which film did alfred hitchcock make twice

which film did alfred hitchcock make twice
which film did alfred hitchcock make twice

Alfred Hitchcock made his own film The Man Who Knew Too Much twice. The original film was released in 1934 and the remake was released in 1956.

Alfred Hitchcock revealed in the book length interview entitled Hitchcock (by François Truffaut) that he considered the 1956 remake superior to the original. He said he felt that the 1934 version was the work of a talented amateur….while the 1956 remake was the work of a professional.

It seems Hitchcock was not completely satisfied with the original and felt that he could make the film better. This does make sense since there are some differences between the two films. Basically, the remake is done in color, and it has an American cast instead of a British cast. Also, a couple of scene locations have been changed. Still, the two films have the same plot, and each is a suspense thriller.


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    “The Man Who Knew Too Much” is a 1934 British thriller film directed by Alfred Hitchcock, featuring Peter Lorre, and released by Gaumont British. It was one of the most successful and critically acclaimed films of Hitchcock’s British period.

    The film is Hitchcock’s first film using this title and was followed later with his own 1956 film using the same name featuring a significantly different plot and script. In the second film with the same title, Hitchcock developed a separate plot and script featuring James Stewart and Doris Day in 1956 for Paramount Pictures. The two films, however, are very different in tone, in setting, and in many plot details. In the book-length interview Hitchcock/Truffaut (1967), in response to fellow filmmaker François Truffaut’s assertion that aspects of the remake were by far superior, Hitchcock replied, “Let’s say the first version is the work of a talented amateur and the second was made by a professional.”

    The 1934 film has nothing except the title in common with G. K. Chesterton’s 1922 book of detective stories of the same name. Hitchcock decided to use the title because he held the film rights for some of the stories in the book.


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    Mannen som visste för mycket (engelska: The Man Who Knew Too Much) är en amerikansk thrillerfilm från 1956 i regi av Alfred Hitchcock. I huvudrollerna ses James Stewart och Doris Day. Filmen är en nyinspelning av filmen med samma namn från 1934, även den regisserad av Hitchcock. Filmen tilldelades en Oscar för bästa sång; priset tilldelades Jay Livingston och Ray Evans för sången “Que Sera, Sera (Whatever Will Be, Will Be)”.

    En amerikansk familj, dr Ben McKenna, hans hustru Jo och deras son Hank är på semester i Marocko. När de får reda på att ett mord ska begås i London kidnappar mördarna sonen för att de ska hålla tyst. Paret beger sig ändå till London, och de får snart reda på att mordet ska begås under en särskild sekvens vid en konsert i Royal Albert Hall.

    Ett av Alfred Hitchcocks kännetecken var att gästspela i den egna filmen. Här sker det efter 25 minuter och 42 sekunder. I nedre vänstra hörnet, med ryggen mot kameran i ljusgrå kostym, tittar han på akrobater på den marockanska marknaden, precis innan spionen dödas.


    The Man Who Knew Too Much is a 1956 American suspense thriller film directed and produced by Alfred Hitchcock, starring James Stewart and Doris Day. The film is Hitchcock’s second film using this title, following his own 1934 film of the same name featuring a significantly different plot and script.

    In the book-length interview Hitchcock/Truffaut (1967), in response to fellow filmmaker François Truffaut’s assertion that aspects of the remake were by far superior, Hitchcock replied “Let’s say the first version is the work of a talented amateur and the second was made by a professional.”[5][6]

    The film won an Academy Award for Best Original Song for “Que Sera, Sera (Whatever Will Be, Will Be)”, sung by Doris Day. It premiered at the 1956 Cannes Film Festival on April 29.[7]

    An American family – Dr. Benjamin “Ben” McKenna, his wife, popular singer Josephine “Jo” Conway McKenna, and their son Henry “Hank” McKenna, of Indiana – are vacationing in French Morocco. Traveling from Casablanca to Marrakesh, they meet Frenchman Louis Bernard. He seems friendly, but Jo is suspicious of his many questions and evasive answers.

    which film did alfred hitchcock make twice

    Bernard offers to take the McKennas to dinner, but cancels when a suspicious-looking man knocks at the McKennas’ hotel-room door. At a restaurant, the McKennas meet friendly English couple Lucy and Edward Drayton. The McKennas are surprised to see Bernard arrive and sit elsewhere, apparently ignoring them.

    The next day, attending a Moroccan market with the Draytons, the McKennas see a man chased by police. After being stabbed in the back, the man approaches Ben, who discovers he is Bernard in disguise. The dying Bernard whispers that a foreign statesman will be assassinated in London and that Ben must tell the authorities about “Ambrose Chappell”. Lucy returns Hank to the hotel while Ben, Jo and Edward go to a police station for questioning about Bernard’s death. An officer explains that Bernard was a French Intelligence agent.

    Ben receives a threatening telephone call at the police station; Hank was kidnapped but will not be harmed if the McKennas say nothing to the police about Bernard’s warning. Knowing Hank was left in Lucy’s care, Ben dispatches Edward to locate him. When Ben and Jo return to the hotel, they discover Edward checked out. Ben realizes the Draytons are the couple Bernard was looking for and are involved in Hank’s abduction. When he learns the Draytons are from London, he decides he and Jo should go to London and try to find them through Ambrose Chappell.

    In London, Scotland Yard’s Inspector Buchanan tells Jo and Ben that Bernard was in Morocco to uncover an assassination plot; they should contact him if they hear from the kidnappers. Leaving Jo and her friends in their hotel suite, Ben searches for a person named Ambrose Chappell. Jo realizes that “Ambrose Chapel” is a place, and the McKennas arrive at the chapel to find Edward leading a service. Jo leaves the chapel to call the police. After Edward sends his parishioners home, Ben confronts him and is knocked out and locked inside. Jo arrives with police, but they cannot enter without a warrant.

    Jo learns that Buchanan has gone to a concert at the Royal Albert Hall, and asks the police to take her there. Once the police and Jo leave, the Draytons take Hank to a foreign embassy. In the hall’s lobby, Jo sees the man who came to her door in Morocco. When he threatens to harm Hank if she interferes, she realizes he is the assassin sent to kill the foreign prime minister.

    Ben escapes the chapel through its bell tower and reaches the hall, where Jo points out the assassin. Ben searches the balcony boxes for the killer, who is waiting for a cymbal crash to mask his gunshot. Just before the cymbals crash, Jo screams and the assassin misses his mark, only wounding his target. Ben struggles with the would-be killer, who falls to his death.

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  • Through a spy in the embassy, the police find out the Draytons are there and conclude that Hank is likely to be with them, but that it is sovereign and exempt from an investigation. The McKennas, desperate to find Hank, secure an invitation from the grateful prime minister. In a dialogue with Edward, the ambassador reveals that he organized the plot to kill the prime minister and blames the failed attempt on the Draytons. Knowing that Hank can testify against them, he orders the Draytons to kill the boy.

    The prime minister asks Jo to sing. She loudly performs “Que Sera, Sera (Whatever Will Be, Will Be)”, so that Hank will hear her. Lucy, who is guarding Hank while Edward prepares to murder him, is distressed at the prospect of killing a child, so she encourages the boy to whistle along with the song. Ben finds Hank. Edward tries escaping with them at gunpoint, but when Ben hits him, he falls down the stairs to his death.

    The McKennas return to their hotel suite. Ben explains to their now-sleeping friends, “I’m sorry we were gone so long, but we had to go over and pick up Hank.”

    Alfred Hitchcock’s cameo is a signature occurrence in most of his films. In The Man Who Knew Too Much he can be seen 25:42 into the film, in the lower left corner, watching acrobats in the Moroccan market, with his back to the camera, wearing a light gray suit, and putting his hands into his pockets, just before the spy is killed. Bernard Herrmann, who wrote the film score, cameos as the conductor at Royal Albert Hall, the only time Herrmann appeared on-camera in a film.[9]

    Alfred Hitchcock first considered an American remake of The Man Who Knew Too Much in 1941, but only brought back the idea in 1956 to make a film that would fulfill a contractual demand from Paramount Pictures. The studio agreed it was a picture that could be well-adapted to the new decade. The Royal Albert Hall sequence drew some inspiration from H.M. Bateman’s comic “The One-Note Man”, which followed the daily life of a musician who plays only one note in a symphony, similar to the cymbal player in the film.[10]

    Screenwriter John Michael Hayes was hired on the condition that he would not watch the early version nor read its script, with all the plot details coming from a briefing with Hitchcock.[11]: 167  Only the opening scenes of the script were ready when filming began, and Hayes had to send the subsequent script pages by airmail as he finished them.[11]: 187–191 

    Hitchcock’s frequent composer Bernard Herrmann wrote the “background” film score; however, the performance of Arthur Benjamin’s Storm Clouds Cantata, conducted by Herrmann, is used as source music for the climax of the film. In addition, Doris Day’s character is a well-known, now retired, professional singer. At two points in the film, she sings the Livingston and Evans song “Que Sera, Sera (Whatever Will Be, Will Be)”, which won the 1956 Best Song Oscar under the alternate title “Whatever Will Be, Will Be (Que Sera, Sera)”. The song reached number two on the US pop charts[12] and number one in the UK.[13]

    Herrmann was given the option of composing a new cantata to be performed during the film’s climax. However, he found Arthur Benjamin’s cantata Storm Clouds from the original 1934 film to be so well suited to the film that he declined, although he did expand the orchestration, and insert several repeats to make the sequence longer. Herrmann can be seen conducting the London Symphony Orchestra with mezzo-soprano Barbara Howitt and chorus during the Royal Albert Hall scenes. The sequence in the Royal Albert Hall runs for 12 minutes without any dialogue from the beginning of Storm Clouds Cantata until the climax when Doris Day’s character screams.[14]

    Reviews for the film were generally positive, although some critics expressed a preference for the 1934 original. Bosley Crowther of The New York Times wrote, “James Stewart tops his job in ‘Rear Window’ as the man who knows too much, and Doris Day is surprisingly effective as the mother who is frantic about her child … Even in mammoth VistaVision, the old Hitchcock thriller-stuff has punch.”[15] Variety wrote that while Hitchcock draws “the footage out a bit long at 119 minutes, he still keeps suspense working at all times and gets strong performances from the two stars and other cast members.”[16] Harrison’s Reports called the film a “highly exciting and entertaining suspense thriller” that “grips the audience from start to finish.”[17] Richard L. Coe of The Washington Post also liked the film, calling it “a dandy of its popular kind” if “a wee bit too leisurely.”[18] John McCarten of The New Yorker wrote in a negative review that while the remake was “unquestionably bigger and shinier than the original, it doesn’t move along with anything like the agility of its predecessor. There can be no doubt, of course, that Mr. Hitchcock at one time was a master of celluloid suspense, but increasingly of late he has been turning out movies that are too overweight to indulge in the tricks of his salad days.”[19] The Monthly Film Bulletin wrote: “Although a quite entertaining thriller, with some characteristically shrewd and caustic Hitchcock touches, it is likely to disappoint devotees of the first film. It lacks the earlier pace and excitement; the peculiarly English charm of the original has been exchanged for a vague VistaVision and Technicolor cosmopolitanism; the dentist episode and the siege climax are unhappily missing.”[20] C. A. Lejeune of The Observer wrote that the plot had “a tendency to meander” with “jokes that may have looked more humorous in typescript,” concluding that the film was “strong” as long as it stuck to the main plot, “But the first ‘Man Who Knew Too Much’ was stronger in every way.”[21]

    The film was a commercial success. Filmed on a budget of $1.2 million, it grossed $11,333,333 at the domestic box office,[4] earning $4.1 million in US theatrical rentals.[22]

    The film has a score of 87% at the review-aggregation site Rotten Tomatoes based on 38 reviews. The site’s consensus is; “Remaking his own 1934 film, Hitchcock imbues The Man Who Knew Too Much with picturesque locales and international intrigue, and is helped by a brilliantly befuddled performance from James Stewart.”[23]

    In 2004, American Film Institute included the song “Que Sera, Sera (Whatever Will Be, Will Be)” as No. 48 in AFI’s 100 Years…100 Songs.[24]

    The Man Who Knew Too Much was kept out of re-release by Hitchcock until 1983 when it was acquired by Universal Pictures.[25][26] The film has been released on home video by Universal Pictures Home Entertainment in VHS, Laserdisc, DVD and Blu-ray[27] formats. The 2000 DVD has a documentary on the making of the film, including interviews with Hitchcock’s daughter Patricia Hitchcock and members of the production crew.


    “AFI’s 100 Years…100 Songs”Downloads-icon

    Christopher Olsen (born September 19, 1946) is a former American child actor.

    Olsen is perhaps best known as the kidnapped boy Hank McKenna in The Man Who Knew Too Much. Other roles include The Fastest Gun Alive, with Glenn Ford; Return to Warbow, with Phil Carey; James Mason’s son in Bigger Than Life; and Robert Stack’s son in The Tarnished Angels.

    He also appeared in numerous television series episodes, including Cheyenne, Lassie, The Millionaire, Make Room for Daddy, and The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet.

    He was born in Los Angeles, California, at Saint Vincent’s Hospital.

    His youngest sister is Susan Olsen of The Brady Bunch fame, and his older brother is Larry Olsen, who played the title character in the Hal Roach comedy, Curley.

    which film did alfred hitchcock make twice


    This article about a United States film and television actor born in the 1940s is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

    “Que Sera, Sera (Whatever Will Be, Will Be)”[a] is a song written by the team of Jay Livingston and Ray Evans that was first published in 1955.[4] Doris Day introduced it in the Alfred Hitchcock film The Man Who Knew Too Much (1956),[5] singing it as a cue to their onscreen kidnapped son.[4] The three verses of the song progress through the life of the narrator—from childhood, through young adulthood and falling in love, to parenthood—and each asks “What will I be?” or “What lies ahead?” The chorus repeats the answer: “What will be, will be.”

    Day’s recording of the song for Columbia Records made it to number two on the Billboard Hot 100[6] and number one in the UK Singles Chart.[4] It came to be known as Day’s signature song. The song in The Man Who Knew Too Much received the 1956 Academy Award for Best Original Song. It was the third Oscar in this category for Livingston and Evans, who previously won in 1948 and 1950.[4] In 2004 it finished at number 48 in AFI’s 100 Years…100 Songs survey of top tunes in American cinema.

    It was a number-one hit in Australia for pop singer Normie Rowe in September 1965.

    The song popularized the title expression “que sera, sera” as an English-language phrase indicating “cheerful fatalism”, though its use in English dates back to at least the 16th century. Contrary to popular perception, the phrase is not Spanish in origin (in Spanish it would be “lo que será, será”), and is ungrammatical in that language.[3] It was evidently formed by a word-for-word mistranslation of English “What will be will be”.[7]

    The popularity of the song has led to curiosity about the origins of the title saying, “que sera, sera”, and the identity of its language. Both the Spanish-like spelling used by Livingston and Evans and an Italian-like form (“che sarà sarà”) are first documented in the 16th century as an English heraldic motto.[8] The “Spanish” form appears on a brass plaque in the Church of St. Nicholas, Thames Ditton, Surrey, dated 1559.[9] The “Italian” form was first adopted as a family motto by either John Russell, 1st Earl of Bedford, or his son, Francis Russell, 2nd Earl of Bedford. It is said by some sources to have been adopted by the elder Russell after his experience at the Battle of Pavia (1525), and to be engraved on his tomb (1555 N.S.).[10][11] The 2nd Earl’s adoption of the motto is commemorated in a manuscript dated 1582.[12] Their successors—Earls and, later, Dukes of Bedford (“Sixth Creation”), as well as other aristocratic families—continued to use the motto. Soon after its adoption as a heraldic motto, it appeared in Christopher Marlowe’s play Doctor Faustus (written ca. 1590; published 1604), whose text[13] (Act 1, Scene 1) contains a line with the archaic Italian spelling “Che sera, sera / What will be, shall be”.[14] Early in the 17th century the saying begins to appear in the speech and thoughts of fictional characters as a spontaneous expression of a fatalistic attitude. The phrase, in its English form, is used in the novel Hard Times by Charles Dickens, first published in 1854.[15] The saying is always in an English-speaking context, and it has no history in Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, or French; in fact, the saying is ungrammatical in all four of these Romance languages.[16] It is composed of Spanish or Italian words superimposed on English syntax. It was evidently formed by a word-for-word mistranslation of English “What will be will be”, merging the free relative pronoun what (= “that which”) with the interrogative what?[7]

    which film did alfred hitchcock make twice

    Livingston and Evans had some knowledge of Spanish, and early in their career they worked together as musicians on cruise ships to the Caribbean and South America. Composer Jay Livingston had seen the 1954 Hollywood film The Barefoot Contessa, in which a fictional Italian family has the motto “Che sarà sarà” carved in stone at their ancestral mansion. He immediately wrote it down as a possible song title, and he and lyricist Ray Evans later gave it a Spanish spelling “because there are so many Spanish-speaking people in the world”.[17][18][19]

    In modern times, thanks to the popularity of the song and its many translations, the phrase has been adopted in countries around the world to name a variety of entities, including books, movies, restaurants, vacation rentals, airplanes, and race horses.[20]

    The song originally appeared in Alfred Hitchcock film The Man Who Knew Too Much, where it appears diegetically and serves an important role in the film’s plot. In the film, Day plays a retired popular singer, Jo McKenna, who, along with her husband (played by Jimmy Stewart) and son, becomes embroiled in a plot to assassinate a foreign prime minister. After foiling the assassination attempt, Jo and her husband are invited by the prime minister to the embassy, where they believe their young son is being held by the conspirators. Jo sits at a piano and plays “Que Sera, Sera”, singing loudly in the hope of reaching her son. Upon hearing his mother play the familiar song, Jo’s son whistles along, allowing Jo’s husband to find and rescue the boy, just before he was to be murdered by the conspirators to the assassination attempt.[21]

    “Que Sera Sera” came to be considered Doris Day’s signature song, and she went on to sing it in later films and TV appearances. In 1960’s Please Don’t Eat the Daisies, she sings a snippet of the song to her co-star, David Niven, who plays her husband.[22] In the 1966 film The Glass Bottom Boat she sings a snippet accompanied by Arthur Godfrey on ukulele. From 1968 to 1973, it was the theme song for the sitcom The Doris Day Show.[23][24] The 1999 Studio Ghibli film My Neighbors the Yamadas features a Japanese cover of the song toward the end of the film. Director Isao Takahata wrote the translation for the lyrics, with an arrangement by Neko Saitou.[25]

    Versions of the song have appeared on a number of film and television soundtracks, often juxtaposed with dark or disastrous events to create an effect of black comedy. For example, in The Simpsons episode “Bart’s Comet”, the song is sung by the citizens of Springfield in anticipation of an impending comet strike that will wipe out the town and kill them all. Previously, the song was featured over the opening and the ending credits of Heathers, a dark teen comedy dealing with murder and suicide. The version over the opening credits is performed by Syd Straw and the version over the ending credits is performed by Sly and the Family Stone.

    “Que Sera, Sera” has been adapted as a popular celebratory football chant, especially in England,[26][failed verification] typically with the lyrics:

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  • Que sera sera,
    Whatever will be will be,
    We’re going to Wembley,
    Que sera sera

    This would be sung by fans following a victory that progresses their favoured team to the next round of a competition that will ultimately lead them to Wembley Stadium (typically the FA Cup, the finals of which have been held in Wembley since 1923).[27] Manchester United fans sang it before and during the 1976 FA Cup Final.[28] Although the song became more commonly used to associate a good cup run, Everton fans used it in 1963 to hail their soon to be crowned League Champions, using the phrase win the League instead of Wembley.

    “Wembley” may be sung with either melisma on the first syllable, or a schwa epenthesis (often respelled “Wemberley”). Other venues than Wembley may be substituted as appropriate, as when Republic of Ireland fans sang “We’re going to Italy” when qualifying for the 1990 World Cup,[29] or when fans of Millwall, about to exit the 2016–17 FA Cup, self-deprecatingly sang “We’re going to Shrewsbury”, their unglamorous next League One fixture.[30]
    The Scottish team also used it in the 1978 World Cup and sang we’re going to the Argentine.

    In 1964, Day re-recorded the song for her 1964 children’s album With a Smile and a Song. This version featured Jimmy Joyce and the Children’s Chorus, recorded in July 1964, and issued by Columbia Records three months later as the eighth track on the album. This version was produced by Allen Stanton and was arranged and conducted by Allyn Ferguson.

    Australian pop singer Normie Rowe’s 1965 recording of “Que Sera, Sera”, which was produced by Pat Aulton on the Sunshine Record label (Sunshine QK 1103), was the biggest hit of his career, “the biggest Australian rock ‘n roll hit of 1965”,[31] and is reputed to be the biggest-selling Australian single of the 1960s.[32] The song was “done in the style of “Louie, Louie” and the manner of “Hang On Sloopy”,[31] and given a “Merseybeat” treatment (in the manner of The Beatles’ “Twist & Shout”), and was backed by Rowe’s band The Playboys.[clarification needed] It was paired with a version of the Johnny Kidd & The Pirates’ classic “Shakin’ All Over”, and the single became a double-sided No. 1 hit in most capitals (#1 Sydney, #1 Melbourne, #1 Brisbane, #1 Adelaide, and Perth).[33][34] in September 1965, charting for 28 weeks and selling in unprecedented numbers, with Rock historian Ian McFarlane reporting sales of 80,000 copies,[32][35] while 1970s encyclopedist Noel McGrath claimed sales of 100,000.[36] Rowe scored another first in October 1965 when “Que Sera Sera” became his third hit single in the Melbourne Top 40 simultaneously. In 1965 Rowe received a gold record for “Que Sera, Sera” at Sydney’s Chevron Hotel.[37] In December 1965 the master of Rowe’s version was purchased by Jay-Gee Records for release in the United States.[38] In April 1966 Rowe received a second gold record for the sales of “Que Sera, Sera”.[39] In August 1966 Rowe won Radio 5KA’s annual best male vocal award for “Que Sera, Sera”.[40] In 2006 Rowe released a newly recorded version, which was released by ABC via iTunes, and later adding “the whole digital mix with a radio mix and a dance mix”.[41]

    In the decades since the song’s original release, “Que Sera, Sera” has been covered by dozens of artists. A 1970 cover sung by Mary Hopkin and produced by Paul McCartney reached number 77 on the Billboard Hot 100, and number 7 on the Adult Contemporary chart.[42]
    A 1982 cover by Shakin’ Stevens from his album Give Me Your Heart Tonight reached number 2 on the UK charts.

    In 1989 a comedy version recorded by “Terence” (John Creedon) in aid of the RTÉ People in Need Telethon reached number 2 in the Irish Singles Chart.[43]


    As a result of the song’s immediate popularity following the release of The Man Who Knew Too Much, versions were soon written in other languages. An early example was a Dutch version by Jo Leemans which reached the Belgian charts in December 1956.[44] Versions of the song have also been recorded in Danish, French, Mandarin, Spanish, Japanese, and Swedish, among other languages. These in turn have led some non-English speakers to adopt the saying “que sera, sera”.[3]

    In India, the song was first adapted in the Tamil-language film Aaravalli (1957). Later in 1965, the original version was sung by Bhanumathi in the Telugu-language film Thodu Needa, with minor changes in the lyrics.[45]

    Bernard James Miles, Baron Miles, CBE (27 September 1907 – 14 June 1991) was an English character actor, writer and director.[1] He opened the Mermaid Theatre in London in 1959, the first new theatre that opened in the City of London since the 17th century.[2]

    He was known for playing character roles that usually had bucolic backgrounds or links to countrymen. His strong accent was typical of rustic dialects associated with the counties of Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire. His pleasant rolling bass-baritone voice made him a regular presence on the stage and in films for more than fifty years. In addition to his acting, he was a voice-over artist and published author.

    Miles was educated at Uxbridge County School, Pembroke College, Oxford and the Northampton Institute (later City University of London) in London.[3]

    In 1946 his comedy about the Home Guard Let Tyrants Tremble! was staged at the Scala Theatre in the West End, with Miles in the cast.

    which film did alfred hitchcock make twice

    By the 1950s, he had started to work in television. In 1951 he played Long John Silver in a British TV version of Treasure Island. A decade later he reprised the role for a performance of Treasure Island at the Mermaid Theatre in the winter of 1961–62, where the cast included Spike Milligan as Ben Gunn.[4]

    Miles was always keen to promote up-and-coming talent. Impressed with the writing of English playwright John Antrobus, he introduced him to Spike Milligan, which led to the production of the one-act play The Bed Sitting Room. It was later expanded and staged by Miles at Mermaid Theatre on 31 January 1963, with critical and commercial success.[5][6][7]

    Miles was also known for his comic monologues, often delivered with a rural dialect, which were issued on record albums.[8]

    Miles married in 1931 actress Josephine Wilson, with whom he had two daughters and one son,[3] the racing driver John Miles. She co-founded and was involved actively with Miles in the Mermaid Theatre.[3] She predeceased him on 7 November 1990.

    Miles was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in 1953,[9] was knighted in 1969,[10] and was created a life peer as Baron Miles, of Blackfriars in the City of London, on 7 February 1979.[11] He was only the second British actor to receive a peerage, after Laurence Olivier.[12]

    Miles survived his wife by six months and died in June 1991. He had been born in the same year, and died on the same day, as the actress Peggy Ashcroft.[13]

    Bernard Herrmann (born Maximillian Herman; June 29, 1911 – December 24, 1975) was an American composer and conductor[1] best known for his work in composing for films. As a conductor, he championed the music of lesser-known composers. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest film composers.[2]

    An Academy Award-winner (for The Devil and Daniel Webster, 1941; later renamed All That Money Can Buy), Herrmann mainly is known for his collaborations with director Alfred Hitchcock, most famously Psycho, North by Northwest, The Man Who Knew Too Much, and Vertigo. He also composed scores for many other films, including Citizen Kane, Anna and the King of Siam, The Day the Earth Stood Still, The Ghost and Mrs. Muir, Cape Fear, Fahrenheit 451, and Taxi Driver. He worked extensively in radio drama (composing for Orson Welles), composed the scores for several fantasy films by Ray Harryhausen, and many TV programs, including Rod Serling’s The Twilight Zone and Have Gun – Will Travel.[3][4]

    Herrmann, the son of a Jewish middle-class family of Russian origin, was born in New York City as Maximillian Herman.[1][5] He was the son of Ida (Gorenstein)[6] and Abram Dardik, who was from Ukraine and had changed the family name. Herrmann attended high school at DeWitt Clinton High School, an all-boys public school at that time on 10th Avenue and 59th Street in New York City.[7] His father encouraged music activity, taking him to the opera, and encouraging him to learn the violin. After winning a composition prize at the age of thirteen, he decided to concentrate on music, and went to New York University, where he studied with Percy Grainger and Philip James. He also studied at the Juilliard School, and at the age of 20, formed his own orchestra, the New Chamber Orchestra of New York.[3]

    In 1934, he joined the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) as a staff conductor. Within two years, he was appointed music director of the Columbia Workshop, an experimental radio drama series for which Herrmann composed or arranged music (one notable program was The Fall of the City). Within nine years, he had become chief conductor to the CBS Symphony Orchestra. He was responsible for introducing more new works to US audiences than any other conductor – he was a particular champion of Charles Ives’ music, which was virtually unknown at that time. Herrmann’s radio programs of concert music, which were broadcast under such titles as Invitation to Music and Exploring Music, were planned in an unconventional way and featured rarely heard music, old and new, which was not heard in public concert halls. Examples include broadcasts devoted to music of famous amateurs or of notable royal personages, such as the music of Frederick the Great of Prussia, Henry VIII, Charles I, Louis XIII and so on.

    Herrmann’s many US broadcast premieres during the 1940s included Myaskovsky’s 22nd Symphony, Gian Francesco Malipiero’s 3rd Symphony, Richard Arnell’s 1st Symphony, Edmund Rubbra’s 3rd Symphony and Ives’ 3rd Symphony. He performed the works of Hermann Goetz, Alexander Gretchaninov, Niels Gade and Franz Liszt, and received many outstanding American musical awards and grants for his unusual programming and championship of little-known composers. In Dictators of the Baton, David Ewen wrote that Herrmann was “one of the most invigorating influences in the radio music of the past decade.”[citation needed] Also during the 1940s, Herrmann’s own concert music was taken up and played by such celebrated maestri as Leopold Stokowski, Sir John Barbirolli, Sir Thomas Beecham and Eugene Ormandy.

    which film did alfred hitchcock make twice

    Between two films made by Orson Welles (see below), he wrote the score for William Dieterle’s The Devil and Daniel Webster (1941), for which he won his only Academy Award. In 1947, Herrmann scored the atmospheric music for The Ghost and Mrs. Muir. In 1951, his score for The Day the Earth Stood Still featured the theremin.

    In 1934, Herrmann met a young CBS secretary and aspiring writer Lucille Fletcher. Fletcher was impressed with Herrmann’s work, and the two began a five-year courtship. Marriage was delayed by the objections of Fletcher’s parents, who disliked the fact that Herrmann was a Jew and were put off by what they viewed as his abrasive personality. The couple finally married on October 2, 1939. They had two daughters: Dorothy (born 1941) and Wendy (born 1945).

    Fletcher was to become a noted radio scriptwriter, and she and Herrmann collaborated on several projects throughout their career. He contributed the score to the famed 1941 radio presentation of Fletcher’s original story The Hitch-Hiker on The Orson Welles Show, and Fletcher helped to write the libretto for his operatic adaptation of Wuthering Heights. The couple divorced in 1948. The next year, he married Lucille’s cousin Lucy (Kathy Lucille) Anderson. That marriage lasted until 1964.[8]

    While at CBS, Herrmann met Orson Welles, and wrote or arranged scores for radio shows in which Welles appeared or wrote, such as the Columbia Workshop, Welles’s Mercury Theatre on the Air and Campbell Playhouse series (1938–1940), which were radio adaptations of literature and film. He conducted the live performances, including Welles’s famous adaptation of H.G. Wells’s The War of the Worlds broadcast on October 30, 1938, which consisted entirely of pre-existing music.[A] Herrmann used large sections of his score for the inaugural broadcast of The Campbell Playhouse, an adaptation of Rebecca, for the feature film Jane Eyre (1943), the third film in which Welles starred.[9]

    When Welles gained his RKO Pictures contract, Herrmann worked for him. He wrote his first film score for Citizen Kane (1941) and received an Academy Award nomination for Best Score of a Dramatic Picture. He composed the score for Welles’s The Magnificent Ambersons (1942); like the film, the music was heavily edited by RKO Pictures. When more than half of his score was removed from the soundtrack, Herrmann bitterly severed his ties with the film and promised legal action if his name were not removed from the credits.[10]

    Herrmann also created the music for Welles’s CBS radio series The Orson Welles Show (1941–1942), which included the debut of his wife Lucille Fletcher’s suspense classic The Hitch-Hiker; Ceiling Unlimited (1942), a program conceived to glorify the aviation industry and dramatize its role in World War II; and The Mercury Summer Theatre on the Air (1946).[11] “Benny Herrmann was an intimate member of the family,” Welles told filmmaker Peter Bogdanovich.[12]

  • 17cm = inches
  • Herrmann was among those who rebutted the charges Pauline Kael made in her 1971 essay “Raising Kane”, in which she revived controversy over the authorship of the screenplay for Citizen Kane and denigrated Welles’s contributions.[13][14]

    Herrmann is closely associated with the director Alfred Hitchcock. He wrote the scores for seven Hitchcock films, from The Trouble with Harry (1955) to Marnie (1964), a period that included Vertigo, North by Northwest, and Psycho. He was also credited as sound consultant on The Birds (1963), as there was no actual music in the film as such, only electronically made bird sounds.

    The film score for the remake of The Man Who Knew Too Much (1956) was composed by Herrmann, but two of the more significant pieces of music in the film – the song “Que Sera, Sera (Whatever Will Be, Will Be)” and the Storm Clouds Cantata played in the Royal Albert Hall – are not by Herrmann (although he did re-orchestrate the cantata by Australian-born composer Arthur Benjamin written for the earlier Hitchcock film of the same name). However, this film did give Herrmann the opportunity for an on-screen appearance: he is the conductor of the London Symphony Orchestra in the Albert Hall scene.

    Herrmann’s most recognizable music is from Hitchcock’s Psycho. Unusual for a thriller at the time, the score uses only the string section of the orchestra. The screeching violin heard during the famous shower scene (which Hitchcock originally suggested have no music at all) is one of the most famous moments in film score history. Hitchcock admitted at the time that Psycho heavily depended on the music for its tension and sense of pervading doom.[15]

    His score for Vertigo (1958) is seen as just as masterful. In many of the key scenes, Hitchcock let Herrmann’s score take center stage, a score whose melodies, echoing the “Liebestod” from Richard Wagner’s Tristan und Isolde, dramatically convey the main character’s obsessive love for the image of a woman who never in fact existed.

    A notable feature of the Vertigo score is the ominous two-note falling motif that opens the suite – it is a direct musical imitation of the two notes sounded by the fog horns located at either side of the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco (as heard from the San Francisco side of the bridge). This motif has direct relevance to the film because the horns can be clearly heard sounding in just this manner at Fort Point, the spot where a key incident occurs involving the character played by Kim Novak.

    However, according to Dan Auiler, author of Vertigo: The Making of a Hitchcock Classic, Herrmann deeply regretted being unable to conduct his composition for Vertigo. A musicians’ strike in America meant that it was actually conducted in England by Muir Mathieson. Herrmann always personally conducted his own works and given that he considered the composition among his best works, he regarded it as a missed opportunity.

    In a question-and-answer session at George Eastman House in October 1973, Herrmann stated that, unlike most film composers who did not have any creative input into the style and tone of the score, he insisted on creative control as a condition of accepting a scoring assignment:

    I have the final say, or I don’t do the music. The reason for insisting on this is simply, compared to Orson Welles, a man of great musical culture, most other directors are just babes in the woods. If you were to follow their taste, the music would be awful. There are exceptions. I once did a film The Devil and Daniel Webster with a wonderful director William Dieterle. He was also a man of great musical culture. And Hitchcock, you know, is very sensitive; he leaves me alone. It depends on the person. But if I have to take what a director says, I’d rather not do the film. I find it’s impossible to work that way.[16]

    Herrmann stated that Hitchcock would invite him on to the production of a film and, depending on his decision about the length of the music, either expand or contract the scene. It was Hitchcock who asked Herrmann for the “recognition scene” near the end of Vertigo (the scene in which James Stewart’s character suddenly realizes Kim Novak’s identity) to be played with music.[citation needed]

    In 1963, Herrmann began writing original music for the CBS-TV anthology series The Alfred Hitchcock Hour, which was in its eighth season. Hitchcock served only as advisor on the show, which he hosted, but Herrmann was again working with former Mercury Theatre actor Norman Lloyd, co-producer (with Joan Harrison) of the series. Herrmann scored 17 episodes (1963–1965), and like much of his work for CBS, the music frequently was reused for other programs.[17]

    Herrmann’s relationship with Hitchcock came to an abrupt end when they disagreed over the score for Torn Curtain. Reportedly pressured by Universal executives, Hitchcock wanted a score that was more jazz- and pop-influenced. Hitchcock’s biographer Patrick McGilligan stated that Hitchcock was worried about becoming old-fashioned and felt that Herrmann’s music had to change with the times as well. Herrmann initially accepted the offer, but then decided to score the film according to his own ideas.[18]

    Hitchcock listened to only the prelude of the score, then confronted Herrmann about the pop score. Herrmann, equally incensed, bellowed “Look, Hitch, you can’t outjump your own shadow. And you don’t make pop pictures. What do you want with me? I don’t write pop music.” Hitchcock unrelentingly insisted that Herrmann change the score, violating Herrmann’s general claim to the creative control he had always maintained in their previous works together. Herrmann then said “Hitch, what’s the use of my doing more with you? I had a career before you, and I will afterwards.”[19] The score was rejected and replaced with one by John Addison.

    According to McGilligan, Herrmann later tried to reconcile with Hitchcock, but Hitchcock refused to see him. Herrmann’s widow Norma Herrmann disputed this in a conversation with Günther Kögebehn for the Bernard Herrmann Society in 2004:

    I met Hitchcock very briefly. Everybody says they never spoke again. I met him, it was cool, it was not a warm meeting. It was in Universal Studios, this must be 69, 70, 71ish. And we were in Universal for some other reason and Herrmann said: “See that tiny little office over there, that’s Hitch. And that stupid little parking place. Hitch used to have an empire with big offices and a big staff. Then they made it down to half that size, then they made it to half that size… We are going over to say hello.” Actually [Herrmann] got a record; he was always intending to give him a record he just made. But it wasn’t a film thing. It was either Moby Dick or something of his concert pieces to take it and give to Hitch. Peggy, Hitchcock’s secretary was there. Hitch came out, Benny said “I thought you’d like a copy of this.” “How are you?” etc., and he introduced me. And Hitchcock was cool, but they did meet. They met, I was there. And when Herrmann came out again, he said “What a great reduction in Hitch’s status.”[20]

    In 2009, Norma Herrmann began to auction her husband’s personal collection on Bonhams.com, adding more interesting details to the two men’s relationship. While Herrmann had brought Hitchcock a copy of his classical work after the break-up, Hitchcock had given Herrmann a copy of his 1967 interview book with François Truffaut, which he inscribed “To Benny with my fondest wishes, Hitch.”

    “This is rather interesting because it comes a year after Hitchcock had abruptly fired Herrmann from his work scoring Torn Curtain and indicates Hitchcock may have hoped to mend fences with Herrmann and have him score his next film, Topaz,” reported Wellesnet, the Orson Welles website, in April 2009:

    Of course, once Herrmann felt he had been wronged, he was not going to say “yes” to Hitchcock unless he was courted and it seems unlikely that Hitchcock would be willing to do that, although apparently Hitchcock did ask Herrmann back to score his last film Family Plot right before Herrmann died. Herrmann, who had a full schedule of films planned for 1976, including DePalma’s Carrie, The Seven Per Cent Solution and Larry Cohen’s God Told Me To, was reportedly happy to be in a position to ignore Hitchcock’s reunion offer.[21]

    Herrmann’s unused score for Torn Curtain was commercially recorded after his death, initially by Elmer Bernstein for his Film Music Collection subscription record label (reissued by Warner Bros. Records), then in a fuller realization of the original score by Joel McNeely and the Royal Scottish National Orchestra and later, in a concert suite adapted by Christopher Palmer, by Esa-Pekka Salonen and the Los Angeles Philharmonic for Sony. Some of Herrmann’s cues for Torn Curtain were post-synched to the final cut, where they showed how remarkably attuned the composer was to the action, and how, arguably, more effective his score could have been.

    From the late 1950s to the mid-1960s, Herrmann scored a series of notable mythically-themed fantasy films, including Journey to the Center of the Earth and the Ray Harryhausen Dynamation epics The 7th Voyage of Sinbad, Jason and the Argonauts, Mysterious Island and The 3 Worlds of Gulliver. His score for The 7th Voyage was highly acclaimed by admirers of that genre of film and was praised by Harryhausen as Herrmann’s best score of the four.[citation needed]

    During the same period, Herrmann turned his talents to writing scores for television shows. He wrote the scores for several well-known episodes of the original Twilight Zone series, including the lesser known theme used during the series’ first season, as well as the opening theme to Have Gun – Will Travel.

    In the mid-1960s, he composed the highly regarded music score for François Truffaut’s Fahrenheit 451. Scored for strings, two harps, vibraphone, xylophone and glockenspiel, Herrmann’s score created a driving, neurotic mood that perfectly suited the film. It also had a direct influence on producer George Martin’s staccato string arrangement for Beatles 1966 single “Eleanor Rigby”.

    By 1967, Herrmann worked almost exclusively in England. In November 1967, the 56-year-old composer married 27-year-old journalist Norma Shepherd, his third wife. In August 1971, the Herrmanns made London their permanent home.[22]

    Herrmann’s last film scores included Sisters and Obsession for Brian De Palma. His final film soundtrack, and the last work he completed, was his sombre score for Taxi Driver (1976), directed by Martin Scorsese. It was De Palma who had suggested to Scorsese to use the composer. Immediately after finishing the recording of the Taxi Driver soundtrack on December 23, 1975, Herrmann viewed the rough cut of what was to be his next film assignment, Larry Cohen’s God Told Me To, and dined with Cohen. He returned to his hotel, and died from an apparent heart attack in his sleep.[23] Scorsese and Cohen both dedicated their respective films in his memory.

    As well as his many film scores, Herrmann wrote several concert pieces, including his Symphony in 1941; the opera Wuthering Heights; the cantata Moby Dick (1938), dedicated to Charles Ives; and For the Fallen, a tribute to the soldiers who died in battle in World War II. He recorded all these compositions, and several others, for the Unicorn label during his last years in London. A work written late in his life, Souvenir de Voyages, showed his ability to write non-programmatic pieces.

    Herrmann’s music is typified by frequent use of ostinati (short repeating patterns), novel orchestration, and in his film scores, an ability to portray character traits not altogether obvious from other elements of the film.

    Early in his life, Herrmann committed himself to a creed of personal integrity at the price of unpopularity: the quintessential artist. His philosophy is summarized by a favorite Tolstoy quote: ‘Eagles fly alone and sparrows fly in flocks.’ Thus, Herrmann only composed music for films when he was allowed the artistic liberty to compose what he wished without the director getting in the way. This was the cause of the split with Hitchcock after over a decade of composing scores for the director’s films.

    His philosophy of orchestrating film was based on the assumption that the musicians were selected and hired for the recording session – that this music was not constrained to the musical forces of the concert hall. For example, his use of nine harps in Beneath the 12-Mile Reef created an extraordinary underwater-like sonic landscape;[24] his use of four alto flutes in Citizen Kane contributed to the unsettling quality of the opening, only matched by the use of 12 flutes in his unused Torn Curtain score; and his use of the serpent in White Witch Doctor is possibly the first use of that instrument in a film score.[clarification needed]

    Herrmann said: “To orchestrate is like a thumbprint. I can’t understand having someone else do it. It would be like someone putting color to your paintings.”[25]

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    Herrmann subscribed to the belief that the best film music should be able to stand on its own legs when detached from the film for which it was originally written. To this end, he made several well-known recordings for Decca of arrangements of his own film music as well as music of other prominent composers.

    Herrmann’s involvement with electronic musical instruments dates back to 1951, when he used the theremin in The Day the Earth Stood Still. Robert B. Sexton has noted[citation needed] that this score involved the use of treble and bass theremins (played by Dr. Samuel Hoffmann and Paul Shure), electric strings, bass, prepared piano, and guitar together with various pianos and harps, electronic organs, brass, and percussion, and that Herrmann treated the theremins as a truly orchestral section.

    Herrmann was a sound consultant on The Birds, which made extensive use of an electronic instrument called the mixturtrautonium, performed by Oskar Sala on the film’s soundtrack. Herrmann used several electronic instruments on his score of It’s Alive, as well as the Moog synthesizer for the main themes in Endless Night and Sisters.

    Herrmann is still a prominent figure in the world of film music today, despite his death in 1975. As such, his career has been studied extensively by biographers and documentarians. His string-only score for Psycho, for example, set the standard when it became a new way to write music for thrillers (rather than big fully orchestrated pieces). In 1992, the documentary Music for the Movies: Bernard Herrmann was made about him. It was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature. Also in 1992, a 2.mw-parser-output .frac{white-space:nowrap}.mw-parser-output .frac .num,.mw-parser-output .frac .den{font-size:80%;line-height:0;vertical-align:super}.mw-parser-output .frac .den{vertical-align:sub}.mw-parser-output .sr-only{border:0;clip:rect(0,0,0,0);height:1px;margin:-1px;overflow:hidden;padding:0;position:absolute;width:1px}1⁄2-hour-long National Public Radio documentary was produced on his life – Bernard Herrmann: A Celebration of His Life and Music.[26] In 1991, Steven C. Smith wrote a Herrmann biography titled A Heart at Fire’s Center,[27] a quote from a favorite Stephen Spender poem of Herrmann.

    His music continues to be used in films and recordings after his death. On the 1977 album Ra, American progressive rock group Utopia adapted Herrmann’s “Mountain Top/Sunrise” from Journey to the Center of the Earth in a rock arrangement, as the introduction to the album’s opening song, “Communion With The Sun”. The 1990s saw two iconic Herrmann scores adapted for remakes: celebrated composer Elmer Bernstein adapted and expanded Herrmann’s music for Martin Scorsese’s update of Cape Fear, expanding the score to include music from Herrmann’s rejected score to Torn Curtain,[28] and similarly, though more faithful to the original material, film composer Danny Elfman and orchestrator Steve Bartek adapted Herrmann’s full Psycho score for director Gus Van Sant’s shot-for-shot remake.[29] “Georgie’s Theme” from Herrmann’s score for the 1968 film Twisted Nerve is whistled by assassin Elle Driver in the hospital corridor scene in Quentin Tarantino’s Kill Bill: Volume 1 (2003). 2011 saw several uses of Herrmann’s music from Vertigo: the opening theme was used in the prologue to Lady Gaga’s video for “Born This Way” and during a flashback sequence in the pilot episode of FX’s American Horror Story (which featured “Georgie’s Theme” in later episodes as a recurring musical motif for the character of Tate), and Ludovic Bource used the love theme in the last reels of The Artist. Vertigo’s opening sequence was also copied for the opening sequence of the 1993 miniseries, Tales Of The City, an adaptation of the first in a series of books by Armistead Maupin. More recently, the first and fourth episodes of Amazon Prime’s 2018 streaming series Homecoming used cues from Herrmann’s Vertigo and The Day the Earth Stood Still respectively.[30]

    Herrmann’s film music is well represented on disc. His friend, John Steven Lasher, has produced several albums featuring Urtext recordings, including Battle of Neretva, Citizen Kane, The Kentuckian, The Magnificent Ambersons, The Night Digger and Sisters, under various labels owned by Fifth Continent Australia Pty Ltd.

    Herrmann was an early and enthusiastic proponent of the music of Charles Ives. He met Ives in the early 1930s, performed many of his works while conductor of the CBS Symphony Orchestra, and conducted Ives’ Second Symphony with the London Symphony Orchestra on his first visit to London in 1956. Herrmann later made a recording of the work in 1972 and this reunion with the LSO, after more than a decade, was significant to him for several reasons – he had long hoped to record his own interpretation of the symphony, feeling that Leonard Bernstein’s 1951 version was “overblown and inaccurate”; on a personal level, it also served to assuage Herrmann’s long-held feeling that he had been snubbed by the orchestra after his first visit in 1956. The notoriously prickly composer had also been enraged by the recent appointment of the LSO’s new chief conductor André Previn, who Herrmann detested, and deprecatingly referred to as “that jazz boy”.[31]

    Herrmann was also an ardent champion of the romantic-era composer Joachim Raff, whose music had fallen into near-oblivion by the 1960s. During the 1940s, Herrmann had played Raff’s 3rd and 5th Symphonies in his CBS radio broadcasts. In May 1970, Herrmann conducted the world premiere recording of Raff’s Fifth Symphony Lenore for the Unicorn label, which he mainly financed himself.[32] The recording did not attract much notice in its time, despite receiving excellent reviews, but is now considered a major turning-point in the rehabilitation of Raff as a composer.

    In 1996, Sony Classical released The Film Scores, a recording of Herrmann’s music performed by the Los Angeles Philharmonic under the baton of Esa-Pekka Salonen. This disc received the 1998 Cannes Classical Music Award for Best 20th-Century Orchestral Recording. It was also nominated for the 1998 Grammy Award for Best Engineered Album, Classical.

    Decca reissued on CD a series of Phase 4 Stereo recordings with Herrmann conducting the London Philharmonic Orchestra, mostly in excerpts from his various film scores, including one devoted to music from several of the Hitchcock films (including Psycho, Marnie and Vertigo). In the liner notes of the Hitchcock Phase 4 album, Herrmann said that the suite from The Trouble with Harry was a “portrait of Hitch”. Another album was devoted to his fantasy film scores – a few of them being the films of the special effects animator Ray Harryhausen, including music from The Seventh Voyage of Sinbad and The Three Worlds of Gulliver. His other Phase 4 Stereo LPs of the 1970s included Music from the Great Film Classics (suites and excerpts from Jane Eyre, The Snows of Kilimanjaro, Citizen Kane and The Devil and Daniel Webster); and “The Fantasy World of Bernard Herrmann” (Journey to the Center of the Earth, The Day the Earth Stood Still, and Fahrenheit 451.)

    Charles Gerhardt conducted a 1974 RCA recording titled The Classic Film Scores of Bernard Herrmann with the National Philharmonic Orchestra. It featured suites from Citizen Kane (with Kiri Te Kanawa singing Salammbo’s Aria) and White Witch Doctor, along with music from On Dangerous Ground, Beneath the 12-Mile Reef, and the Hangover Square piano concerto.

    During his last years in England, between 1966 and 1975, Herrmann made several LPs of other composers’ music for assorted record labels. These included Phase 4 Stereo recordings of Gustav Holst’s The Planets and Charles Ives’s 2nd Symphony, as well as an album titled “The Impressionists” (music by Satie, Debussy, Ravel, Fauré and Honegger) and another titled “The Four Faces of Jazz” (works by Weill, Gershwin, Stravinsky and Milhaud). As well as recording his own film music in Phase 4 Stereo, he made LPs of movie scores by others, such as Great Shakespearean Films (music by Shostakovich for Hamlet, Walton for Richard III and Rózsa for Julius Caesar), and Great British Film Music (movie scores by Lambert, Bax, Benjamin, Walton, Vaughan Williams, and Bliss).

    For Unicorn Records, he recorded several of his own concert-hall works, including the cantata Moby Dick, his opera Wuthering Heights, his symphony, and the suites Welles Raises Kane and The Devil and Daniel Webster.

    Pristine Audio released two CDs of Herrmann’s radio broadcasts. One is devoted to a CBS program from 1945 that features music by Handel, Vaughan Williams and Elgar; the other features works by Charles Ives, Robert Russell Bennett and Herrmann.

    The works of Herrmann are widely studied, imitated and performed to this very day. His work has left a profound influence on composers of film music that followed him, the most notable being John Williams,[33] Elmer Bernstein,[34] Jerry Goldsmith,[35][36] Howard Shore, Lalo Schifrin,[37] James Horner,[38] Carter Burwell[39] and others. Stephen Sondheim found Herrmann to be a primary influence after seeing the film Hangover Square.[40]

    Popular film composer Danny Elfman counts Herrmann as his biggest influence, and has said hearing Herrmann’s score to The Day the Earth Stood Still when he was a child was the first time he realized the powerful contribution a composer makes to the movies.[41] Pastiche of Herrmann’s music can be heard in Elfman’s score for Pee-Wee’s Big Adventure, specifically in the cues “Stolen Bike” and “Clown Dream”, which reference Herrmann’s “The Murder” from Psycho and “The Duel With the Skeleton” from 7th Voyage of Sinbad respectively.[42][43] The prelude for Elfman’s main Batman theme references Herrmann’s “Mountain Top / Sunrise” from Journey to the Center of the Earth, and the Joker character’s “fate motif” heard throughout the score is inspired by Herrmann’s Vertigo.[44][45] More integral homage can be heard in Elfman’s later scores for Mars Attacks! and Hitchcock, the latter based on Hitchcock’s creation of Psycho, as well as the “Blue Strings” movement of Elfman’s first concert work Serenada Schizophrana.

    In addition to Elfman, fellow film composers Richard Band, Graeme Revell, Christopher Young, Alexandre Desplat and Brian Tyler consider Herrmann to be a major inspiration. In 1985, Richard Band’s opening theme to Re-Animator borrows heavily from Herrmann’s opening score to Psycho. In 1990, Graeme Revell had adapted Herrmann’s music from Psycho for its television sequel-prequel Psycho IV: The Beginning. Revell’s early orchestral music during the early nineties, such as Child’s Play 2 (which its music score being reminiscent of Herrmann’s scores to the 1973 film Sisters, due to the synthesizers incorporated in the chilling parts of the orchestral score) as well as the 1963 The Twilight Zone episode “Living Doll” (which inspired the Child’s Play franchise), were very similar to Herrmann’s work. Also, Revell’s score for the video game Call of Duty 2 was reminiscent of Herrmann’s rare WWII music scores such as The Naked and the Dead and Battle of Neretva. Young, who was a jazz drummer at first, listened to Herrmann’s works which convinced him to be a film composer. Tyler’s score for Bill Paxton’s film Frailty was influenced by Herrmann’s film music.

    Sir George Martin, best known for producing and often adding orchestration to the Beatles music, cites Herrmann as an influence in his own work, particularly in Martin’s scoring of the Beatles’ song “Eleanor Rigby”. Martin later expanded on this as an extended suite for McCartney’s 1984 film Give My Regards to Broad Street, which features a very recognizable homage to Herrmann’s score for Psycho.

    Avant-garde composer/saxophonist/producer John Zorn, in the biographical film A Bookshelf on Top of the Sky, cited Bernard Herrmann as one of his favorite composers and a major influence.

    In addition to adapting and expanding the original score from Cape Fear for the Martin Scorsese remake, Elmer Bernstein recorded Herrmann’s score for The Ghost and Mrs. Muir, released in 1975 on the Varèse Sarabande label and later reissued on CD in the 1990s.

    These awards and nominations are recorded by the Motion Picture Academy of Arts and Sciences:[46]

    In 2005 the American Film Institute respectively ranked Herrmann’s scores for Psycho and Vertigo #4 and #12 on its list of the 25 greatest film scores.[47] His scores for the following films were also nominated for the list:[48]

    Herrmann’s work for television includes scores for such westerns as Cimarron Strip, Gunsmoke, Rawhide, Have Gun – Will Travel, as well as the 1968 suspense TV movie Companions in Nightmare.[citation needed]

    For The Twilight Zone:

    For the Alfred Hitchcock Hour:

    These works are for narrator and full orchestra, intended to be broadcast over the radio (since a human voice would not be able to be heard over the full volume of an orchestra). In a 1938 broadcast of the Columbia Workshop,[56] Herrmann distinguished “melodrama” from “melodram” and explained that these works are not part of the former, but the latter. The 1935 works were composed before June 1935.

    See also Columbia Workshop for programs in which Herrmann participated but did not write original music.


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    Charles Alfred Selwyn Bennett (2 August 1899 – 15 June 1995) was an English playwright, screenwriter and director probably best known for his work with Alfred Hitchcock.

    Charles Bennett was born in a disused railway carriage in Shoreham-by-Sea, Sussex, England,[1] the son of Lilian Langrishe Bennett (1863–1930), an actress and artist. Bennett’s mother told him his father was Charles Bennett, a civil engineer killed in a boiler explosion, though he thought it was actor Kyrle Bellew (1855–1911). Bennett had an elder brother, Frederick (known as Eric), and a younger brother, Vere.[2] His father is recorded in his baptismal register as Frederick Bennett, engineer.[3] The film historian John Belton has asserted that Bennett’s father died when he was four.[4] In the 1911 census, Lilian Bennett recorded herself as a widow, and an artist.[5]

    Bennett was mostly educated at home, but also briefly at St Mark’s College, Chelsea.[6]

    Bennett was a child actor, appearing in Max Reinhart’s production of The Miracle at Olympia Theatre in 1911. He played child roles in stage productions of Alice in Wonderland (1913), Goody Two Shoes (1913), Drake (1914) and The Marriage Market (1915), and toured in productions all over England.

    which film did alfred hitchcock make twice

    He had a role in the film John Halifax, Gentleman (1915) as the young John Halifax; the older Halifax was Fred Paul. The performance was not particularly well received and Bennett became an extra and assistant to Adrian Brunel. He continued to appear in stage in productions of The Speckled Band (1916), King Lear (1916) with Sir Herbert Tree and Raffles (1917).

    In 1917 he enlisted in the army and served with the Royal Fusiliers. Most of his war service was spent on the Somme, where he saw action. He was awarded the Military Medal and ended the war with the rank of lieutenant. He was invalided out due to a gas attack and left the army in 1919.

    Bennett resumed his acting career, playing with the Brewster’s Millions company (1920), then the Compton Comedy Company, the Lena Ashwell Players, the Gertrude Elliott Touring Company, and the Henry Baynton Company (for whom he appeared in Antony and Cleopatra and A Midsummer Night’s Dream).In 1923 he joined the Alexander Marsh Shakespearean company, touring throughout England.

    In 1925 Bennett joined the Ben Greet Repertory, which performed in Paris from 1925 to 1926. During this time, while acting in the evenings he wrote his first three full-length plays: The Return, based on his war service, Blackmail and The Last Hour.

    In December 1926 Bennett played Theseus in a production of A Midsummer Night’s Dream at London’s Winter Garden Theatre. In April 1927 he was in a production of Othello at the Apollo Theatre alongside John Gielgud, Robert Loraine and Gertrude Elliott.

    In May 1927 Bennett appeared in a production of his own play The Return, which he also directed. Peggy Ashcroft was in the cast.

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  • In December 1927 he appeared in Loraine’s production of Cyrano de Bergerac.

    Bennett had the biggest success of his career to date when Al Woods decided to finance a production of Blackmail in 1928, produced by Raymond Massey and starring Tallulah Bankhead. The play was not well received at first, but had a hugely successful run on tour.[7][8]

    The play was seen by Alfred Hitchcock who arranged for British International Pictures to buy the film rights and adapted Bennett’s play into a script, with Benn Levy doing the dialogue. His film of Blackmail (1929) is generally credited as the first British sound film, and was a huge commercial success.

    Bennett’s play The Last Hour debuted on London stage in December 1928 and was a popular hit in London.[9] The Last Hour (1930) was turned into a movie directed by Walter Forde, the first “talkie” for Nettleford Studios.[10]

    Bennett’s fourth play was The Danger Line (1929), based on Hazel May Marshall’s story Ten Minutes to Twelve. He also wrote a one act play After Midnight (1929).

    The success of Blackmail led to British International offering him a contract in September 1931 to deliver three film stories a year for two years. He was reunited with Alfred Hitchcock and they collaborated on a story for Bulldog Drummond, to be called Bulldog Drummond’s Baby. However Hitchcock then directed some films which flopped and BIP chose not to proceed with the project.

    While at BIP he did unfilmed stories for Death on the Footplate, The Parrot Whistles, High Speed, Love My Dog and Fireman Save My Child.

    Bennett provided the story for a number of low-budget movies for George King who he later called the “world’s worst director”:[11] Number, Please (1931); Deadlock (1931), which was a big hit; Midnight (1931), the latter based on his play; and Two Way Street (1932).[12]

    Bennett wrote and directed the play Sensation (1931), a melodrama, but it was not a success, although it was adapted into a film.[13]

    He followed it with another play Big Business (1932), which Bennett also directed and appeared in alongside his then-wife Maggie. But by now he had given up acting to focus on writing.[14]

    Bennett wrote a short film, Partners Please (1932), and did an early film for John Paddy Carstairs, Paris Plane (1933).

    Bennett wrote Mannequin (1933); The House of Trent (1933); Matinee Idol (1933) for King; Hawley’s of High Street (1933), a rare comedy for Bennett; The Secret of the Loch (1934), the first film shot on location in Scotland; Warn London (1934); an adaptation of his play Big Business (1934); and Gay Love (1934). A number of these films were written in collaboration with publicist and story writer Billie Bristow; she and Bennett would work on eight films together in all.[15]

    In 1934 he wrote the play Heart’s Desire which he later regarded as the best play he wrote and the only one he loved but it was never produced.

    Hitchcock moved over to Gaumont British where he got Michael Balcon interested in Bulldog Drummond’s Baby. It was eventually filmed as The Man Who Knew Too Much (1934), which was a significant success.

    After doing Night Mail (1935) with Bristow, Bennett wrote The 39 Steps (1935) for Hitchcock, a film which soon established itself as a classic; Bennett said he was responsible for most of the film’s construction, but paid tribute to the contribution of Ian Hay, who did dialogue.

    Bennett was now in much demand. He wrote The Clairvoyant (1935) with Claude Rains and Fay Wray; King of the Damned (1935), written with Sidney Gilliat; All at Sea (1936); Blue Smoke (1935).

    He did two films for Hitchcock, Secret Agent (1936) (based on Somerset Maugham’s Ashenden) and Sabotage (1936).[16]

    In January 1936 his play Page From a Diary, starring Greer Garson and Ernst Deutsch, had a short run at the Garrick Theatre in London.[17]

    Bennett was one of several writers on King Solomon’s Mines (1937) then he went back to Hitchcock for Young and Innocent (1937).[18][19]

    Bennett’s work with Hitchcock had made him perhaps the most highly regarded screenwriter in England (one paper called him “Britain’s best known blood curdler”[20]) and attracted the attention of Hollywood. In 1937 he accepted a contract with Universal Studios at $1,500 a week.[21][22]

    Universal loaned himself out to Sam Goldwyn, and did some uncredited writing on The Adventures of Marco Polo (1938) and The Real Glory (1939), then worked on Universal’s Good Girls Go to Paris (1939) and Hidden Power (1939).

    After six months Universal dropped Bennett’s contract. His agent Myron Selznick got Bennett a job with Myron’s brother David. Bennett got his first Hollywood credited on the comedy The Young in Heart (1938); he did the construction and Paul Osborne the dialogue.

    Bennett then signed a contract to MGM where he worked on Cause for Alarm, an adaptation of an Eric Ambler novel which ended up not being made, and Balalaika (1939), a Nelson Eddy musical. He wrote a short novel, War in His Pocket, which was published in 1939.[23]

    Hitchcock moved to the US and hired Bennett to do some work on Foreign Correspondent (1940). Bennett was nominated for an Oscar for Best Script.

    Bennett worked on They Dare Not Love (1941) at Columbia and did uncredited work on Lucky Legs (1942). He was hired by Cecil B. De Mille to work on the script construction of Reap the Wild Wind (1942), which was a huge hit.

    Bennett went to RKO to write Joan of Paris (1942), which was one of his favourite films. At that studio he wrote the unproduced Challenge to the Night and was one of many writers on Forever and a Day (1943). He also made some uncredited contributions to the script of Saboteur (1942).

    During war he claims to have done undercover work for Allied intelligence.[24]

    De Mille used Bennett again on The Story of Dr. Wassell (1944), once more focusing on construction while Alan Le May did the dialogue.[25] Another script Bennett did for De Mulle, Rurales, about the Mexican Revolution, was never made.[26]

    In 1944 Bennett returned to London to write propaganda films for the British Ministry of Information. He continued to write feature films as well, earning $15,000 from Edward Small for an early draft of Lorna Doone, and an adaptation of the Madeleine Smith story for Two Cities Films to star Vivien Leigh and Laurence Olivier, at a fee of £4,000. He was contracted to direct the latter. Two Cities contracted Bennett to write Miracle of Peille.

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    After the war, Bennett returned to Hollywood and wrote Unconquered (1947) for De Mille. Olivier and Leigh pulled out of the Madeleine Smith project, so Bennett went to Universal to work on Ivy (1947), a thriller for Sam Wood and Joan Fontaine.[27]

    Bennett was going to direct Laraine Day in The Trial of Madeleine Smith
    [28] but those plans were interrupted when David Lean decided to make Madeleine.

    Instead he worked on the scripts for The Sign of the Ram (1948) for John Sturges and Black Magic (1948) for Edward Small. He attempted to remake Blackmail[29] but was unsuccessful.[30]

    Bennett finally made his directorial debut in Madness of the Heart (1949) with Margaret Lockwood.

    He continued to write: the unproduced Bangkok for Robert North, The Search for the Holy Grail for De Mille and a film for Rank, The Moneyman.[31]

    He was credited on the script for Where Danger Lives (1950), where he worked with Irwin Allen for the first time. He also write Kind Lady (1951), and The Green Glove (1952), then got another chance to direct with No Escape (1953), a film noir.[32]

    Bennett worked on the script for Dangerous Mission (1954) where he worked with Allen again.

    Bennett began writing for TV, doing such shows as The Ford Television Theatre, Climax! (where he did “Casino Royale”, the first screen adaptation of a James Bond novel, Schlitz Playhouse, Fireside Theatre, Cavalcade of America, The Count of Monte Cristo, Conflict, The Christophers, Lux Video Theatre and The New Adventures of Charlie Chan. Some of these he also directed and he produced Charlie Chan.

    Bennett was reunited with Allen on The Story of Mankind (1957). He wrote Night of the Demon (1957) in England, which he had hoped to direct himself; it became a cult success.[33]

    He then did a series of films for Allen: The Big Circus (1959), The Lost World (1960), Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea (1961), and Five Weeks in a Balloon (1962).[34]

    Bennett also wrote for The Dick Powell Show and did War-Gods of the Deep (1965) for AIP.

    In the late 1960s Bennett focused on TV series such as The Wild Wild West, and Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea and Land of the Giants for Allen.

    Bennett had no produced credits from the 1970s onwards. “It was so frustrating, because in many ways I felt my writing had gotten even better”, he said. “But at my age, no one wanted to hire me… know, I hate all the talk of this being a young man’s industry. I hate it! Not because I’m an old man. But because I hate the notion that you must be young to be hot.”[35]

    Bennett continued to write films, plays, treatments and TV series, though none were produced. He wrote a novel, Fox on the Run which was published in 1987.

    In 1990 Bennett was hired to write a remake of Blackmail.[36][37] The film was never made.

    Bennett’s brother Eric was killed in World War I in 1915.[38] His other brother, Vere, hanged himself in 1928.[39]

    He was twice married. First, in 1930, to the actress Faith Bennett. They were divorced in 1941, and in 1947 Bennett married Betty Jo Riley, who predeceased him. They had a son, John Charles Bennett.[40]

    Bennett died in Los Angeles in 1995.[41]

    Bennett has been the subject of two biographies, both written by his son John.

    He has also been the subject of biographical articles:

    He was interviewed by Arnold Schwartzman for the British Entertainment History Project in 1992.[42]

    Dominic Bevan Wyndham Lewis FRSL (9 March 1891 – 21 November 1969) was a British journalist, author and biographer, known for his humorous newspaper articles

    Born Llewellyn Bevan Wyndham Lewis to a family of Welsh origin then living in Seaforth, he dropped his first name and replaced it with “Dominic” following his conversion to Roman Catholicism in 1921. After schooling in Cardiff, he served in the Welch Regiment during World War I. He twice suffered from shell-shock while serving in France and contracted malaria on being assigned to Macedonia. On 29 October 1918, Lewis married Winifred Mary (Jane) Holland, with whom he had one daughter, the future actress Angela Wyndham Lewis. The couple divorced in 1926 and in July 1933 Lewis married Dorothy Anne Robertson, with whom he had two sons.[1]

    Lewis had originally intended to take up a legal career, but after the war he decided on journalism and joined the Daily Express, where he was briefly the newspaper’s Literary Editor. In 1919 he was put in charge of the paper’s humorous ‘By the Way’ column, using the pen name Beachcomber, originated by his predecessor. A selection of these was published as At the Green Goose in 1923. From there he moved on to the Daily Mail, where he contributed a column called ‘At the Sign of the Blue Moon’, selections from which were published in 1924 and 1925.

    Lewis lived in Paris from the mid-1920s while doing historical research for his entertaining biography of François Villon. Later biographies of French subjects included Louis XI, the Emperor Charles V, Ronsard, Molière, Rabelais and Gilles de Rais. He also wrote works on Boswell, Goya and Cervantes.

    After returning to Britain, Lewis published as ‘Mustard and Cress’ in the Sunday Referee until 1935 and then returned as a columnist to the Daily Mail, and later a decade-long column as Timothy Shy for the News Chronicle. In addition, he co-wrote, with Charles Bennett, the screenplay for the first version of Alfred Hitchcock’s The Man Who Knew Too Much (1934). He also supplied the lyrics for the Storm Clouds Cantata, featured in the film’s climatic Albert Hall scene. This was followed by various other British film scripts during the 1930s.

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    Lewis also made a name for himself as a compiler of the facetious anthology The Stuffed Owl, co-edited with Charles Lee in 1930. A collection of ‘good Bad Verse’, it featured excerpts from well-known authors at considerably less than their best as well as many others now forgotten. This was followed in 1936 by The Nonsensibus, “driven by D.B.Wyndham Lewis”. In 1952 he collaborated with Ronald Searle on The Terror of St Trinian’s (under the pen name ‘Timothy Shy’).

    Though he was often confused with his contemporary, the painter and author Percy Wyndham Lewis, they were not related.

    James Maitland Stewart (May 20, 1908 – July 2, 1997) was an American actor and military pilot, eventually being awarded the rank of Major General in the United States Air Force. Known for his distinctive drawl and everyman screen persona, Stewart’s film career spanned 80 films from 1935 to 1991. With the strong morality he portrayed both on and off the screen, he epitomized the “American ideal” in the twentieth century. In 1999, the American Film Institute (AFI) ranked him third on its list of the greatest American male actors.[1]

    Born and raised in Indiana, Pennsylvania, Stewart started acting while studying at Princeton University. After graduating in 1932, he began a career as a stage actor, appearing on Broadway and in summer stock productions. In 1935, he landed his first of several supporting roles in movies and in 1938 he had his big breakthrough in Frank Capra’s ensemble comedy You Can’t Take It with You. The following year, Stewart garnered his first of five Academy Award nominations for his portrayal of an idealized and virtuous man who becomes a senator in Capra’s Mr. Smith Goes to Washington (1939). He won his only Academy Award for Best Actor for his work in the comedy The Philadelphia Story (1940), which also starred Katharine Hepburn and Cary Grant.

    A licensed amateur pilot, Stewart enlisted as a private in the Army Air Forces, the aerial component of the U.S. Army, soon after the United States entered the Second World War in 1941. After fighting in the European theater, he attained the rank of colonel and received several awards for his service. When the Army Air Forces split from the Army to become the U.S. Air Force in 1947, he transferred to the Air Force Reserve and was promoted to brigadier general in 1959. He retired in 1968 and was awarded the Air Force Distinguished Service Medal. President Ronald Reagan would later promote Stewart to the rank of major general in the Air Force retired list, in 1985.[2]

    Stewart’s first postwar role was as George Bailey in Capra’s It’s a Wonderful Life (1946). Although the film was not a major success upon release, his performance earned him an Oscar nomination and the film has since become a Christmas classic, as well as one of his most well known acting roles. In the 1950s, Stewart played darker, more morally ambiguous characters in movies directed by Anthony Mann, including Winchester ’73 (1950), The Glenn Miller Story (1954) and The Naked Spur (1953), and by Alfred Hitchcock in Rope (1948), Rear Window (1954), The Man Who Knew Too Much (1956), and Vertigo (1958). His other films in the 1950s included the Broadway adaptation Harvey (1950) and the courtroom drama Anatomy of a Murder (1959), both of which landed him Academy Award nominations. He was one of the most popular film stars of the decade, with most of his films becoming box office successes.

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    Stewart’s later Westerns included The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (1962) with John Wayne and Cheyenne Autumn (1964), both directed by John Ford. He appeared in many popular family comedies during the 1960s. After brief ventures into television acting, Stewart semi-retired by the 1980s. He received many honorary awards, including an Academy Honorary Award and the Presidential Medal of Freedom, both in 1985.

    Stewart remained unmarried until his 40s and was dubbed “The Great American Bachelor” by the press. In 1949, he married former model Gloria Hatrick McLean. They had twin daughters, and he adopted her two sons from her previous marriage. The marriage lasted until McLean’s death in 1994; Stewart died of a pulmonary embolism three years later.

    James Maitland Stewart was born on May 20, 1908, in Indiana, Pennsylvania,[3] the eldest child and only son born to Elizabeth Ruth (née Jackson; 1875–1953) and Alexander Maitland Stewart (1872–1962).[4] Stewart had two younger sisters, Mary (1912–1977) and Virginia (1914–1972).[5] He was of Scottish and Scotch-Irish ancestry.[6] The Stewart family had lived in Pennsylvania for many generations.[6] Stewart’s father ran the family business, the J.M. Stewart and Company Hardware Store, which he hoped Stewart would take over as an adult after attending Princeton University, as was the family tradition.[7] Raised a Presbyterian by his deeply-religious father, Stewart was a devout church-goer for much of his life.[8]

    Stewart’s mother was a pianist, and music was an important part of family life.[9] When a customer at the store was unable to pay his bill, Stewart’s father accepted an old accordion as payment. Stewart learned to play the instrument with the help of a local barber.[10] His accordion became a fixture offstage during his acting career.[11] A shy child, Stewart spent much of his time after school in the basement working on model airplanes, mechanical drawings and chemistry—all with a dream of going into aviation.[12] He attended the Wilson Model School for primary school and junior high school. He was not a gifted student and received average to low grades. According to his teachers, this was not from a lack of intelligence, but due to being creative and having a tendency to daydream.[13]

    Stewart began attending Mercersburg Academy prep school in fall 1923, because his father did not believe he would be accepted into Princeton if he attended public high school.[14] At Mercersburg, Stewart participated in a variety of extracurricular activities. He was a member of the track team (competing as a high jumper under coach Jimmy Curran),[15] the art editor of the school yearbook, a member of the glee club,[16] and a member of the John Marshall Literary Society.[17] To his disappointment, he was relegated to the third-tier football team due to his slender physique.[17] Stewart also made his first onstage appearance at Mercersburg, as Buquet in the play The Wolves in 1928.[18] During summer breaks, he returned to Indiana, working first as a brick loader and then as a magician’s assistant.[19] Due to scarlet fever that turned into a kidney infection, he had to take time out from school in 1927, which delayed his graduation until 1928.[20] He remained passionate about aviation, with his interest enhanced by Charles Lindbergh’s first solo transatlantic flight, but abandoned visions of becoming a pilot when his father steered him towards Princeton.[21]

    Stewart enrolled at Princeton in 1928 as a member of the class of 1932, majoring in architecture and becoming a member of the Princeton Charter Club.[22] He excelled academically, but also became attracted to the school’s drama and music clubs, including the Princeton Triangle Club.[23][24] Upon his graduation in 1932, he was awarded a scholarship for graduate studies in architecture for his thesis on an airport terminal design,[25] but chose instead to join University Players, an intercollegiate summer stock company performing in West Falmouth, Massachusetts, on Cape Cod.[26][27]

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  • Stewart performed in bit parts in the University Players’ productions in Cape Cod during the summer of 1932.[28] The company’s directors included Joshua Logan, Bretaigne Windust and Charles Leatherbee,[29] and amongst its other actors were married couple Henry Fonda and Margaret Sullavan, who became Stewart’s close friends.[30] At the end of the season, Stewart moved to New York with his Players friends Logan, Myron McCormick, and newly single Henry Fonda.[31][32] Along with McCormick, Stewart debuted on Broadway in the brief run of Carry Nation and a few weeks later – again with McCormick – appeared as a chauffeur in the comedy Goodbye Again, in which he had a walk-on line.[33] The New Yorker commented, “Mr. James Stewart’s chauffeur… comes on for three minutes and walks off to a round of spontaneous applause.”[34] Following the seven-month run of Goodbye Again, Stewart took a stage manager position in Boston, but was fired after frequently missing his cues.[35] Returning to New York, he then landed a small part in Spring in Autumn and a role in All Good Americans, where he was required to throw a banjo out of the window.[36] Brooks Atkinson of The New York Times wrote, “Throwing a $250 banjo out of the window at the concierge is constructive abuse and should be virtuously applauded.”[37] Both plays folded after only short runs, and Stewart began to think about going back to his studies.[38]

    Stewart was convinced to continue acting when he was cast in the lead role of Yellow Jack, playing a soldier who becomes the subject of a yellow fever experiment.[39] It premiered at the Martin Beck Theater in March 1934. Stewart received unanimous praise from the critics, but the play proved unpopular with audiences and folded by June.[40] During the summer, Stewart made his film debut with an unbilled appearance in the Shemp Howard comedy short Art Trouble (1934), filmed in Brooklyn, and acted in summer stock productions of We Die Exquisitely and All Paris Knows at the Red Barn Theater on Long Island.[41] In the fall, he again received excellent reviews for his role in Divided by Three at the Ethel Barrymore Theatre, which he followed with the modestly successful Page Miss Glory and the critical failure A Journey By Night in spring 1935.[42]

    Soon after A Journey By Night ended, Stewart signed a seven-year contract with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM), orchestrated by talent scout Bill Grady, who had been tracking Stewart’s career since seeing him perform in Princeton.[43] His first Hollywood role was a minor appearance in the Spencer Tracy vehicle The Murder Man (1935).[44] His performance was largely ignored by critics, although the New York Herald Tribune, remembering him in Yellow Jack, called him “wasted in a bit that he handles with characteristically engaging skill.”[45] As MGM did not see leading-man material in Stewart, described by biographer Michael D. Rinella as a “lanky young bumpkin with a hesitant manner of speech” during this time, his agent Leland Hayward decided that the best path for him would be through loan-outs to other studios.[46]

    Stewart had only a small role in his second MGM film, the hit musical Rose Marie (1936), but it led to his casting in seven other films within one year, from Next Time We Love to After the Thin Man.[47] He also received crucial help from his University Players friend Margaret Sullavan, who campaigned for him to be her leading man in the Universal romantic comedy Next Time We Love (1936), filmed right after Rose Marie. Sullavan rehearsed extensively with him, boosting his confidence and helping him incorporate his mannerisms and boyishness into his screen persona.[48] Next Time We Love was a box-office success and received mostly positive reviews,[49] leading Stewart to be noticed by critics and MGM executives.[50] TIME stated that “the chief significance of [the film] in the progress of the cinema industry is likely to reside in the presence in its cast of James Stewart” and The New York Times called him “a welcome addition to the roster of Hollywood’s leading men.”[51]

    Stewart followed Next Time We Love with supporting roles in two commercially successful romantic comedies, Wife vs. Secretary (1936) with Clark Gable and Myrna Loy and Small Town Girl (1936).[52] In both, he played the betrayed boyfriend of the leading lady, portrayed by Jean Harlow and Janet Gaynor, respectively.[53] Both films garnered him some good reviews.[54] After an appearance in the short subject Important News (1936), Stewart had his first top-billed role in the low-budget “B” movie Speed (1936), in which he played a mechanic and speed driver competing in the Indianapolis 500.[55] The film was a critical and commercial failure,[56] although Frank Nugent of The New York Times stated that “Mr. Stewart [and the rest of the cast] perform as pleasantly as possible.”[57]

    Stewart’s last three film releases of 1936 were all box-office successes.[58] He had only a bit part in The Gorgeous Hussy, but a starring role in the musical Born to Dance with Eleanor Powell.[59] His performance in the latter was not well-received: The New York Times stated that his “singing and dancing will (fortunately) never win him a song-and-dance-man classification,”[60] and Variety called “his singing and dancing […] rather painful on their own,” although it otherwise found Stewart aptly cast in an “assignment [that] calls for a shy youth.”[61] Stewart’s last film to be released in 1936, After the Thin Man, features a shattering emotional climax rendered by Stewart.[62] Kate Cameron of the New York Daily News wrote that he “has one grand scene in which he demonstrates most effectively that he is something more than a musical comedy juvenile.”[63]

    For his next film, the romantic drama Seventh Heaven (1937), Stewart was loaned to 20th Century-Fox to play a Parisian sewer worker in a remake of Frank Borzage’s silent classic released a decade earlier. He and co-star Simone Simon were miscast,[64] and the film was a critical and commercial failure.[65] William Boehnel of the New York World-Telegram called Stewart’s performance emotionless and Eileen Creelman of The New York Sun wrote that he made little attempt to look or sound French.[64] Stewart’s next film, The Last Gangster (1937) starring Edward G. Robinson, was also a failure,[53] but it was followed by a critically-acclaimed performance in Navy Blue and Gold (1937) as a football player at the United States Naval Academy.[66][67] The film was a box-office success and earned Stewart the best reviews of his career up to that point.[68] The New York Times wrote “the ending leaves us with the conviction that James Stewart is a sincere and likable triple-threat man in the [MGM] backfield” and Variety called his performance “fine.”[69]

    Despite good reviews, Stewart was still a minor star, and MGM remained hesitant to cast him in leading roles, preferring to loan him out to other studios.[70] After a well-received supporting part in Of Human Hearts (1938),[71] he was loaned to RKO to act opposite Ginger Rogers in the romantic comedy Vivacious Lady (1938).[72] The production was shut down for months in 1937 as Stewart recovered from an undisclosed illness, during which he was hospitalized. RKO initially wanted to replace Stewart, but eventually the project was canceled. However, Rogers’s success in a stage musical caused the film to be picked up again. Stewart was recast in Vivacious Lady at Rogers’s insistence and due to his performance in Of Human Hearts.[73][74] It was a critical and commercial success, and showed Stewart’s talent for performing in romantic comedies;[75] The New York Herald called him “one of the most knowing and engaging young actors appearing on the screen at present.”[76]

    Stewart’s third film release of 1938, the First World War drama The Shopworn Angel, saw him collaborate again with Margaret Sullavan. In his performance, Stewart drew upon his own feelings of unrequited love towards Sullavan, who was married to his agent, Leland Hayward.[77] Although the film was otherwise well-received, critics were mixed about Stewart. Bland Johaneson of the New York Daily Mirror compared him to Stan Laurel in this melodramatic film and Variety called his performance unfocused.[78] Irene Thier of The New York Post wrote that his role was “just another proof that this young man is one of the finest actors of the screen’s young roster.”[78]

    Stewart became a major star when he was loaned out to Columbia Pictures to play the lead role in Frank Capra’s You Can’t Take It With You (1938) opposite Jean Arthur.[79] Stewart played the son of a banker who falls in love with a woman from a poor and eccentric family. Capra had recently completed several well-received films and was looking for a new type of leading man. He had been impressed by Stewart’s role in Navy Blue and Gold (1937). According to Capra, Stewart was one of the best actors ever to hit the screen, understood character archetypes intuitively and required little directing.[80] You Can’t Take It With You became the fifth highest-grossing film of the year and won the Academy Award for Best Picture.[81] The film was also critically successful, but while Variety wrote that the performances of Stewart and Arthur garnered “much of the laughs,” most of the critical acclaim went to Lionel Barrymore and Edward Arnold.[82]

    In contrast to the success of You Can’t Take It With You, Stewart’s first three film releases of 1939 were all commercial disappointments. In the melodrama Made for Each Other (1939), he shared the screen with Carole Lombard. Stewart blamed its directing and screenwriting for its poor box-office performance.[83] Regardless, the film received favorable reviews,[83] with Newsweek writing that Stewart and Lombard were “perfectly cast in the leading roles.”[84] The other two films, The Ice Follies of 1939 and It’s a Wonderful World, were critical failures.[85]

    Stewart’s fourth 1939 film saw him work again with Capra and Jean Arthur in the political comedy-drama Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, in which Stewart played an idealist thrown into the political arena.[86] It garnered critical praise and became the third-highest-grossing film of the year.[87][88] The Nation stated “[Stewart] takes first place among Hollywood actors…Now he is mature and gives a difficult part, with many nuances, moments of tragic-comic impact.”[89] Later, critic Andrew Sarris qualified Stewart’s performance as “lean, gangling, idealistic to the point of being neurotic, thoughtful to the point of being tongue-tied,” describing him as “particularly gifted in expressing the emotional ambivalence of the action hero.”[89] Stewart won the New York Film Critics Circle award and received his first nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actor.[90]

    Stewart’s last screen appearance of 1939 came in the Western parody Destry Rides Again, in which he portrayed a pacifist lawman and Marlene Dietrich a saloon girl who falls in love with him.[91] It was critically and commercially successful.[92] TIME magazine wrote, “James Stewart, who had just turned in the top performance of his cinematurity as Jefferson Smith in Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, turns in as good a performance or better as Thomas Jefferson Destry.”[93] Between films, Stewart had begun a radio career, and had become a distinctive voice on the Lux Radio Theater, The Screen Guild Theater and other shows. So well-known had his slow drawl become that comedians began impersonating him.[94]

    Stewart and Sullavan reunited for two films in 1940. The Ernst Lubitsch romantic comedy The Shop Around the Corner starred them as co-workers who cannot stand each other but unknowingly become romantic pen-pals. It received good reviews and was a box-office success in Europe, but failed to find an audience in the US, where less-gentle screwball comedies were more popular.[95] Director Lubitsch assessed it to be the best film of his career, and it has been regarded highly by later critics, such as Pauline Kael and Richard Schickel.[96]

    The drama The Mortal Storm, directed by Frank Borzage, featured Sullavan and Stewart as lovers caught in turmoil upon Hitler’s rise to power. It was one of the first blatantly anti-Nazi films to be produced in Hollywood, but according to film scholar Ben Urwand, “ultimately made very little impact” as it did not show the persecution experienced by Jews or name that ethnic group.[97] Despite being well received by critics, it failed at the box office.[98] Ten days after filming The Mortal Storm, Stewart began filming No Time for Comedy (1940) with Rosalind Russell. Critics complimented Stewart’s performance; Bosley Crowther of The New York Times called Stewart “the best thing in the show,” yet the film was again not a box-office success.[99]

    Stewart’s final film to be released in 1940 was George Cukor’s romantic comedy The Philadelphia Story, in which he played an intrusive, fast-talking reporter sent to cover the wedding of a socialite (Katharine Hepburn) with the help of her ex-husband (Cary Grant).[100] The film became one of the largest box-office successes of the year,[101] and received widespread critical acclaim. The New York Herald Tribune stated that “Stewart…contributes most of the comedy to the show…In addition, he contributes some of the most irresistible romantic moments.”[102] His performance earned him his only Academy Award in a competitive category for Best Actor, beating out Henry Fonda, for whom he had voted and with whom he had once roomed, both almost broke, in the early 1930’s in New York. [103] Stewart himself assessed his performance in Mr. Smith to be superior, and believed the Academy was recompensing for not giving him the award the year prior.[104] Moreover, Stewart’s character was a supporting role, not the male lead.[104] He gave the Oscar to his father, who displayed it at his hardware store alongside other family awards and military medals.[105]

    Stewart next appeared in two comedies—Come Live with Me (1941), which paired him with Hedy Lamarr, and Pot o’ Gold (1941), featuring Paulette Goddard—that were both box-office failures.[106] Stewart considered the latter to be the worst film of his career.[107] His last film before military service was the musical Ziegfeld Girl (1941), which co-starred Judy Garland, Hedy Lamarr and Lana Turner. It was a critical failure but also one of the best box-office performers of the year.[108][109]

    Stewart became the first major American movie star to enlist in the United States Army to fight in World War II.[110] His family had deep military roots: both of his grandfathers had fought in the Civil War,[111] and his father had served during both the Spanish–American War and World War I.[112] After first being rejected for low weight in November, 1940, he successfully enlisted in February, 1941.[113][N 1] As an experienced amateur pilot, he reported for induction as a private in the Air Corps on March 22, 1941.[115] Soon to be 33 years old, he was over the age limit for Aviation Cadet training—the normal path of commissioning for pilots, navigators and bombardiers—and therefore applied for an Air Corps commission as both a college graduate and a licensed commercial pilot.[116] Stewart received his commission as a second lieutenant on January 1, 1942.[117]

    After enlisting, Stewart made no new commercial films, although he remained under contract to MGM. His public appearances were limited to engagements for the Army Air Forces.[116] The Air Corps scheduled him on network radio with Edgar Bergen and Charlie McCarthy, and on the radio program We Hold These Truths, a celebration of the United States Bill of Rights, which was broadcast a week after the attack on Pearl Harbor.[118] Stewart also appeared in a First Motion Picture Unit short film, Winning Your Wings, to help recruit airmen. Nominated for an Academy Award for Best Documentary in 1942, it appeared in movie theaters nationwide beginning in late May, 1942 and resulted in 150,000 new recruits.[119]

    Stewart was concerned that his celebrity status would relegate him to duties behind the lines.[118] After spending over a year training pilots at Kirtland Army Airfield in Albuquerque, New Mexico,[120] he appealed to his commander and was sent to England as part of the 445th Bombardment Group to pilot a B-24 Liberator, in November 1943, and was based initially at RAF Tibenham before moving to RAF Old Buckenham.[121]

    Stewart was promoted to major following a mission to Ludwigshafen, Germany, on January 7, 1944.[122][N 2] He was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross for actions as deputy commander of the 2d Bombardment Wing,[124] and the French Croix de Guerre with palm and the Air Medal with three oak leaf clusters.[125] Stewart was promoted to full colonel on March 29, 1945,[126] becoming one of the few Americans to ever rise from private to colonel in only four years.[127] At the beginning of June 1945, Stewart was the presiding officer of the court martial of a pilot and navigator who accidentally bombed Zurich, Switzerland.[128]

    Stewart returned to the United States in early fall 1945.[129] He continued to play a role in reserve of the Army Air Forces after the war,[130] and was also one of the 12 founders of the Air Force Association in October, 1945.[131] Stewart would eventually transfer to the reserves of the United States Air Force after the Army Air Forces split from the Army, in 1947. During active-duty periods he served with the Strategic Air Command and completed transition training as a pilot on the B-47 and B-52.[132]

    Stewart was first nominated for promotion to brigadier general in February, 1957; however, his promotion was initially opposed by Senator Margaret Chase Smith.[132] At the time of the nomination, the Washington Daily News noted: “He trains actively with the Reserve every year. He’s had 18 hours as first pilot of a B-52.”[133] On July 23, 1959, Stewart was promoted to brigadier general, becoming the highest-ranking actor in American military history.[134] During the Vietnam War, he flew as a non-duty observer in a B-52 on an Arc Light bombing mission in February, 1966.[135] He served for 27 years, officially retiring from the Air Force on May 31, 1968, when he reached the mandatory retirement age of 60.[136] Upon his retirement, he was awarded the United States Air Force Distinguished Service Medal.[137] Stewart rarely spoke about his wartime service,[138] but did appear in an episode of the British television documentary series The World at War (1974), commenting on the disastrous 1943 mission against Schweinfurt, Germany.[139] In 1985, Stewart was promoted to rank of major general on the Air Force retired list.[140][141]

    After his experiences in the war, Stewart considered returning to Pennsylvania to run the family store.[142] His former agent Leland Hayward had also left the talent business in 1944, after selling his roster of stars, including Stewart, to Music Corporation of America (MCA).[143] Stewart decided not to renew his MGM contract and instead signed a deal with MCA. He later stated that he was given a new beginning by Frank Capra, who asked him to star in It’s a Wonderful Life (1946), the first postwar film for both of them.[142] Stewart played George Bailey, an upstanding small-town man who becomes increasingly frustrated by his ordinary existence and financial troubles. Driven to suicide on Christmas Eve, he is led to reassess his life by Clarence Odbody, an “angel, second class” played by Henry Travers. During filming, Stewart experienced doubts about his abilities and continued to consider retiring from acting.[144]

    Although It’s a Wonderful Life was nominated for five Academy Awards,[145] including Stewart’s third Best Actor nomination, it received mixed reviews and was only a moderate success at the box office, failing to cover its production costs.[146] Several critics found the movie too sentimental, although Bosley Crowther wrote that Stewart did a “warmly appealing job, indicating that he has grown in spiritual stature as well as in talent during the years he was in the war,”[147] and President Harry S. Truman concluded that “If [my wife] and I had a son we’d want him to be just like Jimmy Stewart [in this film].”[148] In the decades since its release, It’s a Wonderful Life has grown to define Stewart’s film persona and is widely considered a Christmas classic,[149] and according to the American Film Institute is one of the 100 best American movies ever made.[150] Andrew Sarris stated that Stewart’s performance was underappreciated by critics of the time who could not see “the force and fury” of it, and considered his proposal scene with Donna Reed, “one of the most sublimely histrionic expressions of passion.”[151] Stewart later named the film his personal favorite out of his filmography.[152]

    In the aftermath of It’s A Wonderful Life, Capra’s production company went into bankruptcy, while Stewart continued to have doubts about his acting abilities.[153] His generation of actors was fading and a new wave of actors, including Marlon Brando, Montgomery Clift and James Dean, would soon remake Hollywood.[154] Stewart returned to making radio dramas in 1946; he continued this work between films until the mid-1950s. He also made a comeback on Broadway to star in Mary Coyle Chase’s Harvey in July, 1947, replacing the original star Frank Fay for the duration of his vacation. The play had opened to nearly universal praise in 1944,[155] and told the story of Elwood P. Dowd, a wealthy eccentric, whose best friend is an invisible man-sized rabbit, and whose relatives are trying to get him committed to a mental asylum.[156] Stewart gained a following in the unconventional play, and although Fay returned to the role in August, they decided that Stewart would take his place again the next summer.[157] Stewart’s only film to be released in 1947 was the William A. Wellman comedy Magic Town, one of the first films about the new science of public opinion polling. It was poorly received both commercially and critically.[158][159]

    Stewart appeared in four new film releases in 1948. Call Northside 777 was a critically-acclaimed film noir,[160] while the musical comedy On Our Merry Way, in which Stewart and Henry Fonda played jazz musicians in an ensemble cast, was a critical and commercial failure.[161][162] The comedy You Gotta Stay Happy, which paired Stewart with Joan Fontaine, was the most successful of his post-war films up to that point.[163][164] Rope, in which Stewart played the idolized teacher of two young men who commit murder to show their supposed superiority, began his collaboration with Alfred Hitchcock. Shot in long “real-time” takes, Stewart felt pressure to be flawless in his performance; the added stress led to him sleeping very little and drinking more heavily.[165] Rope received mixed reviews, and Andrew Sarris and Scott Eyman have later called him miscast in the role of a Nietzsche-loving philosophy professor.[166][167] The film’s screenwriter Arthur Laurents also stated that “the casting of [Stewart] was absolutely destructive. He’s not sexual as an actor.”[168]

    Stewart found success again with The Stratton Story (1949), playing baseball champion Monty Stratton opposite June Allyson.[169] It became the sixth-highest-grossing film of 1949[170] and was well received by the critics. The New York Times noted, “The Stratton Story was the best thing that has yet happened to Mr. Stewart in his post-war film career…he gives such a winning performance that it is almost impossible to imagine any one else playing the role.”[171] Stewart’s other 1949 release saw him reunited with Spencer Tracy in the World War II film Malaya (1949). It was a commercial failure and received mixed reviews.[169]

    In the 1950s, Stewart experienced a career renewal as the star of Westerns and collaborated on several films with director Anthony Mann.[172] The first of these was the Universal production Winchester ’73 (1950), which Stewart agreed to do in exchange for being cast in a screen adaptation of Harvey.[173] It also marked a turning point in Hollywood, as Stewart’s agent, Lew Wasserman, brokered an innovative deal with Universal, in which Stewart would receive no fee in exchange for a percentage of the profits. Stewart was also granted authority to collaborate with the studio on casting and hiring decisions.[174] Stewart ended up earning about $600,000 for Winchester ’73, significantly more than his usual fee, and other stars quickly capitalized on this new way of doing business, which further undermined the decaying studio system.[175]

    which film did alfred hitchcock make twice

    Stewart chose Mann to direct,[176] and the film gave him the idea of redefining his screen persona through the Western genre.[177] In the film, Stewart is a tough, vengeful sharpshooter, the winner of a prized rifle which is stolen and passes through many hands, until the showdown between him and his brother.[178][179] Winchester ’73 became a box-office success upon its summer release and earned Stewart rave reviews.[180] He also starred in another successful Western that summer, Broken Arrow (1950), which featured him as an ex-soldier and Native American agent making peace with the Apache.[181]

    Stewart’s third film release of 1950 was the comedy The Jackpot; it received critical acclaim and was commercially successful, but was a minor film in his repertoire and has largely been forgotten by contemporary critics and fans.[182][183] In December, 1950, the screen adaptation of Harvey was released, directed by Henry Koster and with Stewart reprising his stage role. With critics again comparing his performance with Fay’s, Stewart’s performance as well as the film itself received mixed reviews.[184] Bosley Crowther of The New York Times wrote that “so darling is the acting of James Stewart […] and all the rest that a virtually brand-new experience is still in store for even those who saw the play,”[185] while Variety called him “perfect” in the role.[186] John McCarten of the New Yorker stated that although he “doesn’t bring his part to the battered authority of Frank Fay…he nevertheless succeeds in making plausible the notion that Harvey, the rabbit, would accept him as a pal.”[187] Stewart later stated that he was dissatisfied with his performance, stating, “I played him a little too dreamily, a little too cute-cute.”[187] Despite its poor box office, Stewart received his fourth Academy Award nomination as well as his first Golden Globe nomination.[188] Similar to It’s a Wonderful Life, Harvey achieved popularity later, after frequent television showings.[189]

    Stewart appeared in only one film released in 1951, playing a scientist in Koster’s British production No Highway in the Sky, which was one of the first airplane disaster films ever made. Filmed in England, it became a box office success in the United Kingdom, but failed to attract audiences in the United States.[190] Stewart took a small supporting role as a troubled clown in Cecil B. DeMille’s The Greatest Show on Earth (1952), which went on to win the Academy Award for Best Picture. Critics were curious why Stewart had taken such a small, out-of-character role; he responded that he was inspired by Lon Chaney’s ability to disguise himself while letting his character emerge.[191] In the same year, Stewart starred in a critically and commercially failed biopic Carbine Williams (1952),[192] and continued his collaboration with Mann in Bend of the River (1952), which was again a commercial and critical success.[193]

    Stewart followed Bend of the River with four more collaborations with Mann in the next two years. The Naked Spur (1953),[194] Thunder Bay (1953),[195] and The Far Country (1954) were all successful with audiences and developed Stewart’s screen persona into a more mature, ambiguous, and edgier presence.[196] The films featured him as a troubled cowboy seeking redemption while facing corrupt cattlemen, ranchers and outlaws; a man who knows violence first-hand and struggles to control it. The Stewart–Mann collaborations laid the foundation for many of the Westerns of the 1950s and remain popular today for their grittier, more realistic depiction of the classic movie genre. In addition, Stewart starred in the Western radio show The Six Shooter for its one-season run from 1953 to 1954.[197] He and Mann also collaborated on films outside the Western genre, the first of which was The Glenn Miller Story (1954), a critically-acclaimed biopic in which he starred opposite June Allyson.[198][199] It garnered Stewart a BAFTA nomination,[200] and continued his portrayals of ‘American heroes’.[201]

    Stewart’s second collaboration with Hitchcock, the thriller Rear Window, became the third highest-grossing film of 1954. Hitchcock and Stewart had also formed a corporation, Patron Inc., to produce the film.[N 3] Stewart portrayed a photographer, loosely based on Robert Capa,[203][204] who projects his fantasies and fears onto the people he observes out his apartment window while on hiatus due to a broken leg, and comes to believe that he has witnessed a murder. Limited by his wheelchair, Stewart had to react to what his character sees with mostly facial responses.[205] Like Mann, Hitchcock uncovered new depths to Stewart’s acting, showing a protagonist confronting his fears and his repressed desires.[206] Although most of the initial acclaim for Rear Window was directed towards Hitchcock,[207] critic Vincent Canby later described Stewart’s performance in it as “grand” and stated that “[his] longtime star status in Hollywood has always obscured recognition of his talent.”[208] 1954 was a landmark year in Stewart’s career in terms of audience success, and he topped Look magazine’s list of the most-popular movie stars, displacing rival Western star John Wayne.[209]

    Stewart continued his successful box-office run with two collaborations with Mann in 1955. Strategic Air Command paired him again with June Allyson in a Cold War propaganda film geared to show audiences that extensive military spending was necessary.[210] Stewart took a central role in its development, using his experiences from the air force.[211] Despite criticism for the dry, mechanistic storyline, it became the sixth highest-grossing film of 1955.[212] Stewart’s final collaboration with Mann in the Western genre, The Man from Laramie, one of the first Westerns to be shot in CinemaScope, was well-received by the critics and audiences alike.[213] Following his work with Mann, Stewart starred opposite Doris Day in Hitchcock’s remake of his earlier film The Man Who Knew Too Much (1956). The film was yet another success. Even though critics preferred the first version, Hitchcock himself considered his remake superior.[214]

    Stewart’s next film, Billy Wilder’s The Spirit of St. Louis (1957), saw him star as his childhood hero, Charles Lindbergh.[215] It was a big-budget production with elaborate special effects for the flying sequences, but received only mixed reviews and did not earn back its production costs. Stewart ended the year with a starring role in the Western Night Passage (1957), which had originally been slated as his ninth collaboration with Mann.[216] During the pre-production, a rift developed between Mann and writer Borden Chase over the script, which Mann considered weak. Mann decided to leave the film, and never collaborated with Stewart again.[217] James Neilson replaced Mann, and the film opened in 1957 to become a box-office flop. Soured by this failure, Stewart avoided the genre and would not make another Western for four years.[218]

    Stewart’s collaboration with Hitchcock ended the following year with Vertigo (1958), in which he starred as an acrophobic former policeman who becomes obsessed with a woman (Kim Novak) he is shadowing.[219][220] Although Vertigo has later become considered one of Hitchcock’s key works and was ranked the greatest film ever made by the Sight & Sound critics’ poll in 2012,[221] it met with unenthusiastic reviews and poor box-office receipts upon its release.[222][223] Regardless, several critics complimented Stewart for his performance,[224] with Bosley Crowther noting, “Mr. Stewart, as usual, manages to act awfully tense in a casual way.”[225]

    Hitchcock blamed the film’s failure on Stewart being too old to convincingly be Novak’s love interest: he was fifty years old at the time and had begun wearing a silver hairpiece in his movies.[226] Consequently, Hitchcock cast Cary Grant in his next film, North by Northwest (1959), a role Stewart wanted; Grant was four years older than Stewart but photographed much younger.[227] Stewart’s second 1958 film release, the romantic comedy Bell, Book and Candle (1958), also paired him with Kim Novak, with Stewart later echoing Hitchcock in saying that he was miscast as 25-year-old Novak’s romantic partner.[228] The film and Stewart’s performance received poor reviews and resulted in a box office failure.[229] However, according to film scholar David Bingham, by the early 1950s, “Stewart’s personality was so credible and well-established,” that his choice of role no longer affected his popularity.[230]

    Stewart ended the decade with Otto Preminger’s realistic courtroom drama Anatomy of a Murder (1959) and the crime film The FBI Story (1959). The former was a box office success despite its explicit dealing with subjects such as rape, and garnered good reviews.[231] Stewart received critical acclaim for his role as a small-town lawyer involved in a difficult murder case; Bosley Crowther called it “one of the finest performances of his career.”[232] Stewart won his first BAFTA, a Volpi Cup, a New York Film Critics Circle Award and a Producers Guild of America Award, as well as gained his fifth and final Academy Award nomination for his performance.[233] The latter film, in which Stewart portrayed a Depression-era FBI agent, was less well received by critics and was commercially unsuccessful.[234] Despite the commercial failure of The FBI Story, the film marked the close of the most commercially-successful decade of Stewart’s career.[235] According to Quigley’s annual poll, Stewart was one of the top money-making stars for ten years, appearing in the top ten in 1950, 1952–1959, and 1965. He topped the list in 1955.[236]

    Stewart opened the new decade with an appearance in the war film The Mountain Road (1960). To his surprise, it was a box office failure, despite his claims that it was one of the best scripts he’d ever read.[237] He began a new director-collaboration with John Ford, making his debut in his films in the Western Two Rode Together (1961), which had thematic echoes of Ford’s The Searchers.[238] The same year, he also narrated the film X-15 for the USAF.[239] Stewart was considered for the role of Atticus Finch in the 1962 film adaptation of Harper Lee’s novel To Kill a Mockingbird, but he turned it down, concerned that the story was too controversial.[240]

    Next, Stewart appeared as part of an all-star cast—including Henry Fonda and John Wayne—in How the West Was Won, a Western epic released in early 1962.[241] The film went on to win three Academy Awards and reap massive box-office figures.[242][243] Stewart and Ford’s next collaboration was The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (1962).[244] A classic psychological Western,[245] the picture was shot in black-and-white film noir style at Ford’s insistence,[246] with Stewart as an East Coast attorney who goes against his non-violent principles when he is forced to confront a psychopathic outlaw (Lee Marvin) in a small frontier town.[247] The complex film initially garnered mixed reviews, but became a critical favorite over the ensuing decades.[248] Stewart was billed above John Wayne in posters and the trailers, but Wayne received top billing in the film itself. Stewart, Wayne and Ford also collaborated for a television play that same year, Flashing Spikes (1962), for ABC’s anthology series Alcoa Premiere, albeit featuring Wayne billed with a television pseudonym (“Michael Morris,” also used for Wayne’s brief appearance in the John Ford-directed episode of the television series Wagon Train titled “The Colter Craven Story”) for his lengthy cameo.

    In 1962, Stewart signed a multi-movie deal with 20th Century Fox.[249] The first two of these films reunited him with director Henry Koster in the family-friendly comedies Mr. Hobbs Takes a Vacation (1962) and Take Her, She’s Mine (1963), which were both box-office successes.[250] The former received moderately positive reviews and won Stewart the Silver Bear for Best Actor at the Berlin International Film Festival; the latter was panned by the critics.[250] Stewart then appeared in John Ford’s final Western, Cheyenne Autumn (1964), playing a white-suited Wyatt Earp in a long semi-comedic sequence in the middle of the movie.[241][251] The film failed domestically and was quickly forgotten.

    In 1965, Stewart was given his first honorary award for his career, the Cecil B. DeMille Award. He appeared in three films that year. The Fox family-comedy Dear Brigitte (1965), which featured French actress Brigitte Bardot as the object of Stewart’s son’s infatuation, was a box-office failure.[252] The Civil War film Shenandoah (1965) was a commercial success with strong anti-war and humanitarian themes.[253][254] The Flight of the Phoenix (1965) continued Stewart’s series of aviation-themed films; it was well-received critically, but a box-office failure.[255]

    Since the mid-1960s, Stewart acted in a series of Westerns: The Rare Breed (1966) with Maureen O’Hara,[256] Firecreek (1968) with Henry Fonda, Bandolero! (1968) with Dean Martin, and The Cheyenne Social Club (1970) with Henry Fonda again. In 1968, he received the Screen Actors Guild Life Achievement Award. Stewart returned on Broadway to reprise his role as Elwood P. Dowd in Harvey at the ANTA Theatre in February 1970; the revival ran until May.[257] He won the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Performance for it.

    In 1971, Stewart starred in the NBC sitcom The Jimmy Stewart Show.[258] He played a small-town college professor, whose adult son moves back home with his family. Stewart disliked the amount of work needed to film the show each week and was relieved when it was canceled after only one season due to bad reviews and lack of audiences.[259] His only film release for 1971, the comedy-drama Western Fools’ Parade, was more-positively received.[260] Robert Greenspun of The New York Times stated that “the movie belongs to Stewart, who has never been more wonderful.”[261] For his contributions to Western films, Stewart was inducted into the Hall of Great Western Performers at the National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum in Oklahoma City in 1972.[262]

    Stewart returned to television in Harvey for NBC’s Hallmark Hall of Fame series in 1972,[263] and then starred in the CBS mystery series Hawkins in 1973. Playing a small-town lawyer investigating mysterious cases – similar to his character in Anatomy of a Murder – Stewart won a Golden Globe for his performance.[264] Nevertheless, Hawkins failed to gain a wide audience, possibly because it rotated with Shaft, which had a starkly conflicting demographic, and was canceled after one season.[265] Stewart also periodically appeared on Johnny Carson’s The Tonight Show, sharing poems he had written at different times in his life.[266] His poems were later compiled into a short collection, Jimmy Stewart and His Poems (1989).[267][268]

    After performing again in Harvey at the Prince of Wales Theatre in London in 1975, Stewart returned to films with a major supporting role in John Wayne’s final film, The Shootist (1976), playing a doctor giving Wayne’s gunfighter a terminal cancer diagnosis.[269] By this time, Stewart had a hearing impairment, which affected his ability to hear his cues and led to him repeatedly flubbing his lines; his vanity would not allow him to admit this or to wear a hearing aid.[270] Stewart was offered the role of Howard Beale in Network (1976), but refused it due to its explicit language.[240] Instead, he appeared in supporting roles in the disaster film Airport ’77 (1977) with Jack Lemmon, the remake of The Big Sleep (1978) with Robert Mitchum as Philip Marlowe, and the family film The Magic of Lassie (1978). Despite mixed reviews, Airport ’77 was a box-office success,[271] but the two other films were commercial and critical failures.[272] Harry Haun of New York Daily News wrote in his review of The Big Sleep that it was “really sad to see James Stewart struggle so earnestly with material that just isn’t there.”[273] Stewart’s final live-action feature film was the critically panned Japanese film The Green Horizon (1980), directed by Susumu Hani. Stewart took the role because the film promoted wildlife conservation and allowed his family to travel with him to Kenya.[274]

    In the 1980s, Stewart semi-retired from acting. He was offered the role of Norman Thayer in On Golden Pond (1981), but turned it down because he disliked the film’s father-daughter relationship; the role went instead to his friend, Henry Fonda.[240] Stewart filmed two television movies in the 1980s: Mr. Krueger’s Christmas (1980), produced by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, which allowed him to fulfill a lifelong dream to conduct the Mormon Tabernacle Choir,[275] and Right of Way (1983), an HBO drama that co-starred Bette Davis.[276] He also made an appearance in the historical miniseries North and South in 1986, and did voiceover work for commercials for Campbell’s Soups in the 1980s and 1990s.[277] Stewart’s last film performance was voicing the character of Sheriff Wylie Burp in the animated movie An American Tail: Fievel Goes West (1991).

    Stewart remained in the public eye due to his frequent visits to the White House during the Reagan administration.[278] The re-release of Hitchcock films gained him renewed recognition, with Rear Window and Vertigo in particular praised by film critics.[279][280] Stewart also received several honorary film industry awards at the end of his career: an American Film Institute Award in 1980, a Silver Bear in 1982, Kennedy Center Honors in 1983, an Academy Honorary Award in 1985, and National Board of Review and Film Society of Lincoln Center’s Chaplin Award in 1990. The honorary Oscar was presented by former co-star Cary Grant “for his 50 years of memorable performances, for his high ideals both on and off the screen, with respect and affection of his colleagues.”[148] In addition, Stewart received the highest civilian award in the US, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, “for his contributions in the fields of the arts, entertainment and public service,” in 1985.[281][282]

    As a friend, mentor, and focus of his early romantic feelings, Margaret Sullavan had a unique influence on Stewart’s life. They had met while they were both performing for the University Players; he was smitten with her and invited her on a date.[283] She regarded him as just a close friend and co-worker, and they never began a romantic relationship, but Stewart regardless felt unrequited romantic love toward her for many years.[284] Though Sullavan was always aware of his feelings, he never directly revealed them to her.[285] Sullavan loved Stewart but was never interested in him romantically; rather, she felt protective and maternal.[286] However, the director of The Shopworn Angel, H.C. Potter suggested that they may have married each other had Stewart been more forthcoming with his feelings.[287] She became his acting mentor in Hollywood and according to director Edward H. Griffith, “made [him] a star”; they went on to co-star in four films: Next Time You Love (1936), The Shopworn Angel (1938), The Shop Around the Corner (1940) and The Mortal Storm (1940).[288]

    Stewart did not marry until his forties, which attracted a significant amount of contemporary media attention; gossip columnist Hedda Hopper called him the “Great American Bachelor.”[289] Regardless, he had several romantic relationships prior to marriage. After being introduced by Henry Fonda, Stewart and Ginger Rogers had a brief relationship in 1935.[290] During production of The Shopworn Angel (1938), Stewart dated actress Norma Shearer for six weeks.[291] Afterward, he dated Loretta Young; she wanted to settle down but Stewart did not, and their relationship ended when Young’s other boyfriend proposed to her.[292] While filming Destry Rides Again (1939), Stewart had an affair with his co-star Marlene Dietrich, who was married at the time.[293] Dietrich allegedly became pregnant, but it was quickly terminated.[294] Stewart ended their relationship after the filming was completed. Hurt by Stewart’s rejection, she barely mentioned him in her memoir and waved him off as a one-time affair.[295]

    He dated Olivia de Havilland in the late 1930s and early 1940s and even proposed marriage to her, but she rejected the proposal as she believed he was not ready to settle down.[296] She ended the relationship shortly before he began his military service, as she had fallen in love with director John Huston.[297] In 1942, while serving in the military, Stewart met singer Dinah Shore at the Hollywood Canteen, a club mainly for servicemen. They began a romantic relationship and were nearly married in Las Vegas in 1943, but Stewart called off the marriage before they arrived, citing cold feet.[298] After the war, Stewart began a relationship with co-star Myrna Dell during the filming of The Stratton Story (1949). Although gossip columnists made claims that they were planning to marry, Dell said this was not true.[299]

    Stewart’s first interaction with his future wife, Gloria Hatrick McLean, was at Keenan Wynn’s Christmas party in 1947. He had crashed the party and became inebriated, leaving a poor impression of himself with Hatrick.[300] A year later, Gary Cooper and his wife Veronica invited Hatrick and Stewart to a dinner party, and the two began dating.[301] A former model, Hatrick was divorced with two children.[302] Stewart and Hatrick were married at Brentwood Presbyterian Church on August 9, 1949, and remained married until her death from lung cancer in 1994.[303]

    The couple purchased a home in Beverly Hills in 1951, where they resided for the rest of their lives.[304][305] They also owned the Winecup Gamble Ranch in Nevada from 1953 to 1957.[306] Stewart adopted Gloria’s two sons, Ronald (1944–1969) and Michael (born 1946),[307] and with Gloria he had twin daughters, Judy and Kelly, on May 7, 1951. Ronald was killed in action in Vietnam on June 8, 1969, at the age of 24, while serving as a lieutenant in the Marine Corps.[308]

    Stewart was guarded about his personal life and, according to biographer Scott Eyman, tended to avoid the emotional connection in interviews he was known for in his films, preferring to keep his thoughts and feelings to himself.[309] He was known as a loner who did not have intimate relationships with many people. Director John Ford said of Stewart, “You don’t get to know Jimmy Stewart, Jimmy Stewart gets to know you.”[310]

    Stewart’s fifty-year friendship with Henry Fonda began in Manhattan when Fonda invited Stewart to be his third roommate (in addition to Joshua Logan and Myron McCormick) in order to make the rent.[311] When Stewart moved to Hollywood in 1935, he again shared an apartment with Fonda,[312] and the two gained reputations as playboys.[313] Over their careers, they starred in four films together: On Our Merry Way (1948), How the West Was Won (1962), Firecreek (1968), and The Cheyenne Social Club (1970).[314][315] Both Stewart and Fonda’s children later noted that their favorite activity when not working seemed to be quietly sharing time together while building and painting model airplanes, a hobby they had taken up in New York years earlier.[316] Besides building model airplanes, Stewart and Fonda liked to build and fly kites, play golf and reminisce about the “old days.”[317] After Fonda’s death in 1982, Stewart’s only public comment was “I’ve just lost my best friend.”[318] Their friendship was chronicled in Scott Eyman’s biography, Hank and Jim (2017).[319]

    Aside from Fonda, Stewart’s close friends included his former agent, Leland Hayward; director John Ford; photographer John Swope, Stewart’s former roommate; and Billy Grady, the talent scout who discovered Stewart and also served as the best man at his wedding.[320] Gary Cooper was another close friend of Stewart’s;[321] on April 17, 1961, he was too ill (with cancer) to attend the 33rd Academy Awards ceremony, so Stewart accepted the honorary Oscar on his behalf.[322][323][N 4]

    In addition to his film career, Stewart had diversified investments including real estate, oil wells, the charter-plane company Southwest Airways and membership on major corporate boards, and he became a multimillionaire.[326][148] Already prior to his enlistment in the Air Corps, he had been an avid amateur pilot, with a private pilot certificate and a commercial pilot license[327] as well as over 400 hours of flying time.[328] A highly-proficient pilot, he entered a cross-country race with Leland Hayward in 1937,[328] and was one of the early investors in Thunderbird Field, a pilot-training school built and operated by Southwest Airways in Glendale, Arizona.[329]

    Stewart was also active in philanthropy over the years. He served as the national vice-chairman of entertainment for the American Red Cross’s fund-raising campaign for wounded soldiers in Vietnam, as well as contributed donations for improvements and restorations to Indiana, his hometown in Pennsylvania.[330] His signature charity event, “The Jimmy Stewart Relay Marathon Race”, held annually since 1982, has raised millions of dollars for the Child and Family Development Center at St. John’s Health Center in Santa Monica, California.[331][332][333]

    Stewart was a lifelong supporter of scouting, having been a Second Class Scout when he was a youth. He was an adult Scout leader, and a recipient of the Silver Beaver Award from the Boy Scouts of America (BSA).[334] In the 1970s and 1980s, he made advertisements for the BSA, which led to his being sometimes incorrectly identified as an Eagle Scout[334] (he was actually a Second Class Scout). An award for Boy Scouts, “The James M. Stewart Good Citizenship Award” has been presented since 2003.[335] Stewart was also a Life Member of the Sons of the Revolution in California.[336]

    Stewart was a staunch Republican throughout his life.[337] A political argument in 1947 resulted in a fistfight with Henry Fonda, according to some accounts, but the two maintained their friendship by never discussing politics again.[citation needed][338] The fistfight may be apocryphal, as Jhan Robbins quotes Stewart as saying, “Our views never interfered with our feelings for each other. We just didn’t talk about certain things. I can’t remember ever having an argument with him⁠—ever!”[338]

    In 1964, Stewart campaigned for the conservative presidential candidate Barry Goldwater and, according to biographer Marc Eliot, erred on the obsessive prior to the election.[339] Stewart was a hawk on the Vietnam War, and maintained that his son, Ronald, did not die in vain.[340] Following the assassination of Senator Robert F. Kennedy in 1968, Stewart, Charlton Heston, Kirk Douglas and Gregory Peck issued a statement calling for support of President Lyndon B. Johnson’s Gun Control Act of 1968.[341][342]

    Stewart actively supported Ronald Reagan’s bid for the Republican presidential nomination in 1976.[343] He attended Reagan’s campaign rallies, in one speech assuring that he was more conservative than ever, regardless of the death of his son in the Vietnam War.[344] In 1988, Stewart made a plea in Congressional hearings, along with Burt Lancaster, Katharine Hepburn, Ginger Rogers, film director Martin Scorsese and many others, against Ted Turner’s decision to ‘colorize’ classic black and white films, including It’s a Wonderful Life. Stewart stated, “the coloring of black-and-white films is wrong. It’s morally and artistically wrong and these profiteers should leave our film industry alone.”[345] In 1989, Stewart founded the American Spirit Foundation to apply entertainment-industry resources to developing innovative approaches to public education and to assist the emerging democracy movements in the former Iron Curtain countries.[346] In the last years of his life, he donated to the campaign of Bob Dole for the 1996 presidential election.[347]

    Stewart’s wife Gloria died of lung cancer on February 16, 1994.[348] According to biographer Donald Dewey, her death left Stewart depressed and “lost at sea.”[349] Stewart became even more reclusive, spending most of his time in his bedroom, exiting only to eat and visit with his children. He shut out most people from his life, not only media and fans but also his co-stars and friends.[350] Stewart’s friends Leonard Gershe and Gregory Peck said Stewart was not depressed or unhappy, but finally allowed to rest and be alone.[351]

    Stewart was hospitalized after falling in December 1995.[352] In December 1996, he was due to have the battery in his pacemaker changed but opted not to. In February, 1997, he was hospitalized for an irregular heartbeat.[353] On June 25, a thrombosis formed in his right leg, leading to a pulmonary embolism one week later. Stewart died of a heart attack caused by the embolism at the age of 89,[354] surrounded by his children at his home in Beverly Hills, on July 2, 1997. President Bill Clinton commented that America had lost a “national treasure … a great actor, a gentleman and a patriot.”[148] Stewart was buried at Forest Lawn Memorial Park in Glendale, California.[355] Over 3,000 mourners attended his memorial service, including his friends and co-workers June Allyson, Carol Burnett, Bob Hope, Lew Wasserman, Nancy Reagan, Esther Williams and Robert Stack. The service included full military honors and three volleys of musketry.[356]

    He had the ability to talk naturally. He knew that in conversations people do often interrupt one another and it’s not always so easy to get a thought out. It took a little time for the sound men to get used to him, but he had an enormous impact. And then, some years later, Marlon came out and did the same thing all over again—but what people forget is that Jimmy did it first.[357]

    —Cary Grant on Stewart’s acting technique.

    According to biographer Scott Eyman, Stewart was an instinctive actor. He was natural and at ease in front of the camera, despite his shy off-screen personality.[358] In line with his natural and conversational acting style, Stewart’s costars found him easy to work with, as he was willing to improvise around any situation that arose while filming.[359] Later in his career, Stewart began to resent his reputation of having a “natural” acting technique. He asserted that there wasn’t anything natural about standing on a sound stage in front of lights and cameras while acting out a scene.[360]

    Stewart had established early in his career that he was proficient at communicating personality and character nuances through his performances alone.[50] He used an “inside-out” acting technique, preferring to represent the character without accents, makeup, and props.[361] Additionally, he tended to act with his body, not only with his voice and face; for example, in Harvey, Stewart portrays the main character’s age and loneliness by slightly hunching down.[362] He was also known for his pauses that had the ability to hold the audience’s attention. Film critic Geoffrey O’Brien related that Stewart’s “stammering pauses” created anxious space for the audience, leaving them in anticipation for the scene which Stewart took his time leading up to.[363]

    Stewart himself claimed to dislike his earlier film performances, saying he was “all hands and feet”, adding that he “didn’t seem to know what to do with either”.[364] He mentioned that even though he did not always like his performances, he would not get discouraged. He said, “But I always tried, and if the script wasn’t too good, well, then, I just tried a little bit harder. I hope, though, not so hard that it shows.”[365] Former co-star Kim Novak stated of his acting style that for emotional scenes, he would access emotions deep inside of him and would take time to wind down after the scene ended. He could not turn it off immediately after the director yelled cut.[366]

    Stewart was particularly adept at performing vulnerable scenes with women. Jack Lemmon suggested that Stewart’s talent for performing with women was that he was able to allow the audience to see the respect and gentility he felt toward the women through his eyes. He showed that his characters needed them as much as their characters needed him.[367] In connection to Stewart’s screen persona with women, Peter Bradshaw said The Philadelphia Story is “a film every school pupil should see” due to Stewart’s character’s clear explanation of sexual consent after being accused of taking advantage of the main female character.[368]

    Stewart’s screen persona was that of an “everyman”, an ordinary man placed in extraordinary circumstances. Audiences could identify with him, in contrast to other Hollywood leading men of the time, such as Cary Grant, who represented what the audience wanted to become.[369] Stewart’s screen persona has been compared to those of Gary Cooper and Tom Hanks.[361] Eyman suggested that Stewart could portray several different characters: “the brother, the sweetheart, [and] the nice guy next door with a bias toward doing the right thing: always decent but never a pushover”.[370] In Stewart’s early career, Louella Parsons described his “boyish appeal” and “ability to win audience sympathy” as the reasons for his success as an actor; Stewart’s performances appealed to both young and old audiences.[371] According to film scholar Dennis Bingham, Stewart’s essential persona was, “a small-town friendly neighbor, with a gentle face and voice and a slim body that is at once graceful and awkward.”[372] Unlike many actors who developed their on-screen persona over time, Stewart’s on-screen persona was recognizable as early as Art Trouble (1932), his uncredited debut film role, where Stewart was relaxed and comfortable on-screen.[373] He portrayed this persona most strongly in the 1940s, but maintained a classic everyman persona throughout his career.[374][375][376][377]

    Film scholar Dennis Bingham wrote that Stewart was “both a ‘personality’ star and a chameleon” who evoked both masculine and feminine qualities.[378] Consequently, it was difficult for filmmakers to sell Stewart as the stereotypical leading man, and thus he “became a star in films that capitalized on his sexual ambivalence.”[378] Stewart’s asexual persona as a leading man was unusual for the time period for an actor who was not mainly a comedian.[379] However, during his career “Stewart [encompassed] the furthest extremes of American masculinity, from Reaganite militarist patriotism to Hitchcockian perversity.”[378]

    According to Roger Ebert, Stewart’s pre-World War II characters were usually likable, but in postwar years directors chose to cast Stewart in darker roles, such as Jeffries in Rear Window. Ebert put this into contemporary perspective by asking, “What would it feel like to see [Tom Hanks] in a bizarre and twisted light?”, explaining that it is jarring to see a beloved everyman persona such as Stewart in dark roles.[380] Furthermore, Jonathan Rosenbaum explained that since audiences were primarily interested in Stewart’s “star persona” and “aura” than his characters, “this makes it more striking when Anthony Mann and Alfred Hitchcock periodically explore the neurotic and obsessive aspects of Stewart’s persona to play against his all-American innocence and earnestness.”[381]

    Film scholar John Belton argued that rather than playing characters in his films, Stewart often played his own screen persona. He had difficulty playing famous historical personages because his persona could not accommodate the historical character. Belton explained that “James Stewart is more James Stewart than Glenn Miller in The Glenn Miller Story (1954) or Charles Lindbergh in The Spirit of St. Louis (1957).”[382] Moreover, Jonathan Rosenbaum continued that Stewart’s “pre-existing life-size persona” in Winchester ’73 “helped to shape and determine the impact of [his character] in [this film].”[381]
    On the other hand, Stewart has been described as a character actor who went through several distinct career phases.[383] According to film scholar Amy Lawrence, the main elements of Stewart’s persona, “a propensity for physical and spiritual suffering, lingering fears of inadequacy,” were established by Frank Capra in the 1930s and were enhanced through his later work with Hitchcock and Mann.[384] John Belton explained that “James Stewart evolves from the naive, small-town, populist hero of Frank Capra’s 1930s comedies to the bitter, anxiety-ridden, vengeance-obsessed cowboy in Anthony Mann’s 1950s Westerns and the disturbed voyeur and sexual fetishist in Alfred Hitchcock’s 1950s suspense thrillers.”[385] During his postwar career, Stewart usually avoided appearing in comedies, Harvey and Take Her, She’s Mine being exceptions. He played many different types of characters, including manipulative, cynical, obsessive, or crazy characters.[386] Stewart found that acting allowed him to express the fear and anxiety that he could not express during the war; his post-war performances were received well by audiences because audiences could still see the innocent, pre-war Stewart underneath his dark roles.[387] According to Andrew Sarris, Stewart was “the most complete actor-personality in the American cinema.”[388]

    Selected Credits:

    Stewart is remembered for portraying idealist “everyman” characters in his films.[417][418] His heroism on-screen and devotion to his family made him relatable and representative of the American ideal, leading Stewart to be considered one of the best-loved figures in twentieth-century American popular culture.[419] According to film scholar Dennis Bingham, “his ability to ‘play’—even symbolize—honesty and ‘American ideals’ made him an icon into whose mold later male stars tried to pour themselves.”[420] Similarly, film scholar James Naremore has called Stewart “the most successful actor of the ‘common man’ in the history of movies” and “the most intensely-emotional leading man to emerge from the studio system,” who could cry on screen without losing his masculinity.[421] David Thomson has explained Stewart’s appeal by stating that “we wanted to be him, and we wanted to be liked by him,”[422] while Roger Ebert has stated that “whether he played everyman, or everyman’s hidden psyche, Stewart was an innately likable man whose face, loping gait and distinctive drawl became famous all over the world.”[423] Among Stewart’s most recognizable qualities was his manner of speaking with a hesitant drawl.[424][148] According to film scholar Tim Palmer, “Stewart’s legacy rests on his roles as the nervous idealist standing trial for, and gaining stature from, the sincerity of his beliefs, while his emotive convictions are put to the test.”[425] Film critic David Ansen wrote about Stewart’s appeal as a person in addition to his appeal as an actor. Ansen retold a story in which Jack Warner, upon being told about Ronald Reagan’s presidential ambitions, said, “No. Jimmy Stewart for president, Ronald Reagan for best friend.”[426] Ansen further explained that Stewart was the ultimate trustworthy movie star.[426]

    In contrast to his popularly remembered “all-American” screen persona, film critics and scholars have tended to emphasize that his performances also often showed a “dark side.”[427] According to film scholar Murray Pomerance, “the other Jimmy Stewart … was a different type altogether, a repressed and neurotic man buried beneath an apparently calm facade, but ready at any moment to explode with vengeful anxiety and anger, or else with deeply twisted and constrained passions that could never match up with cheery personality of the alter ego.”[428] Bingham has described him as having “two coequal personas; the earnest idealist, the nostalgic figure of the homespun boy next door; and the risk-taking actor who probably performed in films for more canonical auteurs than any other American star.”[429] According to him, it is this complexity and his ambiguous masculinity and sexuality with which he approached his roles that characterized his persona.[430] Naremore has stated that there was a “troubled, cranky, slightly-repressed feeling in [Stewart’s] behavior,”[431] and Thomson has written that it was his dark side that produced “great cinema.”[422]

    Stewart was one of the most sought-after actors in 1950s Hollywood, proving that independent actors could be successful in the film industry, which led more actors in Hollywood to forego studio contracts.[432] According to Bingham, Stewart marked “the transition between the studio period…and the era of free-lance actors, independent production, and powerful talent agents that made possible the “new kind of star” of the late 1960s.”[429] Although Stewart was not the first big-name freelance actor, his “mythic sweetness and idealism [which] were combined with eccentric physical equipment and capacity as an actor to enact emotion, anxiety, and pain” enabled him to succeed in both the studio system, which emphasized the star as a real person, and the skeptical post-studio era.[429]

    A number of Stewart’s films have become classics of American cinema, with twelve of his films having been inducted into the United States National Film Registry as of 2019,[433] and five —Mr. Smith Goes to Washington (1939), The Philadelphia Story (1940), It’s a Wonderful Life (1946), Rear Window (1954), and Vertigo (1958)— being featured on the American Film Institute’s list of the 100 greatest American films of all time. Stewart and Robert DeNiro share the title for the most films represented on the AFI list.[434][435] Stewart is also the most represented leading actor on the “100 Greatest Movies of All Time” list presented by Entertainment Weekly.[436] Two of his characters —Jefferson Smith in Mr. Smith Goes to Washington (1939) and George Bailey in It’s a Wonderful Life (1946)— made AFI’s list of the one hundred greatest heroes and villains,[437] and Harvey (1950) and The Philadelphia Story (1940) were included in their list of Greatest American Comedies.[438] In 1999, the American Film Institute (AFI) ranked Stewart third on its list of the greatest American male actors.[1]

    Stewart has several memorials in his childhood hometown, Indiana, Pennsylvania. On May 20, 1995, his 87th birthday, The Jimmy Stewart Museum was established there.[439] The museum is located near his birthplace, his childhood home and the former location of his father’s hardware store.[440] According to biographer Gary Fishgall, some residents of Indiana were angered by the creation of the museum; they believed he had contributed nothing to the town aside from growing up there. The museum committee insisted that Stewart had contributed significant donations to the town, but it was done quietly so it was unknown to most residents.[441] A large statue of Stewart stands on the lawn of the Indiana County Courthouse and a plaque marks his birthplace.[442] In 2011, the United States Post Office located at 47 South 7th Street in Indiana, Pennsylvania, was designated the “James M. ‘Jimmy’ Stewart Post Office Building.”[443] Additionally, the Indiana County–Jimmy Stewart Airport was named in his honor.[444]

    In 1960, Stewart was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1700 Vine Street for his contributions to the film industry.[445][446] In 1974, he received the Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement.[447] His Golden Plate was presented by Awards Council member Helen Hayes.[448] In 1997, Princeton University, Stewart’s alma mater, honored him with the dedication of the James M. Stewart Theater along with a retrospective of his films.[449] Stewart has also been honored with his own postal stamp as part of the “Legends of Hollywood” stamp series.[450] In 1999, a bust of Stewart was unveiled at the Eighth Air Force Heritage Museum in Georgia.[451] The L. Tom Perry Special Collections Library at Brigham Young University houses his personal papers and movie memorabilia including letters, scrapbooks, recordings of early radio programs and two of his accordions.[452][453] Stewart donated his papers and memorabilia to the library after becoming friends with the curator of its arts and communications collections, James D’Arc.[454]

    Archival materials


    “Years of AFA”Downloads-icon


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    “U.S. Military Fatal Casualties of the Vietnam War for Home-State-of-Record: California”Downloads-icon


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    (A)Typical Jimmy: James Stewart and Hollywood Studio Era ActingDownloads-icon


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    Doris Day (born Doris Mary Anne Kappelhoff; April 3, 1922 – May 13, 2019) was an American actress, singer, and animal welfare activist. She began her career as a big band singer in 1939, achieving commercial success in 1945 with two No. 1 recordings, “Sentimental Journey” and “My Dreams Are Getting Better All the Time” with Les Brown & His Band of Renown. She left Brown to embark on a solo career and recorded more than 650 songs from 1947 to 1967.

    Day was one of the biggest film stars in the 1950s–1960s era. Day’s film career began during the Golden Age of Hollywood with the film Romance on the High Seas (1948). She starred in films of many genres, including musicals, comedies, dramas, and thrillers. She played the title role in Calamity Jane (1953) and starred in Alfred Hitchcock’s The Man Who Knew Too Much (1956) with James Stewart. Her best-known films are those in which she co-starred with Rock Hudson, chief among them 1959’s Pillow Talk, for which she was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress. She also worked with James Garner on both Move Over, Darling (1963) and The Thrill of It All (1963), and starred alongside Clark Gable, Cary Grant, James Cagney, David Niven, Ginger Rogers, Jack Lemmon, Frank Sinatra, Kirk Douglas, Lauren Bacall, and Rod Taylor in various movies. After ending her film career in 1968, only briefly removed from the height of her popularity, she starred in her own sitcom The Doris Day Show (1968–1973).

    In 1989, she was awarded the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award for lifetime achievement in motion pictures. In 2004, she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom. In 2008, she received the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award as well as a Legend Award from the Society of Singers. In 2011, she was awarded the Los Angeles Film Critics Association’s Career Achievement Award. The same year, she released her 29th studio album, My Heart, which contained new material and became a UK Top 10 album. As of 2020[update], she was one of eight record performers to have been the top box-office earner in the United States four times.[1][2]

    Day was born Doris Mary Anne Kappelhoff on April 3, 1922 in Cincinnati, Ohio,[3] the daughter of Alma Sophia (née Welz; 1895–1976) and William Joseph Kappelhoff (1892–1967). Her mother was a homemaker, and her father was a music teacher and choirmaster.[4][5] Doris was named after actress Doris Kenyon.[6] Her maternal and paternal grandparents were German;[7][8][9] her paternal grandfather Franz Joseph Wilhelm Kappelhoff immigrated to the United States in 1875 and settled in Cincinnati which had a large German community with its own churches, clubs, and German-language newspapers.[8][10] For most of her life, Day stated she was born in 1924; it was not until her 95th birthday – when the Associated Press found her birth certificate, showing a 1922 date of birth – that she stated otherwise. [3]

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    The youngest of three siblings, she had two older brothers: Richard (who died before her birth) and Paul, two to three years older.[11] Due to her father’s infidelity, her parents separated.[2][12] She developed an early interest in dance, and in the mid-1930s formed a dance duo with Jerry Doherty that performed in competitions throughout the United States.[13] A car accident on October 13, 1937 shattered her right leg and curtailed her prospects as a professional dancer.[14][15]

    While recovering from her car accident, Kappelhoff started to sing along with the radio and discovered a talent she did not know she had. “During this long, boring period, I used to while away a lot of time listening to the radio, sometimes singing along with the likes of Benny Goodman, Duke Ellington, Tommy Dorsey, and Glenn Miller”, she told A. E. Hotchner, one of Day’s biographers. “But the one radio voice I listened to above others belonged to Ella Fitzgerald. There was a quality to her voice that fascinated me, and I’d sing along with her, trying to catch the subtle ways she shaded her voice, the casual yet clean way she sang the words.”

    Observing her daughter sing rekindled Alma’s interest in show business, and she decided Doris must have singing lessons. She engaged a teacher, Grace Raine.[16] After three lessons, Raine told Alma that young Doris had “tremendous potential”; Raine was so impressed that she gave Doris three lessons a week for the price of one. Years later, Day said that Raine had the biggest effect on her singing style and career.[17]

    During the eight months she was taking singing lessons, Kappelhoff had her first professional jobs as a vocalist, on the WLW radio program Carlin’s Carnival, and in a local restaurant, Charlie Yee’s Shanghai Inn.[18] During her radio performances, she first caught the attention of Barney Rapp, who was looking for a female vocalist and asked if she would like to audition for the job. According to Rapp, he had auditioned about 200 singers when Kappelhoff got the job.[19]

    While working for Rapp in 1939, she adopted the stage surname “Day”, at Rapp’s suggestion.[20] Rapp felt that “Kappelhoff” was too long for marquees, and he admired her rendition of the song “Day After Day”.[21] After working with Rapp, Day worked with bandleaders Jimmy James,[22] Bob Crosby,[23] and Les Brown.[24] In 1941, Day appeared as a singer in three Soundies with the Les Brown band.[25]

    While working with Brown, Day recorded her first hit recording, “Sentimental Journey”, released in early 1945. It soon became an anthem of the desire of World War II demobilizing troops to return home.[26][27] The song continues to be associated with Day, and she re-recorded it on several occasions, including a version in her 1971 television special.[28] During 1945–46, Day (as vocalist with the Les Brown Band) had six other top ten hits on the Billboard chart: “My Dreams Are Getting Better All the Time”, “‘Tain’t Me”, “Till The End of Time”, “You Won’t Be Satisfied (Until You Break My Heart)”, “The Whole World is Singing My Song”, and “I Got the Sun in the Mornin'”.[29] Les Brown said, “As a singer Doris belongs in the company of Bing Crosby and Frank Sinatra.” (Aljean Harmetz (2019). “Wholesome Box-Office Star and Golden Voice of ‘Que Sera, Sera’ “. “The New York Times.” p. 1 )

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  • While singing with the Les Brown band and for nearly two years on Bob Hope’s weekly radio program,[15] she toured extensively across the United States.

    Her performance of the song “Embraceable You” impressed songwriter Jule Styne and his partner, Sammy Cahn, and they recommended her for a role in Romance on the High Seas (1948). Day was cast for the role after auditioning for director Michael Curtiz.[30][31] She was shocked at being offered the role in the film, and admitted to Curtiz that she was a singer without acting experience. But he said he liked that “she was honest”, not afraid to admit it, and he wanted someone who “looked like the All-American Girl”. Day was the discovery of which Curtiz was proudest during his career.[32]

    The film provided her with a No. 2 hit recording as a soloist, “It’s Magic”, which followed by two months her first No. 1 hit (“Love Somebody” in 1948) recorded as a duet with Buddy Clark.[33] Day recorded “Someone Like You”, before the film My Dream Is Yours (1949), which featured the song.[34] In 1950, U.S. servicemen in Korea voted her their favorite star.

    She continued to make minor and frequently nostalgic period musicals such as On Moonlight Bay (1951), By the Light of the Silvery Moon (1953), and Tea For Two (1950) for Warner Brothers.[35][36]

    Her most commercially successful film for Warner was I’ll See You in My Dreams (1951), which broke box-office records of 20 years. The film is a musical biography of lyricist Gus Kahn. It was Day’s fourth film directed by Curtiz.[37] Day appeared as the title character in the comedic western-themed musical, Calamity Jane (1953).[38] A song from the film, “Secret Love”, won the Academy Award for Best Original Song and became Day’s fourth No. 1 hit single in the United States.[39]

    Between 1950 and 1953, the albums from six of her movie musicals charted in the Top 10, three of them at No. 1. After filming Lucky Me (1954) with Bob Cummings and Young at Heart (1955) with Frank Sinatra, Day chose not to renew her contract with Warner Brothers.[40]

    During this period, Day also had her own radio program, The Doris Day Show. It was broadcast on CBS in 1952–1953.[41]

    Having become primarily recognized as a musical-comedy actress, Day gradually took on more dramatic roles to broaden her range. Her dramatic star turn as singer Ruth Etting in Love Me or Leave Me (1955), with top billing above James Cagney, received critical and commercial success, becoming Day’s biggest hit thus far.[42] Cagney said she had “the ability to project the simple, direct statement of a simple, direct idea without cluttering it”, comparing her to Laurette Taylor’s Broadway performance in The Glass Menagerie (1945), one of the greatest performances by an American actor.[43] Day said it was her best film performance. Producer Joe Pasternak said, “I was stunned that Doris did not get an Oscar nomination.”[44] The soundtrack album from that movie was a No. 1 hit.[45][46]

    Day starred in Alfred Hitchcock’s suspense film The Man Who Knew Too Much (1956) with James Stewart. She sang two songs in the film, “Que Sera, Sera (Whatever Will Be, Will Be)” which won an Academy Award for Best Original Song,[47] and “We’ll Love Again”. The film was Day’s 10th movie to be in the Top 10 at the box office. Day played the title role in the thriller/noir Julie (also 1956) with Louis Jourdan.[48]

    After three successive dramatic films, Day returned to her musical/comedic roots in The Pajama Game (1957) with John Raitt. The film was based on the Broadway play of the same name.[49] She worked with Paramount Pictures for the comedy Teacher’s Pet (1958), alongside Clark Gable and Gig Young.[50] She co-starred with Richard Widmark and Gig Young in the romantic comedy film The Tunnel of Love (also 1958),[51] but found scant success opposite Jack Lemmon in It Happened to Jane (1959).

    Billboard’s annual nationwide poll of disc jockeys had ranked Day as the No. 1 female vocalist nine times in ten years (1949 through 1958), but her success and popularity as a singer was now being overshadowed by her box-office appeal.[52]

    In 1959, Day entered her most successful phase as a film actress with a series of romantic comedies.[53][54] This success began with Pillow Talk (1959), co-starring Rock Hudson who became a lifelong friend, and Tony Randall. Day received a nomination for an Academy Award for Best Actress.[55] It was the only Oscar nomination she received in her career.[56] Day, Hudson, and Randall made two more films together, Lover Come Back (1961) and Send Me No Flowers (1964).[57]

    Along with David Niven and Janis Paige, Day starred in Please Don’t Eat the Daisies (1960) and with Cary Grant in the comedy That Touch of Mink (1962).[58] During 1960 and the 1962 to 1964 period, she ranked number one at the box office, the second woman to be number one four times, an accomplishment equalled by no other actress except Shirley Temple.[59] She set a record that has yet to be equaled, receiving seven consecutive Laurel Awards as the top female box office star.[60]

    Day teamed up with James Garner starting with The Thrill of It All, followed by Move Over, Darling (both 1963).[61] The film’s theme song, “Move Over Darling”, co-written by her son, reached No. 8 in the UK.[62] In between these comedic roles, Day co-starred with Rex Harrison in the movie thriller Midnight Lace (1960), an updating of the stage thriller Gaslight.[63]

    By the late 1960s, the sexual revolution of the baby boomer generation had refocused public attitudes about sex. Times changed, but Day’s films did not. Day’s next film Do Not Disturb (1965) was popular with audiences, but her popularity soon waned. Critics and comics dubbed Day “The World’s Oldest Virgin”,[64][65] and audiences began to shy away from her films. As a result, she slipped from the list of top box-office stars, last appearing in the top ten with the hit film The Glass Bottom Boat (1966). One of the roles she turned down was that of Mrs. Robinson in The Graduate, a role that eventually went to Anne Bancroft.[66] In her published memoirs, Day said she had rejected the part on moral grounds: she found the script “vulgar and offensive”.[67]

    She starred in the western film The Ballad of Josie (1967). That same year, Day recorded The Love Album, although it was not released until 1994.[68] The following year (1968), she starred in the comedy film Where Were You When the Lights Went Out? which centers on the Northeast blackout of November 9, 1965. Her final feature, the comedy With Six You Get Eggroll, was released in 1968.[69]

    From 1959 to 1970, Day received nine Laurel Award nominations (and won four times) for best female performance in eight comedies and one drama. From 1959 through 1969, she received six Golden Globe nominations for best female performance in three comedies, one drama (Midnight Lace), one musical (Jumbo), and her television series.[70]

    After her third husband Martin Melcher died on April 20, 1968, a shocked Day discovered that Melcher and his business partner and “adviser” Jerome Bernard Rosenthal had squandered her earnings, leaving her deeply in debt.[71] Rosenthal had been her attorney since 1949, when he represented her in her uncontested divorce action against her second husband, saxophonist George W. Weidler. Day filed suit against Rosenthal in February 1969, won a successful decision in 1974, but did not receive compensation until a settlement in 1979.[72]

    Day also learned to her displeasure that Melcher had committed her to a television series, which became The Doris Day Show.

    It was awful. I was really, really not very well when Marty [Melcher] passed away, and the thought of going into TV was overpowering. But he’d signed me up for a series. And then my son Terry [Melcher] took me walking in Beverly Hills and explained that it wasn’t nearly the end of it. I had also been signed up for a bunch of TV specials, all without anyone ever asking me.

    Day hated the idea of performing on television, but felt obligated to do it.[69] The first episode of The Doris Day Show aired on September 24, 1968,[73] and, from 1968 to 1973, employed “Que Sera, Sera” as its theme song. Day persevered (she needed the work to help pay off her debts), but only after CBS ceded creative control to her and her son. The successful show enjoyed a five-year run,[74] and functioned as a curtain raiser for the Carol Burnett Show. It is remembered today for its abrupt season-to-season changes in casting and premise.[75]

    By the end of its run in 1973, public tastes had changed, as had those of the television industry, and her firmly established persona was regarded as passé. She largely retired from acting after The Doris Day Show, but did complete two television specials, The Doris Mary Anne Kappelhoff Special (1971)[77] and Doris Day Today (1975),[78] and was a guest on various shows in the 1970s.

    In the 1985–86 season, Day hosted her own television talk show, Doris Day’s Best Friends, on the Christian Broadcasting Network (CBN).[74][79] The network canceled the show after 26 episodes, despite the worldwide publicity it received. Much of that attention came from the episode featuring Rock Hudson, in which Hudson was showing the first public symptoms of AIDS including severe weight loss and admitted fatigue; Hudson would die from the disease a year later.[80] Day later said, “He was very sick. But I just brushed that off and I came out and put my arms around him and said, ‘Am I glad to see you’.”[81]

    Day’s husband and agent, Martin Melcher, had Beverly Hills lawyer Jerome Rosenthal handle his wife’s money since the 1940s.[82] “During that period, Rosenthal committed breaches of professional ethics that are difficult to exaggerate”, as one court put it.[83]

    In October 1985, the California Supreme Court rejected Rosenthal’s appeal of the multimillion-dollar judgment against him for legal malpractice, and upheld conclusions of a trial court and a Court of Appeal[84] that Rosenthal acted improperly.[85] In April 1986, the U.S. Supreme Court refused to review the lower court’s judgment. In June 1987, Rosenthal filed a $30 million lawsuit against lawyers he claimed cheated him out of millions of dollars in real estate investments. He named Day as a co-defendant, describing her as an “unwilling, involuntary plaintiff whose consent cannot be obtained”. Rosenthal claimed that millions of dollars Day lost were in real estate sold after Melcher died in 1968, in which Rosenthal asserted that the attorneys gave Day bad advice, telling her to sell, at a loss, three hotels, in Palo Alto, California, Dallas, Texas, and Atlanta, Georgia, plus some oil leases in Kentucky and Ohio.[86] He claimed he had made the investments under a long-term plan, and did not intend to sell them until they appreciated in value. Two of the hotels sold in 1970 for about $7 million, and their estimated worth in 1986 was $50 million.[87]

    Terry Melcher stated that his adoptive father’s premature death saved Day from financial ruin. It remains unresolved whether Martin Melcher had himself also been duped.[88] Day stated publicly that she believed her husband innocent of any deliberate wrongdoing, stating that he “simply trusted the wrong person”.[89] According to Day’s autobiography, as told to A. E. Hotchner, the usually athletic and healthy Martin Melcher had an enlarged heart. Most of the interviews on the subject given to Hotchner (and included in Day’s autobiography) paint an unflattering portrait of Melcher. Author David Kaufman asserts that one of Day’s costars, actor Louis Jourdan, maintained that Day herself disliked her husband,[90] but Day’s public statements regarding Melcher appear to contradict that assertion.[91]

    Day was scheduled to present, along with Patrick Swayze and Marvin Hamlisch, the Best Original Score Oscar at the 61st Academy Awards in March 1989 but she suffered a deep leg cut and was unable to attend.[92] She had been walking through the gardens of her hotel when she cut her leg on a sprinkler. The cut required stitches.[93]

    Day was inducted into the Ohio Women’s Hall of Fame in 1981 and received the Cecil B. DeMille Award for career achievement in 1989.[94] In 1994, Day’s Greatest Hits album became another entry into the British charts.[68] Her cover of “Perhaps, Perhaps, Perhaps” was included in the soundtrack of the Australian film Strictly Ballroom.[95]

    Day participated in interviews and celebrations of her birthday with an annual Doris Day music marathon.[96] In July 2008, she appeared on the Southern California radio show of longtime friend and newscaster George Putnam.[97]

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    Day turned down a tribute offer from the American Film Institute and from the Kennedy Center Honors because they require attendance in person. In 2004, she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President George W. Bush for her achievements in the entertainment industry and for her work on behalf of animals.[98] President Bush stated:

    In the years since, she has kept her fans and shown the breadth of her talent in television and the movies. She starred on screen with leading men from Jimmy Stewart to Ronald Reagan, from Rock Hudson to James Garner. It was a good day for America when Doris Marianne von Kappelhoff (sic) of Evanston, Ohio decided to become an entertainer. It was a good day for our fellow creatures when she gave her good heart to the cause of animal welfare. Doris Day is one of the greats, and America will always love its sweetheart.[98]

    Columnist Liz Smith and film critic Rex Reed mounted vigorous campaigns to gather support for an Honorary Academy Award for Day to herald her film career and her status as the top female box-office star of all time.[99] According to The Hollywood Reporter in 2015, the Academy offered her the Honorary Oscar multiple times, but she declined as she saw the film industry as a part of her past life.[100] Day received a Grammy for Lifetime Achievement in Music in 2008, albeit again in absentia.[101]

    She received three Grammy Hall of Fame Awards, in 1998, 1999 and 2012, for her recordings of “Sentimental Journey”, “Secret Love”, and “Que Sera, Sera”, respectively.[102] Day was inducted into the Hit Parade Hall of Fame in 2007,[103] and in 2010 received the first Legend Award ever presented by the Society of Singers.[68]

    Day, aged 89, released My Heart in the United Kingdom on September 5, 2011, her first new album in nearly two decades since the release of The Love Album, which, although recorded in 1967, was not released until 1994.[104] The album is a compilation of previously unreleased recordings produced by Day’s son, Terry Melcher, before his death in 2004. Tracks include the 1970s Joe Cocker hit “You Are So Beautiful”, the Beach Boys’ “Disney Girls” and jazz standards such as “My Buddy”, which Day originally sang in the film I’ll See You in My Dreams (1951).[105][106]

    After the disc was released in the United States it soon climbed to No. 12 on Amazon’s bestseller list, and helped raise funds for the Doris Day Animal League.[107] Day became the oldest artist to score a UK Top 10 with an album featuring new material.[108]

    In January 2012, the Los Angeles Film Critics Association presented Day with a Lifetime Achievement Award.[109][110]

    In April 2014, Day made an unexpected public appearance to attend the annual Doris Day Animal Foundation benefit. The benefit raises money for her Animal Foundation.[111]

    Clint Eastwood offered Day a role in a film he was planning to direct in 2015.[112] Although she reportedly was in talks with Eastwood, her neighbor in Carmel, about a role in the film, she eventually declined.[113]

    Day granted ABC a telephone interview on her birthday in 2016, which was accompanied by photos of her life and career.[114]

    In a rare interview with The Hollywood Reporter on April 4, 2019, the day after her 97th birthday, Day talked about her work on the Doris Day Animal Foundation, founded in 1978. On the question of what her favorite film was, she answered Calamity Jane: “I was such a tomboy growing up, and she was such a fun character to play. Of course, the music was wonderful, too—’Secret Love,’ especially, is such a beautiful song.”[115]

    To commemorate her birthday, her fans gathered each year to take part in a three-day party in her hometown of Carmel, California, in late March. The event was also a fundraiser for her Animal Foundation. During the 2019 event, there was a special screening of her film Pillow Talk (1959) to celebrate its 60th anniversary. About the film, Day stated in the same interview that she “had such fun working with my pal, Rock. We laughed our way through three films we made together and remained great friends. I miss him.”[115]

    Day’s interest in animal welfare and related issues apparently dated to her teen years. While recovering from an automobile accident, she took her dog Tiny for a walk without a leash. Tiny ran into the street and was killed by a passing car. Day later expressed guilt and loneliness about Tiny’s untimely death.

    It was during the making of The Man Who Knew Too Much, when she saw how camels, goats, and other “animal extras” in a marketplace scene were being treated, that Day began actively preventing animal abuse. She was so appalled at the conditions the animals used in filming were kept in that she refused to work unless they were properly fed and cared for. The production company had to set up “feeding stations” for the various goats, sheep, camels, etc., and feed them every day before Day would agree to go back to work.

    In 1971, she co-founded Actors and Others for Animals, and appeared in a series of newspaper advertisements denouncing the wearing of fur, alongside Mary Tyler Moore, Angie Dickinson, and Jayne Meadows.[116]

    In 1978, Day founded the Doris Day Pet Foundation, now the Doris Day Animal Foundation (DDAF).[117] A non-profit 501(c)(3) grant-giving public charity, DDAF funds other non-profit causes throughout the US that share DDAF’s mission of helping animals and the people who love them. The DDAF continues to operate independently.[118]

    To complement the Doris Day Animal Foundation, Day formed the Doris Day Animal League (DDAL) in 1987, a national non-profit citizens’ lobbying organization whose mission is to reduce pain and suffering, and protect animals through legislative initiatives.[119] Day actively lobbied the United States Congress in support of legislation designed to safeguard animal welfare on a number of occasions, and in 1995 she originated the annual Spay Day USA.[120] The DDAL merged into The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) in 2006.[121] The HSUS now manages World Spay Day, the annual one-day spay/neuter event that Day originated.[122]

    A facility bearing her name, the Doris Day Horse Rescue and Adoption Center, which helps abused and neglected horses, opened in 2011 in Murchison, Texas, on the grounds of an animal sanctuary started by her late friend, author Cleveland Amory.[123] Day contributed $250,000 toward the founding of the center.[124]

    A posthumous auction of 1,100 of Day’s possessions in April 2020 generated $3 million for the Doris Day Animal Foundation.[125]

    After her retirement from films, Day lived in Carmel-by-the-Sea, California. She had many pets and adopted stray animals.[126] She was a lifelong Republican.[127][128] Her only child was music producer and songwriter Terry Melcher, who had a hit in the 1960s with “Hey Little Cobra” under the name The Rip Chords before becoming a successful producer whose acts included The Byrds, Paul Revere & the Raiders, and The Beach Boys; he died of melanoma in November 2004.[129] Since the 1980s Day owned a hotel in Carmel-by-the-Sea called the Cypress Inn which she originally co-owned with her son.[130] It was an early pet–friendly hotel and was featured in Architectural Digest in 1999.[131]

    Day was married four times.[132] From March 1941 to February 1943, she was married to trombonist Al Jorden (1917–1967), whom she met in Barney Rapp’s Band.[133] Jorden was a violent schizophrenic who later died by suicide. When Day became pregnant and refused to have an abortion, he beat her in an attempt to force a miscarriage. Their son, Terrence “Terry” Paul Jorden, was born in 1942, and changed his name to Terrence Paul Melcher when he was adopted by Day’s third husband.

    Her second marriage was to George William Weidler (1926–1989) from March 30, 1946, to May 31, 1949, a saxophonist and the brother of actress Virginia Weidler.[133] Weidler and Day met again several years later during a brief reconciliation, and he introduced her to Christian Science.[134]

    Day married American film producer Martin Melcher (1915–1968) on April 3, 1951, her 29th birthday, and this marriage lasted until he died in April 1968.[133] Melcher adopted Day’s son Terry, who became a successful musician and record producer under the name Terry Melcher.[135] Martin Melcher produced many of Day’s movies. They were both Christian Scientists, resulting in her not seeing a doctor for some time for symptoms which suggested cancer.[136]

    Day’s fourth marriage was to Barry Comden (1935–2009) from April 14, 1976, until April 2, 1982.[137] He was the maître d’hôtel at one of Day’s favorite restaurants. He knew of her great love of dogs and endeared himself to her by giving her a bag of meat scraps and bones on her way out of the restaurant. He later complained that she cared more for her “animal friends” than she did for him.[137]

    Day died on May 13, 2019, at the age of 97, after having contracted pneumonia. Her death was announced by her charity, the Doris Day Animal Foundation.[138][139][140] Per Day’s requests, the Foundation announced that there would be no funeral services, grave marker, or other public memorials.[141][142][143]

    Source[144]

    Brenda Doreen Mignon de Banzie[1] (28 July 1909[1] – 5 March 1981)[2] was a British actress of stage and screen (some sources mistakenly quote 1915 as her year of birth).

    De Banzie was the daughter of Edward Thomas de Banzie, conductor and musical director, and his second wife Dorothy (née Lancaster), whom he married in 1908.[3] In 1911, the family lived in Salford, Lancashire.

    She appeared as Maggie Hobson in the David Lean film version of Hobson’s Choice (1954) with John Mills and Charles Laughton, set in Salford. Laughton allegedly didn’t like de Banzie, because she wasn’t getting ‘her part right’. De Banzie also upstaged Laughton who was, by all accounts, a notorious upstager himself.[4]

    Her most notable film role was as Phoebe Rice, the hapless wife of comedian Archie Rice (played by Laurence Olivier) in the 1960 film version of John Osborne’s The Entertainer. She had also appeared on Broadway in the original play, for which she received a Tony Award nomination.

    which film did alfred hitchcock make twice

    Other memorable film roles included The Man Who Knew Too Much (1956) directed by Alfred Hitchcock, and The Pink Panther (1963) directed by Blake Edwards.

    De Banzie died at the age of 71 due to complications following brain surgery.[5] She was the aunt of actress Lois de Banzie.

    This article about an English actor is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

    Bernard James Miles, Baron Miles, CBE (27 September 1907 – 14 June 1991) was an English character actor, writer and director.[1] He opened the Mermaid Theatre in London in 1959, the first new theatre that opened in the City of London since the 17th century.[2]

    He was known for playing character roles that usually had bucolic backgrounds or links to countrymen. His strong accent was typical of rustic dialects associated with the counties of Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire. His pleasant rolling bass-baritone voice made him a regular presence on the stage and in films for more than fifty years. In addition to his acting, he was a voice-over artist and published author.

    Miles was educated at Uxbridge County School, Pembroke College, Oxford and the Northampton Institute (later City University of London) in London.[3]

    In 1946 his comedy about the Home Guard Let Tyrants Tremble! was staged at the Scala Theatre in the West End, with Miles in the cast.

    which film did alfred hitchcock make twice

    By the 1950s, he had started to work in television. In 1951 he played Long John Silver in a British TV version of Treasure Island. A decade later he reprised the role for a performance of Treasure Island at the Mermaid Theatre in the winter of 1961–62, where the cast included Spike Milligan as Ben Gunn.[4]

    Miles was always keen to promote up-and-coming talent. Impressed with the writing of English playwright John Antrobus, he introduced him to Spike Milligan, which led to the production of the one-act play The Bed Sitting Room. It was later expanded and staged by Miles at Mermaid Theatre on 31 January 1963, with critical and commercial success.[5][6][7]

    Miles was also known for his comic monologues, often delivered with a rural dialect, which were issued on record albums.[8]

    Miles married in 1931 actress Josephine Wilson, with whom he had two daughters and one son,[3] the racing driver John Miles. She co-founded and was involved actively with Miles in the Mermaid Theatre.[3] She predeceased him on 7 November 1990.

    Miles was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in 1953,[9] was knighted in 1969,[10] and was created a life peer as Baron Miles, of Blackfriars in the City of London, on 7 February 1979.[11] He was only the second British actor to receive a peerage, after Laurence Olivier.[12]

    Miles survived his wife by six months and died in June 1991. He had been born in the same year, and died on the same day, as the actress Peggy Ashcroft.[13]

    Christopher Olsen (born September 19, 1946) is a former American child actor.

    Olsen is perhaps best known as the kidnapped boy Hank McKenna in The Man Who Knew Too Much. Other roles include The Fastest Gun Alive, with Glenn Ford; Return to Warbow, with Phil Carey; James Mason’s son in Bigger Than Life; and Robert Stack’s son in The Tarnished Angels.

    He also appeared in numerous television series episodes, including Cheyenne, Lassie, The Millionaire, Make Room for Daddy, and The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet.

    He was born in Los Angeles, California, at Saint Vincent’s Hospital.

    His youngest sister is Susan Olsen of The Brady Bunch fame, and his older brother is Larry Olsen, who played the title character in the Hal Roach comedy, Curley.

    which film did alfred hitchcock make twice


    This article about a United States film and television actor born in the 1940s is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

    Daniel Yves Alfred Gélin (19 May 1921 – 29 November 2002) was a French film and television actor.

    Gélin was born in Angers, Maine-et-Loire, the son of Yvonne (née Le Méner) and Alfred Ernest Joseph Gélin.[3][4][5]

    When he was ten, his family moved to Saint-Malo where Daniel went to college until he was expelled for ‘uncouthness’. His father then found him a job in a shop that sold cans of salted cod. It was seeing the shooting of Marc Allégret’s film Entrée des artistes that triggered his desire to go to Paris to train to be an actor. He trained at the Cours Simon in Paris before entering the Conservatoire national d’art dramatique. There he met Louis Jouvet and embarked on a theatrical career. He made his first film appearance in 1940 in Miquette and for several years was an extra or played small roles in French films. He appeared with Jean Gabin and Marlene Dietrich in Martin Roumagnac (1946).[citation needed]

    He won his first leading role in Rendez-vous de juillet (1949). From that time, he went on to appear in more than 150 films, including Max Ophüls’ films La Ronde (1950) and Le Plaisir (1952), Jacques Becker’s Édouard et Caroline (1951), Sacha Guitry’s films Si Versailles m’était conté (Royal Affairs in Versailles) (1954) and Napoléon (1955), Alfred Hitchcock’s The Man Who Knew Too Much (1956), Jean Cocteau’s Le Testament d’Orphée (1960), Le souffle au cœur (Murmur of the Heart) (1971), and La Nuit de Varennes (That Night in Varennes) (1982). He also wrote and directed one film, The Long Teeth, in 1952.[6]

    Gélin was a leading man in French cinema during the 1950s, but his career declined with the coming of the New Wave. He worked in theater for several years, but later found new success on screen as a character actor. He appeared extensively in French films and television productions from the 1970s until his death, often playing cynical characters or grumpy old men.[7]

    which film did alfred hitchcock make twice

    In 1946, Gélin married actress Danièle Delorme with whom he had a son, actor, director and producer Xavier Gélin. They divorced in 1954. While still married to Delorme, he had an affair with 17 year old model Marie Christine Schneider that produced a daughter, Maria Schneider.[8][9] Due to his status as a married man, Gélin could not recognize Maria as his daughter. He visited the child several times but eventually severed his relationship with her mother. Maria Schneider and Daniel Gélin reconnected when she was sixteen and came to visit him. They remained in contact, although their relationship was irregular.[10]

    Gélin was married to model Sylvie Hirsch from 1954 until their divorce in 1968. This marriage produced three children, Pascal (who died aged one year), Bénédicte, who became an actress under the name Fiona Gélin, and Manuel, who is also an actor. In 1973, he remarried to Lydie Zaks with whom he had a daughter, Laura.

    Gélin died in Paris on November 29, 2002, of kidney failure.[citation needed]

    Reggie Nalder (born Alfred Reginald Natzler; 4 September 1907 – 19 November 1991) was a prolific Austrian film and television character actor from the late 1940s to the early 1990s. His distinctive features—partially the result of disfiguring burns[1]—together with a haunting style and demeanor led to his being called “The Face That Launched a Thousand Trips”.

    Born in Vienna, Austria-Hungary, he was the son of actor and operetta singer Sigmund Natzler (1862-1913).[2][3] He was a cousin of actresses and singers Grete Natzler and Hertha Natzler.[4] As a young man he performed at second-rate Vienna theatres and from the 1930s in several cabarets in Paris. After World War II he worked for the German language service of the BBC.

    Nalder is perhaps best remembered for his roles as an assassin in Alfred Hitchcock’s 1956 remake of The Man Who Knew Too Much, the vampire Kurt Barlow in the 1979 TV adaptation of the Stephen King novel Salem’s Lot, and the Andorian ambassador Shras in the Star Trek episode “Journey to Babel”.

    Nalder appeared (at the request of star Frank Sinatra) in a brief, uncredited role as a communist spymaster in John Frankenheimer’s 1962 film The Manchurian Candidate. He also had a brief role in the 1981 Walt Disney film The Devil and Max Devlin. In an interview, Nalder claimed that he could not stand working with Bill Cosby, the star of the film. He described him as “a pig”, as well as “rude, arrogant, and very untalented.”[5]

    Nalder’s television work also included episodes of the series 77 Sunset Strip, It Takes A Thief, Surfside Six, Boris Karloff’s Thriller (“The Terror In Teakwood” and “The Return Of Andrew Bentley”), McCloud and I Spy. Nalder was also credited as “Detlef Van Berg” in the X rated films Dracula Sucks (1978) and Blue Ice (1985), but performed in no scenes of a pornographic nature.

    which film did alfred hitchcock make twice

    Nalder died of bone cancer in Santa Monica, California in 1991, aged 84.[6]


    “Theater an der Wien”Downloads-icon

    The Sanity Clause

    Movie Reviews of New Releases and Classic Films by Brian Welk

    People perhaps scoff at the idea of a remake today, even if it’s a director redoing his own film. But Alfred Hitchcock is not George Lucas, and when he chooses to remake “The Man Who Knew Too Much” and both versions are equally great, that’s the sign of a master director.

    Hitchcock said in an interview with Francois Truffaut that the original 1934 version of “The Man Who Knew Too Much” was the work of an amateur whereas the 1956 remake was the work of a professional.

    That seems believable, as there are only so many liberties Hitchcock takes in tweaking the story between versions. Each is about a family who has befriended a man who has just been killed. In his dying words, he reveals to them a need to deliver precious information regarding a diplomatic assassination attempt to the British consulate. But before they talk, each family is informed that if they say a word, they will never see their child again.

    which film did alfred hitchcock make twice

    The newer, American version starring James Stewart and Doris Day is certainly a more polished film, making use of bold color cinematography and elaborate travelogue sets in Morocco and Britain. But Hitch was hardly an amateur when he made this in 1934. He was already building a reputation as a great auteur of the silent screen now breaking out into sound, and he would even make his first masterpiece, “The 39 Steps,” a year later. That said, the quality shows in the original as well, and Hitch actually preferred the original because of its rough edges. It’s an unpolished gem rather than a processed studio thriller.

    And while both films are arguably equally good, the battle will rage on deciding which is best and which history will remember more.

    Superficially, the original is 45 minutes shorter than the remake and is in so many ways a more immediate, instantly gratifying thriller. The remake on the other hand has star power on its side, a big budget and the inclusion of the Oscar winning song “Que Sera Sera.”

    If you ask me why Hitchcock chose to remake his film, the climax of the original is a messy, long and loud shootout. If you want a more elegant conclusion to your thriller, it doesn’t get much more elegant than the staple song by Doris Day. When the song first appears in the movie, it struck me as a throwaway number, a write-off moment to get Doris Day singing.

    But Hitchcock is not so lazy, and as is true of both films, his masterful construction of details comes into play in the climax. As soon as Day sits down at the piano and begins singing “Que Sera Sera,” you can bet that the little boy will whistle as loud as he can to let her know he’s there.

  • which element is rolled into a foil found
  • Even the ending I just complained about in the original has its clever quirks. The first comes when the kidnapped girl is being chased on the roof of a house by the assassin, and her mother (Edna Best), a pro marksman, snakes the killing shot in to the assassin without harming her daughter. Her skill is such a miniscule plot detail established at the start of the film, and the fact that I had forgotten about it is a testament to Hitch’s charms as a storyteller.

    The other involves the villain Abbott’s (Peter Lorre) signature calling card. We first know who the kidnapper is based on Abbott’s chiming pocket watch. It’s a cute little signifier, and the fact that it comes back time and again to build suspense and lead to his demise is priceless.

    Hearing that noise, I began to think how perfectly Hitchcock had adapted to the use of sound. Watching “The Man Who Knew Too Much,” it would almost seem as if there were no learning curve between silent and talkies for Hitch. He can now use sound to build tension or even cue a witty gag. Take a scene in which the hero Bob Lawrence (Leslie Banks) makes a trip to a dentist’s office to find his child. At first we hear painful screaming from inside the room and realize it’s just a toothache, but we’re soon chilled by the amount of power that dentist holds.

    And the way in which Hitchcock then silences that dentist shows why he was such a strong silent director. The shot placement and silent execution seems very much of the era. Even glimpses of Peter Lorre’s face as he’s smoking a cigarette could’ve been some of the finest, most iconic images of the silent era had it belonged to it.

    Peter Lorre is also the standout from both films. Even though this was his first English speaking film and he had to learn many of his lines phonetically, Lorre proves to be one of Hitchcock’s best villains, leaps and bounds better than the 1956 version’s Edward Drayton. He’s so wonderfully devilish in the part, and I feel as if Hitchcock should’ve considered recasting him.

    I really have praised the original a lot. At a brisk 75 minutes, there’s no waiting for great juicy suspense, even if it minimizes on plot development. This is not so in the ’56 version, but there is much to admire about the remake and value over the original.

    Hitch really allows his characters breathing room in the remake, and he peppers in a lot of humor into the film. There’s a short sequence where Stewart struggles to sit properly on a small sofa in a Moroccan restaurant, or in the magnificent orchestra scene inside the Albert Hall, Hitchcock plays up the importance of the symbols as a cue, and he even throws in a visual gag when we see the musician’s music that reads nothing but a big crash at the end.

    This scene lasts nearly 12 silent minutes in the remake, and he truly expands on all his set pieces, even if they seemed perfect and tight in the original. The original shows the performance from the perspective of Mrs. Lawrence as she begins to go delusional and lose focus knowing what is about to happen. From this we get a wonderful fade into the barrel of the gun, and although this isn’t recreated in the remake, both scenes are epic, and the remake even offers a greater payoff with the death of the assassin.

    The remake likewise has stealthy precision in the church scene, and we can see how much the camera is a tool of the suspense. The one added scene is when Stewart’s character goes on a wild goose chase looking for the man he feels may have kidnapped their son. It turns out he should’ve been looking for a building rather than a man, and this little game plays to the remake’s feeling of psychological uncertainty.

    Whereas the original merely asks if someone is willing to choose the life of their daughter over another World War, the remake deals more with Hitchcock’s standard trope of the innocent man in a sticky situation. He seems to say, “Now that you have this secret information and you already had suspicions, how does that affect your insecurities?” It’s a much more psychologically deep story that has ramifications beyond whether or not they actually get their child back.

    The sad and perhaps ironically terrific thing is, just about neither of these movies could even crack Hitchcock’s top 10 greatest films. What other director is great enough to be able to make the same great film twice and still come up short of his masterpieces?

    Your answer was incorrect. I answered correctly with The Man who knew too much get your answer was North by Northwest

    You are correct that The Man Who Knew Too Much was made by Alfred Hitchcock twice. I was also correct in picking that movie. So why didn’t the answers did you say it was North by Northwest? That is obviously a mistake

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    Wiki User

    The Man Who Knew Too Much

    Wiki User

    Hitchcock made suspense/thriller films. He was a veritable
    “master of suspense.”

    which film did alfred hitchcock make twice

    We see Alfred Hitchcock make a cameo appearance as a pedestrian walking past the murder victim’s house in the director’s 1930 film Murder!

    Psycho

    Yes, Alfred Hitchcock released Psycho in 1960. It starred
    Anthony Perkins and Janet Leigh, and was his most successful film,
    earning more than $40 million.

    Hitchcock make his cameo quite early in the film ‘Psycho’; about
    five minutes in. He is seen outside Janet Leigh’s office wearing a
    cowboy hat.

    Hitchcock made 53 films in his long career.

    Alfred Hitchcock died April 29, 1980. “Ghost” was made in 1990.
    It was directed by Jerry Zucker.

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  • Hitchcock made 53 films in his career.

    Rope

    This is one of the few films directed by Hitchcock in which he
    does not make a cameo.

    No, Hitchcock did not make a cameo appearance in, nor did he
    direct, Witness for the Prosecution. The movie was directed by
    Billy Wilder. You may be thinking of The Paradine Case, a different
    courtroom drama that was directed by Alfred Hitchcock.

    In Great Britian.

    He wanted to make movies.

    Alfred Hitchcock Presents – 1955 Make My Death Bed 6-37 was
    released on:
    USA: 27 June 1961

    Dial M For Murder

    When talking about any Hitchcock film, you can pretty much say
    that any of his films took less than a year to make, as he always
    storyboarded his films ahead of time & then he was able to
    quickly shoot his films in a matter of 3 months or less.

    It is difficult to tell for certain. About eight and a half
    minutes into the film, there is a short, rotund man in a bowler,
    wearing a mustache, who is seen throwing something in a trash can.
    It looks like Hitchcock, but the man is not seen clearly enough to
    make identification certain.

    It took 7 months.

    Alfred Hitchcock is known as the “Master of Suspense.” He
    specialized in thrillers and suspense movies, and he did it better
    than anyone else ever has!

    Bergman made three movies with Hitchcock, Spellbound-1945,
    Notorious-1946 and Under Capricorn-1949.

    Alfred Hitchcock made 53 films over the course of his lifespan.
    The inventive, groundbreaking director was nominated for 5 Oscars,
    and has won numerous lifetime achievement awards, including the
    Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award.

    The movie was Psycho.

    This was inspired by what Alfred Hitchcock’s mother used to make
    him do as a child.

    Jimmy Stewart starred in the following movies which were directed by Alfred Hitchcock:* Rope, with John Dall and Farley Granger* Rear Window, with Grace Kelly* The Man Who Knew Too Much, with Doris Day* Vertigo, with Kim Novak He had expected to make North by Northwest, as well, but Hitchcock wanted someone younger and decided to give the part to Cary Grant, even though Grant was actually four years older than Stewart.

    Hitchcock’s marketing was genius when it came to Psycho. He
    strictly prohibited anyone from entering the theatre once the film
    started. The film was advertised to make Janet Leigh look like the
    star of the movie. She gets killed off fairly early in the film,
    and he didn’t want people arriving to the theater after her murder
    and wonder where she was. Promotors also made it clear that the
    film had a surprise ending by asking people not to give away the
    ending after they saw the film. All of this created huge curiosity
    and buzz, and made the film extremely successful. Psycho cost
    $800,000 to make, and grossed $40 million.

    In The Man Who Knew Too Much, an American couple loses their son to kidnappers involved in an assassination plot abroad. And all they wanted was a nice family vacation. Although The Man Who Knew Too Much has never been one of Alfred Hitchcock’s most lauded films, it features the director’s typically impressive tension, creative use of cymbals, and one of Doris Day’s most dramatic turns. Here are 11 facts about the international espionage thriller, which was released 60 years ago.

    The first time Hitchcock made The Man Who Knew Too Much, it was a black-and-white 1934 thriller starring a pair of British stage actors and Peter Lorre. Hitchcock felt the movie could have been better, so when Paramount agreed to an American remake, the director hired frequent collaborator John Michael Hayes to write a new screenplay and cast all-American actors Jimmy Stewart and Doris Day as his central couple. When François Truffaut later asked the director about the two films, Hitchcock said, “Let’s say the first version is the work of a talented amateur and the second was made by a professional.”

    “Que Sera, Sera (Whatever Will Be, Will Be)” has been covered by dozens of artists and appeared in movies ranging from Please Don’t Eat the Daisies to Heathers. But the first time audiences heard it was in The Man Who Knew Too Much. Jay Livingston and Ray Evans wrote the song for Doris Day’s character, the retired, world-renowned singer Jo McKenna. The track would earn Livingston and Evans an Academy Award and Day a signature song for the rest of her career.

    Ironically, Day wasn’t a big advocate of “Que Sera, Sera.” The actress told NPR that “the first time somebody told me it was going to be in the movie, I thought, ‘Why?’ … I didn’t think it was a good song.” Day eventually accepted its importance to the film, but still maintains it’s not one of her favorites.

    When Ben and Jo McKenna arrive in London searching for their son, they’re greeted at the hotel by some of Jo’s old theater friends. The lone man in the group is Val Parnell, which is coincidentally the name of an actual theater patron and manager. Brits also knew him for the TV specials he did in the 1950s and 1960s, as well as his nephew Jack Parnell.

    which film did alfred hitchcock make twice

    Bernard Herrmann created iconic scores for Psycho, Vertigo, North by Northwest, and many other Hitchcock films. He also worked on The Man Who Knew Too Much, but insisted that Hitchcock keep the piece “Storm Clouds Cantata” from the first movie in the remake. That music scores the climatic sequence at the Royal Albert Hall, where the McKennas attempt to stop an assassination in the middle of a concert. Herrmann appears as the symphony conductor, happily leading one of the few songs he didn’t write for the film.

    Hitchcock lets the tension build for 12 minutes as Herrmann’s orchestra plays, but the characters don’t speak a single word the entire time. The only sounds are the orchestra and Doris Day’s scream.

    Initially, there was a great deal of talking at Royal Albert Hall. According to The New York Times, the original script called for Stewart to deliver a page-long speech about why they had to stop the concert. But this didn’t go over well with the director. “You’re talking so much, I’m unable to enjoy the London Symphony,” Hitchcock complained to Stewart. “Just wave your arms a lot and run up the stairs.” This was apparently normal behavior for Hitchcock, who was “suspicious of the spoken word.”

    Hitchcock was famous for appearing in every one of his films, but it would be easy to miss him in The Man Who Knew Too Much. The director is visible for only a few seconds in the crowd of spectators watching acrobats in the Marrakesh marketplace—and he keeps his back turned the entire time.

    Day’s passion for animals is well-documented; she even created the nonprofit Doris Day Animal Foundation in 1978. So when she encountered several emaciated goats, horses, and dogs on set in Marrakesh, she threw around her star power. She refused to shoot any scenes until the animals received some care from the production company. The crew subsequently set up a feeding station, and once Day was content with the results, she went back to work.

    For years, it was nearly impossible to see The Man Who Knew Too Much—or Rear Window, Rope, Vertigo, or The Trouble with Harry. And it was actually the director’s fault. Hitchcock bought back the rights to these films, giving him exclusive control over their distribution. He apparently did this for his daughter, believing the rights to these movies would grow more valuable over time. While they were locked away, the films were referred to as the “five lost Hitchcocks.” They were eventually emancipated in 1983 after a nearly 30-year absence.

  • which event happened first?
  • There’s the 1980 TV movie The Kids Who Knew Too Much. There’s also a Simpsons episode, “The Boy Who Knew Too Much,” and a Mika album of the same name. The original Avengers series also got in on the riffing, but perhaps most famous is the Bill Murray vehicle The Man Who Knew Too Little, in which inept Wallace Ritchie must foil an international assassination attempt of his own.

    which film did alfred hitchcock make twice
    which film did alfred hitchcock make twice

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