes, later resorting to an overland route around the treacherous rapids. After surviving a brutal winter, the party pressed on to the Columbia and eventually to Fort Astoria. Parts of this route were later incorporated into the Oregon Trail.

    By the end of the War of 1812, Britain and the United States were the major claimants to the Northwest. A decision was made to defer determination of ultimate ownership of the area and the two nations agreed to joint occupation in 1818 for a period of 10 years. In 1819, the southern boundary of present-day Idaho and Oregon was set at 42º north latitude in a treaty with Spain.

    The North West Company was absorbed into the Hudson`s Bay Company in 1821. This powerful enterprise exerted vast influence throughout what was commonly call the Oregon Country and clashed frequently with “mountain men”, whose roots were in the U.S.

    In 1825, General Henry W. Ashley changed the nature of the fur trade by establishing the rendezvous system. Instead of maintaining permanent posts or depots, Ashley arranged to meet Indian trappers and mountain men on an annual basis at predetermined locations.

    This form of trade flourished for a decade, but faded after the construction of two major forts in 1834 — Fort Hall, the product of Boston trader Nathaniel Wyeth and Fort Boise, built by the Hudson`s Bay Company. The Canadian venture bought out the Americans in 1836, but by the 1840s, the animal population in the area had been depleted, and the fur trade plunged into decline.

    Missionaries. In 1836, Henry and Eliza Spaulding, a Presbyterian couple, established the Lapwai Mission near present-day Lewiston to serve the needs of the Nez Percé. Among many achievements, these missionaries introduced irrigated agriculture and raised the area`s first potatoes.

    In the early 1840s, a Roman Catholic mission was established for the Coeur d`Alene to the north. Mormon settlers established Fort Lemhi in 1855, but continuing friction with the surrounding natives forced the evacuation of the position. A permanent Mormon presence was set in the community of Franklin in 1860.

    Farmers. The 1840s was the decade of the Great Migration across the Oregon Trail. Tens of thousands of white settlers passed through Idaho, but only small numbers remained there. The harsh climate, the area`s remote location and the hostility of many Indian tribes accounted for the decision of most of these pioneers to press on to more inviting surroundings.

    The Territorial Years

    The longstanding dispute between the United States and Britain over the ownership of the Oregon Country was ended by treaty in 1846, when both nations agreed to setting the international boundary at the 49th parallel in the region from the Rocky Mountains westward to the Pacific Ocean. This settlement provided a northern boundary for the area that would become Idaho.

    In 1853, Congress assigned the northern portion of today`s Idaho to the new Washington Territory and the southern area continued under the control of the Oregon Territory. When Oregon achieved statehood in 1859, southern Idaho was taken into the Washington Territory.

    Interest in the Idaho area was heightened during the territorial era by a number of gold strikes. There was a minor one in 1852, followed by a series of more important ones a few years later — along the Clearwater River in 1860, the Salmon River in 1861, the Boise River in 1862, and gold and silver strikes near the Owyhee River, in 1863.

    Some of the prospectors came overland from the East, but most traveled by steamboat up the Columbia River. Boomtowns burst onto the scene at Idaho City, Silver City and Florence, and the population of the area climbed to more than 20,000. This increase in number led to calls for more accessible government and also generated much friction with the resident Indian tribes, which resented intrusions on their homelands.

    In March 1863, the Idaho Territory was established by Congress, including the areas that today are Montana and Wyoming. Lewiston was designated as the territorial capital and William M. Wallace the first governor.

    The following year, the remote area of Montana was separated from Idaho and the capital was moved to Boise. In 1868, Wyoming was similarly separated, thus establishing the borders of present-day Idaho.

    Indian Warfare

    In 1853, Isaac Stevens was the governor of the Washington Territory (then including Idaho). He pressed for the negotiation of a series of treaties with native residents of the area for the purpose of securing additional lands for white settlement.

    The Indians were given or promised financial compensation in return for relocating on more remote and less desirable reservation sites. This arrangement never worked well and caused much bitterness. This situation worsened as more whites entered the area and began occupying lands supposedly reserved for the natives.

    This was a particular problem for the Nez Percé whose treaty lands occupied parts of present-day Idaho, Washington, and Oregon. Repeated violations of their territory led to the signing of an unpopular treaty in 1863, that severely reduced the size of their reservation and caused great resentment. Armed clashes with whites involving various tribes occurred throughout the area:

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    when was idaho founded

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    Cite

    Capital: Boise

    State abbreviation/Postal code: Idaho/ID

    Governor: C. L. Butch Otter, R (to Jan. 2019)

    Lieut. Governor: Brad Little, R (to Jan. 2019)

  • 90 million in numbers
  • Senators: Mike Crapo, R (to Jan. 2023); Jim Risch, R (to Jan. 2021)

    U.S. Representatives: 2

    Historical biographies of Congressional members

    Secy. of State: Lawerence Denney, R (to Jan. 2019)

    Atty. General: Lawrence Wasden, R (to Jan. 2019)

    Treasurer: Ron G. Crane, R (to Jan. 2019)

    Organized as territory: March 3, 1863

    Entered Union (rank): July 3, 1890 (43)

    Present constitution adopted: 1890

    Motto: Esto perpetua (It is forever)

    State symbols:

    Nickname: Gem State

    Origin of name: An invented name whose meaning is unknown.

    10 largest cities (2014): Boise, 212,303; Nampa, 83,930; Meridian, 80,386; Idaho Falls, 57,899; Pocatello, 54,777; Caldwell, 47,668; Coeur d’Alene, 45,579; 45,158, 44,125; Lewiston, 32,051; Post Falls, 28,651.

    Land area: 82,747 sq mi. (214,315 sq km)

    Geographic center: In Custer Co., at Custer, SW of Challis

    Number of counties: 44, plus small part of Yellowstone National Park

    Largest county by population and area: Ada, 408,853 (2014); Idaho, 8,485 sq mi.

    State forests: 881,000 ac.

    State parks: 30 (43,000+ ac.)

    Residents: Idahoan

    2015 resident population: 1,654,930

    2010 resident census population (rank): 1,567,582(39). Male: 785,324 (50.1%); Female: 782,258 (49.9%). White: 1,396,487 (89.1%); Black: 9,810 (0.6%); American Indian: 21,441 (1.4%); Asian: 19,069 (1.2%); Other race: 79,523 (4.2%); Two or more races: 38,935 (2.5%); Hispanic/Latino: 175,901 (11.2%). 2010 population 18 and over: 1,138,510; 65 and over: 194,668 (12.4%); median age: 34.6.

    See additional census data

    Area codes

    Tourism office

    The region was explored by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark in 1805??1806. It was then a part of the Oregon country, held jointly by the United States and Great Britain. Boundary disputes with Great Britain were settled by the Oregon Treaty in 1846, and the first permanent U.S. settlement in Idaho was established by the Mormons at Franklin in 1860.

    After gold was discovered at Orofino Creek in 1860, prospectors swarmed into the territory, but they left little more than a number of ghost towns.

    In the 1870s, growing white occupation of Native Americanlands led to a series of battles between U.S. forces and the Nez Percé, Bannock, and Sheepeater tribes.

    when was idaho founded

    Mining and lumbering have been important for years. Idaho ranks high among the states in silver, antimony, lead, cobalt, garnet, phosphate rock, vanadium, zinc, and mercury.

    Agriculture is a major industry.The state produces about one fourth of the nation’s potato crop, as well as wheat, apples, corn, barley, sugar beets, and hops.

    The 1990s saw a remarkable growth in the high technology industries, concentrated in the metropolitan Boise area.

    With the growth of winter sports, tourism now outranks other industries in revenue. Idaho’s many streams and lakes provide fishing, camping, and boating sites. The nation’s largest elk herds draw hunters from all over the world, and the famed Sun Valley resort attracts thousands of visitors to its swimming, golfing, and skiing facilities.

    Points of interest are the Craters of the Moon National Monument; Nez Percé National Historic Park, which includes many sites visited by Lewis and Clark; and the State Historical Museum in Boise. Other attractions are the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area south of Boise, Hells Canyon on the Idaho-Oregon border, and the Sawtooth National Recreation Area in south-central Idaho.

    See more on Idaho:Encyclopedia: IdahoEncyclopedia: GeographyEncyclopedia: EconomyEncyclopedia: GovernmentEncyclopedia: HistoryMonthly Temperature Extremes

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